United States Senate elections, 1836 and 1837

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United States Senate elections, 1836 and 1837
United States
1834 / 1835 ←
Dates vary by state → 1838 / 1839

17 of the 52 seats in the United States Senate (plus special elections)
27 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
 
Party Democratic Whig
Last election 22 seats
(as Jacksonian)
24 seats
(as Anti-Jacksonian)
Seats before 31
(as Jacksonian)
19
(as Anti-Jacksonian)
Seats won 12 5
Seats after 34 17
Seat change Increase 3 Decrease 2
Seats up 9 7

  Third party
 
Party Nullifier
Last election 2 seats
Seats before 2
Seats won 0
Seats after 1
Seat change Decrease 1
Seats up 1

Majority party before election

Jacksonian

Elected Majority party

Democratic

The United States Senate elections of 1834 and 1835 were elections that had the Jacksonian coalition emerge as the Democratic Party, and the Adams, or Anti-Jackson, coalition emerge as the Whig Party

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 25th Congress (1837–1839)

  • Majority Party: Democratic (35)
  • Minority Party: Whig (17–16)
  • Other Parties: (0–1)
  • Total Seats: 52

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the special elections[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4 AJ5 AJ6
AJ16 AJ15 AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7
AJ17
Died
AJ18
Resigned
AJ19
Resigned
AJ20
Resigned
AJ21
Resigned
AJ22
Resigned
AJ23
Resigned
New New N2
  N1
J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22
Resigned
V1 New New
J16 J15 J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7
J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

As a result of the special elections[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4 AJ5 AJ6
AJ16 AJ15 AJ14 AJ13 AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7
AJ17
Hold
AJ18
Hold
AJ19
Hold
N2 N1 J31
Gain
J30
Gain
J29
Gain
J28
Gain
J27
Gain
Majority →
J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22
Hold
J23
Gain
J24
Gain
J25
Gain
J26
Gain
J16 J15 J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7
J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

Before the general elections[edit]

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4 AJ5 AJ6
AJ16
Ran
AJ15
Ran
AJ14
Ran
AJ13
Ran
AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7
AJ17
Ran
AJ18
Ran
AJ19
Unknown
N2
Ran
N1 J31
Ran
J30
Ran
J29
Ran
J28
Ran
J27
Ran
Majority →
J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22 J23
Ran
J24
Ran
J25
Ran
J26
Ran
J16 J15 J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7
J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

As a result of the general elections[edit]

"Hold" means the incumbent lost and the winner was from an affiliated new party, either Anti-Jacksonian to Whig or Jacksonian to Democratic.

AJ1 AJ2 AJ3 AJ4 AJ5 AJ6
W16
Re-elected
New party
W15
Re-elected
New party
W14
Re-elected
New party
W13
Re-elected
New party
AJ12 AJ11 AJ10 AJ9 AJ8 AJ7
W17
Hold*
New party
N1 D34
Gain
D33
Gain
D32
Gain
D31
Hold*
New party
D30
Hold*
New party
D29
Re-elected
New party
D28
Re-elected
New party
D27
Re-elected
New party
Majority →
J17 J18 J19 J20 J21 J22 D23
Re-elected
New party
D24
Re-elected
New party
D25
Re-elected
New party
D26
Re-elected
New party
J16 J15 J14 J13 J12 J11 J10 J9 J8 J7
J1 J2 J3 J4 J5 J6

Beginning of the next Congress[edit]

W1
New party
W2
New party
W3
New party
W4
New party
W5
New party
W6
New party
W16 W15 W14 W13 W12
New party
W11
New party
W10
New party
W9
New party
W8
New party
W7
New party
W17 D35
New party
D34 D33 D32 D31 D30 D29 D28 D27
Majority →
D17
New party
D18
New party
D19
New party
D20
New party
D21
New party
D22
New party
D23 D24 D25 D26
D16
New party
D15
New party
D14
New party
D13
New party
D12
New party
D11
New party
D10
New party
D9
New party
D8
New party
D7
New party
D1
New party
D2
New party
D3
New party
D4
New party
D5
New party
D6
New party
Key:
AJ# Anti-Jacksonian
D# Democratic
J# Jacksonian
N# Nullfier
W# Whig
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Bold states link to specific election articles.

