United States Senate elections, 1830 and 1831

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United States Senate elections, 1830 and 1831
United States
1828 / 1829 ←
Dates vary by state → 1832 / 1833

16 of the 48 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
25 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Jacksonian Anti-Jacksonian
Last election 26 seats 19 seats
Seats before 25 23
Seats won 8 6
Seats after 26 20
Seat change Increase 1 Decrease 3
Seats up 7 9

  Third party
 
Party Nullifier
Seats before [new party]
Seats won 1
Seats after 1
Seat change Increase 1
Seats up 0

Majority party before election

Jacksonian

Elected Majority party

Jacksonian

The United States Senate elections of 1830 and 1831 were elections that had Jacksonians gain one seat in the United States Senate from the Anti-Jacksonian coalition, but lose one seat to the short-lived Nullifier Party. By the time Congress first met in December 1831, however, the Jacksonians had a net loss of one seat.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 22nd Congress (1831–1833)

  • Majority Party: Jacksonian (24–23)
  • Minority Party: Anti-Jackson (21–23)
  • Other Parties: Nullifier (2–1)
  • Total Seats: 48

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the January 7, 1830 special election in Delaware.

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16 AJ17 AJ18 AJ19 AJ20 AJ22 AJ21 AJ23 J25
Majority → J24
J15 J16 J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22 J23
J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4

As a result of the elections[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15
Re-elected
AJ16
Re-elected
AJ17
Re-elected
AJ18
Hold
AJ19
Hold
AJ20
Hold
V1 N1
Gain
J26
Gain
J25
Gain
Majority → J24
Gain
J15 J16 J17 J18 J19
Re-elected
J20
Re-elected
J21
Hold
J22
Hold
J23
Hold
J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4

At the beginning of the first session, December 5, 1831[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4
AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7 AJ6 AJ5
AJ15 AJ16 AJ17 AJ18 AJ19 AJ20 AJ21*
Gain
AJ22*
Gain
N1 N2*
Gain
Plurality* → J24
J15 J16 J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22 J23
J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7 J6 J5
J1 J2 J3 J4
Notes:
  • AJ21 (Kentucky class 3 seat): Legislature elected Anti-Jacksonian late in the Congress, on November 10, 1831.
  • AJ22 (Indiana class 1 seat): Jacksonian died February 26, 1831, in the previous Congress, and an Anti-Jacksonian Senator was appointed August 19, 1831.
  • N2 (South Carolina class 2 seat): Jacksonian changed party to Nullifier.
  • Plurality: The Jacksonians maintained Senate control as evidenced by their electing Jacksonians as Presidents pro tempore: Samuel Smith, Littleton W. Tazewell, and Hugh Lawson White.
Key:
AJ# = Anti-Jacksonian
J# = Jacksonian
N# = Nullfier
V# = Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the 21st Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1830 or before March 4, 1831; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Illinois
(Class 2)
David J. Baker Jacksonian 1830 (Appointed) Incumbent appointee retired when elected successor qualified.
Winner elected December 11, 1830.
Jacksonian hold.
John M. Robinson (Jacksonian)
Mississippi
(Class 2)
Thomas B. Reed Jacksonian 1826 (Special)
1827 (Lost re-election)
1828 or 1829 (Election)
Incumbent died November 26, 1829.
Winner elected January 6, 1830.
Jacksonian hold.
Robert H. Adams (Jacksonian)
Delaware
(Class 1)
Louis McLane Jacksonian 1827 Incumbent resigned April 29, 1829 to become U.S. Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the United Kingdom.
Winner elected January 7, 1830.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Arnold Naudain (Anti-Jacksonian)
Indiana
(Class 1)
James Noble Anti-Jacksonian 1816
1821 (Re-elected)
1827 (Re-elected)
Incumbent died February 26, 1831.
Seat filled next Congress.
None

