United States Senate elections, 1908 and 1909

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United States Senate elections, 1908 and 1909
United States
← 1906 / 1907 January 15, 1908 –
March 4, 1909
1910 / 1911 →

31 of the 92 seats in the United States Senate
(as well as special elections)

47 seats needed for a majority
  Majority party Minority party
  Eugene Hale.jpg Charles Allen Culberson.jpg
Leader Eugene Hale Charles Culberson
Party Republican Democratic
Leader's seat Maine Texas
Seats before 61 31
Seats won 16 13
Seats after 59 31
Seat change Decrease 2 Steady
Seats up 18 13

Majority Party before election


Republican

Elected Majority Party


Republican

The United States Senate elections of 1908 and 1909, some states elected their Senators directly even before passage of the 17th Amendment in 1913. Oregon pioneered direct election and experimented with different measures over several years until it succeeded in 1907. Soon after, Nebraska followed suit and laid the foundation for other states to adopt measures reflecting the people's will. By 1912, as many as 29 states elected senators either as nominees of their party's primary or in conjunction with a general election. The Republicans lost two seats overall.

Results summary[edit]

Senate Party Division, 61st Congress (1909–1911)

  • Majority Party: Republican (60 seats)
  • Minority Party: Democratic (32 seats)
  • Other Parties: 0
  • Total Seats: 92

Change in Senate composition[edit]

Before the elections[edit]

After the January 21, 1908 special election in Rhode Island.

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19
Ran
D20
Ran
D21
Ran
D22
Ran
D23
Ran
D24
Ran
D25
Ran
D26
Ran
R57
Ran
R58
Ran
R59
Ran
R60
Retired
R61
Retired
D31
Retired
D30
Retired
D29
Retired
D28
Unknown
D27
Ran
R56
Ran
R55
Ran
R54
Ran
R53
Ran
R52
Ran
R51
Ran
R50
Ran
R49
Ran
R48
Ran
R47
Ran
Majority →
R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44
Ran
R45
Ran
R46
Ran
R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6

Result of the general elections[edit]

D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6
D16 D15 D14 D13 D12 D11 D10 D9 D8 D7
D17 D18 D19
Re-elected
D20
Re-elected
D21
Re-elected
D22
Re-elected
D23
Re-elected
D24
Re-elected
D25
Re-elected
D26
Re-elected
R57
Hold
R58
Hold
R59
Gain
V1
R loss
V2
D loss
D31
Gain
D30
Gain
D29
Hold
D28
Hold
D27
Hold
R56
Hold
R55
Hold
R54
Hold
R53
Re-elected
R52
Re-elected
R51
Re-elected
R50
Re-elected
R49
Re-elected
R48
Re-elected
R47
Re-elected
Majority due to vacancies→ R46
Re-elected
R37 R38 R39 R40 R41 R42 R43 R44
Re-elected
R45
Re-elected
R36 R35 R34 R33 R32 R31 R30 R29 R28 R27
R17 R18 R19 R20 R21 R22 R23 R24 R25 R26
R16 R15 R14 R13 R12 R11 R10 R9 R8 R7
R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6
Key:
D# Democratic
R# Republican
V# Vacant

Race summaries[edit]

Special elections during the 60th Congress[edit]