Special elections during the 24th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated during 1836 or before March 4, 1837; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Louisiana
(Class 2)
Vacant Charles Gayarré had been elected but resigned due to ill health without having taken his seat.
Successor was elected January 13, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Democrat.
Robert C. Nicholas (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 1)
John Tyler Anti-Jacksonian 1827
1833
Incumbent resigned February 29, 1836.
Successor was elected March 4, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Democrat.
William C. Rives (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire
(Class 3)
Isaac Hill Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent resigned May 30, 1836 to become Governor of New Hampshire.
Successor was elected June 8, 1836.
Jacksonian hold.
Winner also lost re-election to the next term, see below.
John Page (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware
(Class 1)
Arnold Naudain Anti-Jacksonian 1830 (Special)
1832
Incumbent resigned June 16, 1836.
Successor was elected June 17, 1836.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Whig.
Richard H. Bayard (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas
(Class 2)
New seats New state.
Its new Senator was elected September 18, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Democrat.
William S. Fulton (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas
(Class 3)
New state.
Its new Senator was elected September 18, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner was also re-elected to the next term, see below.
Ambrose H. Sevier (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
North Carolina
(Class 3)
Willie P. Mangum Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent resigned November 26, 1836.
Successor was elected December 5, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner was also re-elected to the next term, see below.
Robert Strange (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Virginia
(Class 2)
Benjamin W. Leigh Anti-Jacksonian 1834 (Special)
1835
Incumbent resigned July 4, 1836.
Successor was elected December 12, 1836.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would resign at the end of this Congress, see below.
Richard E. Parker (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 3)
Robert H. Goldsborough Anti-Jacksonian 1813
1819 (Retired or lost)
1835 (Special)
Incumbent died October 5, 1836.
Successor was elected December 31, 1836.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Winner was also re-elected to the next term, see below.
John S. Spence (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan
(Class 1)
New seats New state.
Its new Senator was elected January 6, 1837.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Democrat.
Lucius Lyon (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Michigan
(Class 2)
New state.
Its new Senator was elected January 6, 1837.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Democrat.
John Norvell (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Delaware
(Class 2)
John M. Clayton Anti-Jacksonian 1829
1835
Incumbent resigned December 29, 1836.
Successor was elected January 9, 1837.
Anti-Jacksonian hold.
Winner would serve in the next Congress as a Whig.
Thomas Clayton (Anti-Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana
(Class 3)
Alexander Porter Anti-Jacksonian 1833 (Special) Incumbent resigned January 5, 1837 due to ill health.
Successor was elected January 12, 1837.
Jacksonian gain.
Winner was also re-elected to the next term, see below.
Alexandre Mouton (Jacksonian)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Races leading to the 25th Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winner was seated on March 4, 1837; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Alabama Gabriel Moore Anti-Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1837.
Democratic gain.
John McKinley (Democratic)
Gabriel Moore (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Arkansas Ambrose Sevier Jacksonian 1836 (New seat) Incumbent re-elected in 1837 to a new party.
Democratic gain.
Ambrose Sevier (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Connecticut Gideon Tomlinson Anti-Jacksonian 1831 Unknown if incumbent ran for re-election.
A different candidate elected in 1836 or 1837.
Democratic gain.
Perry Smith (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia Alfred Cuthbert Jacksonian 1835 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1837 to a new party.
Democratic gain.
Alfred Cuthbert (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Illinois William Lee D. Ewing Jacksonian 1835 (Appointed) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1837.
Democratic gain.
Richard M. Young (Democratic)
William Lee D. Ewing (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Indiana William Hendricks Anti-Jacksonian 1824
1830
Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1836 to a new party.
Whig gain.
Oliver H. Smith (Whig)
William Hendricks (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Kentucky Henry Clay Anti-Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent re-elected in 1836 to a new party.
Whig gain.
Henry Clay (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Louisiana Alexandre Mouton Jacksonian 1837 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1837 to a new party.
Democratic gain.
Alexandre Mouton (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland John S. Spence Anti-Jacksonian 1836 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1837 to a new party.
Whig gain.
John S. Spence (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri Lewis F. Linn Jacksonian 1833 (Appointed)
? (Special)
Incumbent re-elected in 1836 to a new party.
Democratic gain.
Lewis F. Linn (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New Hampshire John Page Jacksonian 1836 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in 1837.
Democratic gain.
Franklin Pierce (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
New York Silas Wright, Jr. Jacksonian 1826 (Elected late) Incumbent re-elected February 7, 1837 to a new party.
Democratic gain.
Silas Wright, Jr. (Democratic) 26+85
Ambrose L. Jordan (Whig) 3+27
North Carolina Robert Strange Jacksonian 1836 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1836 to a new party.
Democratic gain.
Robert Strange (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Ohio Thomas Ewing Anti-Jacksonian 1830 Incumbent lost re-election.
Winner elected in January 1837.
Democratic gain.
William Allen (Whig)
Thomas Ewing (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Pennsylvania James Buchanan Jacksonian 1834 (Special) Incumbent re-elected December 14, 1836 to a new party.
Democratic gain.
James Buchanan (Democratic) 85
Thomas M. T. McKennan (Whig) 24
Charles B. Penrose (Whig) 21
Thomas Cunningham (Democratic) 1
Isaac Leet (Democratic) 1
Not voting 1[1]
South Carolina William C. Preston Nullifier 1833 (Special) Incumbent re-elected in 1837 to a new party.
Whig gain.
William C. Preston (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont Samuel Prentiss Anti-Jacksonian 1831 Incumbent re-elected in 1837 to a new party.
Whig gain.
Samuel Prentiss (Whig)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Elections during the 25th Congress[edit]