Races leading to the 22nd Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1831 (except where noted due to late election); ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama John McKinley Jacksonian 1826 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1831.
Jacksonian hold.
Gabriel Moore (Jacksonian)
John McKinley (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut Calvin Willey Anti-Jacksonian 1825 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1830 or 1831.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Gideon Tomlinson (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia John Forsyth Jacksonian 1829 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1830 or 1831. John Forsyth (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois Elias Kane Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent re-elected in 1831. Elias K. Kane (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana William Hendricks Anti-Jacksonian 1824 Incumbent re-elected in 1830. William Hendricks (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky John Rowan Jacksonian 1824 Legislature elected late.
Seat vacant.
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Josiah S. Johnston Anti-Jacksonian 1824 (Appointed)
1825
Incumbent re-elected in 1831. Josiah S. Johnston (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland Ezekiel F. Chambers Anti-Jacksonian 1826 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1831. Ezekiel F. Chambers (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri David Barton Anti-Jacksonian 1821
1825 (Re-elected)
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1830.
Jacksonian gain.
Alexander Buckner (Jacksonian)
David Barton (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire Levi Woodbury Jacksonian 1825 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1831.
Jacksonian hold.
Isaac Hill (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Nathan Sanford Anti-Jacksonian 1826 (Elected late) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected February 1, 1831.
Jacksonian gain.
William L. Marcy (Jacksonian) 20+86
Samuel Works (Anti-Masonic) 5+27
Nathan Sanford (Anti-Jacksonian) 0+1
North Carolina James Iredell, Jr. Jacksonian 1828 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1830.
Jacksonian hold.
Willie P. Mangum (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio Jacob Burnet Anti-Jacksonian 1828 (Special) Incumbent retired.
Winner elected in 1830.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Thomas Ewing (Anti-Jacksonian) 54
Micajah T. Williams (Jacksonian) 51
Edward King (Anti-Jacksonian) 2
Pennsylvania William Marks Anti-Jacksonian 1825 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1830 or 1831.
Jacksonian gain.
William Wilkins (Jacksonian)
William Marks (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
South Carolina William Smith Jacksonian 1826 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1830 or 1831.
Nullifier gain.
Stephen D. Miller (Nullifier)
William Smith (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Dudley Chase Anti-Jacksonian 1825 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
Winner elected in 1831.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Samuel Prentiss (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 22nd Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1831 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Kentucky
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect or had elected late.
Winner elected November 10, 1831.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
Henry Clay (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Edward Livingston Jacksonian 1828 or 1829 Incumbent resigned May 24, 1831 to become U.S. Secretary of State.
Winner elected November 15, 1831.
Anti-Jacksonian gain.
George A. Waggaman (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Isaac D. Barnard Jacksonian 1826 Incumbent resigned December 6, 1831 due to ill health.
Winner elected December 13, 1831.[1]
Jacksonian hold.
George M. Dallas (Jacksonian) 67
Joseph Hemphill (Jacksonian) 34
Richard Rush (Anti-Masonic) 30
Samuel B. Davis (Jacksonian) 1
Not voting 1[1]

Complete list of races[edit]

New York[edit]

The Senate election in New York was held on February 1, 1831, by the New York State Legislature. Nathan Sanford had been elected in 1826 to this seat, and his term would expire on March 3, 1831. At the state election in November 1830, the Jacksonians managed to defeat the combined Anti-Masons and Anti-Jacksonians. Enos T. Throop was narrowly re-elected Governor, a large Jacksonian majority was elected to the Assembly, and five of the nine State Senators elected were Jacksonian Democrats. The 54th New York State Legislature met from January 4 to April 26, 1831, at Albany, New York. The Jacksonian State legislators held a caucus before the election, and nominated New York Supreme Court Justice William L. Marcy. The vote was 77 for Marcy, 15 for Erastus Root, 6 for the incumbent Nathan Sanford and 6 scattering votes. William L. Marcy was the choice of both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.

House Jacksonian Anti-Mason Anti-Jacksonian
State Senate (32 members) William L. Marcy 20 Samuel Works 5
State Assembly (128 members) William L. Marcy 86 Samuel Works 27 Nathan Sanford 1

Ohio[edit]

The two houses of the Ohio General Assembly met during the winter of 1830-1831 in joint assembly to elect a Senator (Class 3). After seven ballots, on various dates, Thomas Ewing was elected on a majority of the ballots. The balloting was as follows:[2]

Ballot Thomas Ewing
(Anti-Jacksonian)
Micajah T. Williams
(Jacksonian)
Edward King
(Anti-Jacksonian)
1 33 49 21
2 37 50 21
3 42 49 16
4 46 52 9
5 51 51 5
6 54 53 2
7 √ 54 51 2

Pennsylvania (special)[edit]

Following the December 6, 1831 resignation of Senator Isaac Barnard due to ill health, the Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on December 13, 1831, to elect a new Senator to fill the vacancy. A total of eleven ballots were recorded. The results of the eleventh and final ballot of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[3][4]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic George M. Dallas 67 50.38
Democratic Joseph Hemphill 34 25.56
Anti-Masonic Richard Rush 30 22.56
Democratic Samuel B. Davis 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 1 0.75
Totals 133 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 13 December 1831" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  2. ^ Taylor, William Alexander; Taylor, Aubrey Clarence (1899). Ohio statesmen and annals of progress: from the year 1788 to the year 1900…. State of Ohio. p. 151. 
  3. ^ "U.S. Senate Election - 13 December 1831" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 21, 2012. 
  4. ^ "PA US Senate - Special Election". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 21, 2012.