In this election, the winner was seated during in 1908 before March 4; ordered by state.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Maryland
(Class 3)
William P. Whyte Democratic 1906 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected January 14, 1908.[1][2] William P. Whyte (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Rhode Island
(Class 2)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect.
New senator elected January 21, 1908.[1]
Republican gain.
George P. Wetmore (Republican) 68 votes
R.H.I. Goddard (Democratic & Lincoln Republican) 36 votes
Samuel P. Colt (Republican) 7 votes[1]
South Carolina
(Class 3)
Asbury Latimer Democratic 1903 Incumbent died February 20, 1908.
New senator elected March 6, 1908.[1]
Democratic hold.
Winner did not run for the next term, see below.
Frank B. Gary (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Maryland
(Class 3)
William P. Whyte Democratic 1906 (Appointed)
1908
Incumbent died March 17, 1908.
New senator elected March 24, 1908,[1][2] having already been elected to the next term, see below.
Democratic hold.
John Walter Smith (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Vermont
(Class 1)
John W. Stewart Republican 1908 (Appointed) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected October 20, 1908.[1]
Republican hold.
Carroll S. Page (Republican) 229 votes
Elisha May (Democratic) 39 votes[1]
Iowa
(Class 3)
William B. Allison Republican 1872
1878
1884
1890
1896
1902
Incumbent renominated for the next term but died August 4, 1908.
New senator elected November 24, 1908.
Republican hold.
Winner was later elected to the next term, see below.
Albert B. Cummins (Republican)
Claude R. Porter (Democratic)

In this election, the winner was elected two years early, to be seated in the 62nd Congress starting March 4, 1911.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Mississippi
(Class 1)
Hernando Money Democratic 1897 (Appointed)
1899
1904
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected early January 21, 1908.[1]
Democratic hold.
John Sharp Williams (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]

Races leading to the 61st Congress[edit]

In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1909; ordered by state.

All of the elections involved the Class 3 seats.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral
history
Alabama Edmund Pettus Democratic 1903 Incumbent re-elected early January 22, 1907.[3]
Winner died July 27, 1907 and new senator elected early August 6, 1907.[3]
July 27, 1907:
Edmund Pettus (Democratic)
Unopposed[3]
August 6, 1907:
Joseph F. Johnston (Democratic)
Unopposed[3]
Arkansas James P. Clarke Democratic 1903 Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1909.[4][5][6] James P. Clarke (Democratic) 132 votes
H. H. Myers (Republican) 3 votes[4]
California George Perkins Republican 1895 (Special)
1897
1903
Incumbent re-elected January 12, 1909.[7] George Perkins (Republican) 88 votes
Unknown 40 votes.[7]
Colorado Henry M. Teller Democratic 1885
1891
1897
1903
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 19, 1909.[4][5][6]
Democratic hold.
Charles J. Hughes Jr. (Democratic) 73 votes
Joseph C. Helm (Republican) 17 votes
James W. McCreery (Republican) 7 votes
Robert W. Bonynge (Republican) 2 votes[4]
Connecticut Frank B. Brandegee Republican 1905 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1909.[4][5][6] Frank B. Brandegee (Republican) 201 votes
A. Heaton Robertson (Democratic) 52 votes
E. J. Hill (Republican) 14 votes[4]
Florida William Milton Democratic 1908 (Appointed) Interim appointee retired.
Legislature failed to elect.
Democratic loss.
New senator appointed to start the term, and subsequently elected, see below.
None
Georgia Alexander S. Clay Democratic 1896
1902
Incumbent re-elected July 6, 1909.[4] Alexander S. Clay (Democratic)
Unopposed[4]
Idaho Weldon Heyburn Republican 1903 Incumbent re-elected January 12, 1909.[4] Weldon Heyburn (Republican) 55 votes
C. O. Stockslager (Democratic) 13 votes
W. W. Woods (Democratic) 6 votes[4]
Illinois Albert J. Hopkins Republican 1903 Incumbent renominated but couldn't secure the full support of his party.
Legislature failed to elect.
Republican loss.
Seat remained vacant until May 26, 1903, see below.[8]
Albert J. Hopkins (Republican)
George E. Foss (Republican)
William E. Mason (Republican)
Lawrence B. Stringer (Democratic)
Edward D. Shurtleff (Republican)
Indiana James A. Hemenway Republican 1905 (Special) Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 20, 1909.[4]
Democratic gain.
Benjamin F. Shively (Democratic) 82 votes
James H. Hemenway[9] (Republican) 67 votes[4]
Iowa Albert B. Cummins Republican 1908 Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1909.[4] Albert B. Cummins (Republican) 112 votes
Claude R. Porter (Democratic) 40 votes[4]
Kansas Chester I. Long Republican 1903 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 26, 1909.[4][5][6]
Republican hold.
Joseph L. Bristow (Republican) 115 votes
Hugh P. Farrelly (Democratic) 56 votes[4][6]
Kentucky James B. McCreary Democratic 1902 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected February 28, 1908.[1]
Republican gain.
William O. Bradley (Republican) 64 votes
J. C. W. Beckham (Democratic) 60 votes
Scattering 3 votes[1]
Louisiana Samuel D. McEnery Democratic 1896
1900 (Early)
Incumbent re-elected May 19, 1908.[10][1] Samuel D. McEnery (Democratic)
Unopposed[1]
Maryland William P. Whyte Democratic 1906 (Appointed) Interim appointee either retired or lost election to the next term.
New senator elected January 15, 1908.[1]
Democratic hold.
John Walter Smith (Democratic)
[Data unknown/missing. You can help!]
Missouri William J. Stone Democratic 1903 Incumbent re-elected January 20, 1909.[4] William J. Stone (Democratic) 91 votes
John C. McKinley (Republican) 84 votes[4]
Nevada Francis G. Newlands Democratic 1903 Incumbent re-elected January 26, 1909.[4] Francis G. Newlands (Democratic)
Unopposed less 1 vote[4]
New Hampshire Jacob Gallinger Republican 1891
1897
1903
Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1909.[5][6][11] Jacob Gallinger (New Hampshire) 258 votes
Oliver E. Branch (Democratic) 108 votes[5][11][6]
New York Thomas C. Platt Republican 1881
1881 (Resigned)
1897
1903
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 19, 1909.[12][13]
Republican hold.
Elihu Root (Republican) 125 votes
Lewis S. Chanler (Democratic) 44 votes[12]
North Carolina Lee S. Overman Democratic 1903 Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1909.[5][6][12] Lee S. Overman (Democratic) 126 votes
Spencer B. Adams (Republican) 34 votes[12]