In these special elections, the winners were seated in 1837 after March 4; ordered by election date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Virginia
(Class 2)
Richard E. Parker Democratic 1836 (Special) Incumbent resigned March 4, 1837 to become judge of the Supreme Court of Virginia.
Successor was elected March 14, 1837.
Democratic hold.
William H. Roane (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Alabama
(Class 3)
John McKinley Democratic 1833 (Special) Incumbent resigned April 22, 1837 to become Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
Successor was elected June 19, 1837.
Democratic hold.
Clement C. Clay (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Georgia
(Class 2)
John Pendleton King Democratic 1833 (Special) Incumbent resigned November 1, 1837.
Successor was elected November 22, 1837.
Democratic hold.
Wilson Lumpkin (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]

Complete list of races[edit]

Michigan[edit]

The new state of Michigan elected its new Senators on January 26, 1837, both Jacksonians: Lucius Lyon (Class 1) and John Norvell (Class 2). In the term beginning March 4, 1837, they would sit as Democrats.

New York[edit]

Silas Wright, Jr., had been elected in 1833 to this seat after the resignation of William L. Marcy who had been elected Governor of New York. Wright's term would expire on March 3, 1837.

At the State election in November 1836, 94 Democrats and 34 Whigs were elected to the Assembly, and seven of the eight State Senators elected were Democrats. The 60th New York State Legislature met from January 3 to May 16, 1837, at Albany. The party strength in the Assembly as shown by the election for Speaker was: 80 for Democrat Edward Livingston and 27 for Whig Luther Bradish.

Wright was re-nominated in a Democratic caucus by a large majority. Silas Wright, Jr., was the choice of both the Assembly and the Senate, and was declared elected.

House Democratic Whig
State Senate (32 members) Silas Wright, Jr. 26 Ambrose L. Jordan 3
State Assembly (128 members) Silas Wright, Jr. 85 Ambrose L. Jordan 27

Pennsylvania[edit]

The Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on December 14, 1836, to elect a Senator to serve the term beginning on March 4, 1837. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

Pennsylvania General Assembly Results[1]
Party Candidate Votes %
Democratic James Buchanan (Inc.) 85 63.91
Whig Thomas M. T. McKennan 24 18.05
Whig Charles B. Penrose 21 15.79
Democratic Thomas Cunningham 1 0.75
Democratic Isaac Leet 1 0.75
N/A Not voting 1 0.75
Totals 133 100.00%

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 14 December 1836" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013.