[6]

North Dakota Henry C. Hansbrough Republican 1891
1897
1903
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 19, 1909.[12]
Republican hold.
Martin N. Johnson (Republican)
J. L. Cashel (Democratic) 14 votes
William E. Purcell (Democratic) 1 vote[12]
Ohio Joseph B. Foraker Republican 1896
1902
Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 12, 1909.[12][14]
Republican hold.
Theodore E. Burton (Republican) 89 votes
James E. Campbell (Democratic) 58 votes
Judson Harmon (Democratic) 1 vote[12]
Oklahoma Thomas Gore Democratic 1907 Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1909.[5][6][12] Thomas Gore (Democratic) 96 votes
Dennis T. Flynn (Republican) 49 votes[12]
Oregon Charles W. Fulton Republican 1903 Incumbent lost re-election.
New senator elected January 19, 1909.[5][6][12]
Democratic gain.
George E. Chamberlain (Democratic) 53 votes
Charles W. Fulton (Republican) 19 votes
Henry M. Coke (Republican) 17 votes
Robert S. Bean (Republican) 1 vote[12]
Pennsylvania Boies Penrose Republican 1897
1903
Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1909.[5][6] Boies Penrose (Republican) 198 votes
George M. Dimeling (Democratic) 42 votes
Edwin S. Stuart (Republican) 2 votes
John O. Sheatz (Republican) 1 vote
William Potter (Democratic) 1 vote[12]
South Carolina Frank B. Gary Democratic 1908 (Special) Incumbent retired.
New senator elected January 26, 1909.[12]
Democratic hold.
Ellison D. Smith (Democratic)
Unopposed[12]
South Dakota Alfred B. Kittredge Republican 1901 (Appointed)
1903 (Special)
1903
Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 19, 1909.[12]
Coe I. Crawford (Republican) 134 votes
Andrew E. Lee (Democratic) 17 votes[12]
Republican hold.
Utah Reed Smoot Republican 1903 Incumbent re-elected January 19, 1909.[5][6][12] Reed Smoot (Republican) 61 votes
William H. King (Democratic) 2 votes[12]
Vermont William P. Dillingham Republican 1900 (Special)
1902
Incumbent re-elected October 20, 1908.[1] William P. Dillingham (Republican) 230 votes
V. A. Bullard (Democratic) 38 votes[1]
Washington Levi Ankeny Republican 1903 Incumbent lost renomination.
New senator elected January 19,1909.[5][6][12]
Republican hold.
Wesley L. Jones (Republican) 128 votes
George F. Cottrill (Democratic) 6 votes
William Goodyear (Democratic) 1 vote[5][12]
Wisconsin Isaac Stephenson Republican 1907 (Special) Incumbent re-elected January 27, 1909.
Legislature failed to declare the result and ordered a new election.
Incumbent was finally re-elected March 4, 1909 after many ballots.[12]
Isaac Stephenson (Republican)
Neal Brown (Democratic)
Jacob Rummel (Socialist)
S. A. Cook (Republican)
H.A. Cooper (Republican)
J. J. Esch (Republican)
J. H. Stout (Republican)[12]

Elections during the 61st Congress[edit]

In these elections, the winners were elected in 1909 after March 4; ordered by date.

State Incumbent Results Candidates
Senator Party Electoral history
Pennsylvania
(Class 1)
Philander C. Knox Republican 1904 (Appointed)
1905 (Special)
1905
Incumbent resigned March 4, 1909 to become U.S. Secretary of State.
New senator elected March 16, 1909.[4]
Republican hold.
George T. Oliver (Republican) 201 votes
Webster Grim (Democratic) 39 votes
Nathaniel Ewing (Republican) 1 vote[4]
Florida
(Class 3)
Duncan U. Fletcher Democratic 1909 (Appointed) Interim appointee elected April 20, 1909. Duncan U. Fletcher (Democratic)
Unopposed[4]
Illinois
(Class 3)
Vacant Legislature had failed to elect, see above.
New senator elected May 26, 1909.[4]
Republican gain.
William Lorimer (Republican) 108 votes
Albert J. Hopkins (Republican) 70 votes
Lawrence B. Stringer (Democratic) 23 votes[4]

New York[edit]

The election was held on January 19, 1909, by the New York State Legislature. Republican Thomas C. Platt had been re-elected to this seat in 1903, and his term would expire on March 3, 1909. At the State election in November 1908, 35 Republicans and 16 Democrats were elected for a two-year term (1909-1910) in the State Senate; and 99 Republicans and 51 Democrats were elected for the session of 1909 to the Assembly. The 132nd New York State Legislature met from January 5 to April 30 1909, at Albany, New York.

The Republican caucus met on January 18. State Senator J. Mayhew Wainwright presided. The caucus nominated U.S. Secretary of State Elihu Root unanimously. Root was the choice of President Theodore Roosevelt. President pro tempore of the State Senate John Raines lauded warmly Root's nomination, eulogized the retiring U.S. Senator Platt, and declared war on Governor Charles Evans Hughes's reforms.[15] The Democratic caucus met also on January 18. They nominated Ex-Lieutenant Governor Lewis S. Chanler unanimously. Chanler had been elected Lieutenant Governor in 1906 on the Democratic/Independence League ticket, and had served under Republican Governor Hughes. Chanler had just been defeated when running against Hughes for Governor in November 1908.[15]

Elihu Root was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, and was declared elected.[16]

House Republican Democratic
State Senate
(50 members)
Elihu Root 35 Lewis S. Chanler 15
State Assembly
(150 members)
Elihu Root 90 Lewis S. Chanler 30

Note: The votes were cast on January 19, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 20 to compare nominations, and declare the result.

Pennsylvania[edit]

The regularly-scheduled general election in Pennsylvania was held January 19, 1909. Boies Penrose was re-elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly. This was the last Class III U.S. Senate election to be decided by the Pennsylvania General Assembly before the ratification of the 17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which mandated direct election of U.S. Senators.[17]

The Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, convened on January 19, 1909, to elect a Senator to fill the term beginning on March 4, 1909. Incumbent Republican Boies Penrose, who was elected in 1897 and re-elected in 1903, was a successful candidate for re-election to another term. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[17]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican Boies Penrose (Incumbent) 198 77.04%
Democratic George M. Dimeling 42 16.34%
Republican Edwin S. Stuart 2 0.78%
Republican John O. Sheatz 1 0.39%
Democratic William Potter 1 0.39%
N/A Not voting 13 5.06%
Totals 257 100.00%

Pennsylvania (Special)[edit]

A special election was held March 16, 1909. George T. Oliver was elected by the Pennsylvania General Assembly.[18]

Republican Philander C. Knox was appointed to the Senate in June 1904 after the death of Matthew Quay. Knox was subsequently elected to a full term in the Senate by the Pennsylvania General Assembly, consisting of the House of Representatives and the Senate, in January 1905. Knox served in the U.S. Senate until his resignation on March 4, 1909, to become United States Secretary of State in the William Howard Taft administration, leaving the seat vacant until a successor was elected.[19]

Following Knox's resignation, the Pennsylvania General Assembly convened on March 16, 1909, to elect a new Senator to fill the vacancy. The results of the vote of both houses combined are as follows:

State Legislature Results[18][20]
Party Candidate Votes %
Republican George T. Oliver 201 78.21
Democratic Webster Grim 39 15.18
Republican Nathaniel Ewing 1 0.39
N/A Not voting 16 6.23
Totals 257 100.00%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Tribune Almanac (1909), p. 315.
  2. ^ a b Byrd, p. 121.
  3. ^ a b c d Tribune Almanac (1908), p. 258.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Tribune Almanac (1910), p. 271.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "ELECTIONS IN OTHER STATES". The New York Times. January 20, 1909. p. 3. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "NAME CHAMBERLAIN AS OREGON SENATOR". The New York Times. January 20, 1909. p. 3. 
  7. ^ a b "Perkins of California Re-elected". The New York Times. January 13, 1903. p. 5. 
  8. ^ "HOPKINS FAILS IN ILLINOIS". The New York Times. January 20, 1909. p. 3. 
  9. ^ "James H. Hemenway" in source, probably "James A. Hemenway."
  10. ^ "Senator McEnery Succeeds Himself". The New York Times. May 20, 1900. p. 2. 
  11. ^ a b Tribune Almanac (1910), pp. 271–272.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Tribune Almanac (1910), p. 272.
  13. ^ "ROOT IS CHOSEN SENATOR". The New York Times. January 20, 1909. p. 3. 
  14. ^ Walters, Everett (1948). Joseph Benson Foraker: An Uncompromising Republican. Columbus, Ohio: The Ohio History Press. pp. 283–284. 
  15. ^ a b "ROOT IS CHOSEN FOR U.S. SENATOR; ...Democrats Choose Chanler". The New York Times. January 19, 1909. 
  16. ^ "ROOT IS CHOSEN SENATOR". The New York Times. January 20, 1909. 
  17. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 19 January 1909" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 22, 2013. 
  18. ^ a b "U.S. Senate Election - 17 March 1909" (PDF). Wilkes University. Retrieved December 24, 2012. 
  19. ^ "KNOX, Philander Chase, (1853 - 1921)". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved December 24, 2012. 
  20. ^ "PA US Senate - Special Election". OurCampaigns. Retrieved December 24, 2012. 

References[edit]