Philander C. Knox

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Philander Knox
Philander C Know-H&E.jpg
United States Senator
from Pennsylvania
In office
March 4, 1917 – October 12, 1921
Preceded byGeorge T. Oliver
Succeeded byWilliam E. Crow
In office
June 10, 1904 – March 4, 1909
Preceded byMatthew Quay
Succeeded byGeorge T. Oliver
40th United States Secretary of State
In office
March 6, 1909 – March 5, 1913
PresidentWilliam Howard Taft
Woodrow Wilson
Preceded byRobert Bacon
Succeeded byWilliam Jennings Bryan
44th United States Attorney General
In office
April 5, 1901 – June 30, 1904
PresidentWilliam McKinley
Theodore Roosevelt
Preceded byJohn W. Griggs
Succeeded byWilliam Moody
Personal details
Born
Philander Chase Knox

(1853-05-06)May 6, 1853
Brownsville, Pennsylvania, U.S.
DiedOctober 12, 1921(1921-10-12) (aged 68)
Washington, D.C., U.S.
Political partyRepublican
EducationWest Virginia University, Morgantown
University of Mount Union (BA)
Signature

Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853 – October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer, bank director and politician. A member of the Republican Party, Knox served in the Cabinet of three different presidents and represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate.

Born in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, Knox became a prominent attorney in Pittsburgh, forming the law firm of Knox and Reed. With the industrialists Henry Clay Frick and Andrew Mellon, Knox also served as a director of the Pittsburgh National Bank of Commerce.[1] In early 1901, he accepted appointment as United States Attorney General. Knox served under President William McKinley until McKinley was assassinated in September 1901, and Knox continued to serve under President Theodore Roosevelt until 1904, when he resigned to accept appointment to the Senate.

Knox won re-election to the Senate in 1905 and unsuccessfully sought the 1908 Republican presidential nomination. In 1909, President William Howard Taft appointed Knox to the position of United States Secretary of State. From that post, Knox reorganized the State Department and pursued dollar diplomacy, which focused on encouraging and protecting U.S. investments abroad. Knox returned to private practice in 1913 after Taft lost re-election. He won election to the Senate in 1916 and played a role in the Senate's rejection of the Treaty of Versailles. Knox was widely seen as a potential compromise candidate at the 1920 Republican National Convention, but the party's presidential nomination instead went to Warren G. Harding. While still serving in the Senate, Knox died in October 1921.

Early life, education, and marriage[edit]

Knox's house in Brownsville

Philander Chase Knox was born in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, one of nine children of Rebecca (née Page) and David S. Knox, a banker.[2] He was named after the Episcopal Bishop Philander Chase. He attended public school in Brownsville, graduating at the age of fifteen.[3] He attended West Virginia University for a time, and then Mount Union College, where he graduated in 1872 with a bachelor of arts degree. While there, he formed a lifelong friendship with William McKinley, the future U.S. President, who at the time was a local district attorney. Knox then returned to Brownsville, and was occupied for a short while as a printer at the local newspaper, then as a clerk at the bank where his recently deceased father had worked. Soon he left for Pittsburgh, and studied law while working at the law offices of H. R. Swope & David Reed in Pittsburgh.[4]

Marriage and family[edit]

In 1880, Knox married Lillian "Lillie" Smith, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Andrew Darsie Smith. Her father was a partner in a steel company known as Smith, Sutton and Co. The company eventually became a part of Crucible Steel. Knox and his wife had several children, including Hugh Knox. His extended relatives include a nephew, "Billy" Knox.[citation needed]

Legal career[edit]

Knox was admitted to the bar in 1875 and practiced in Pittsburgh. From 1876 to 1877, he was Assistant United States Attorney for the Western District of Pennsylvania. Knox became a leading Pittsburgh attorney in partnership with James Hay Reed, their firm being Knox and Reed (now Reed Smith LLP). In 1897 Knox became President of the Pennsylvania Bar Association. Along with Jesse H. Lippencott, a fellow member of an elite hunting club (see South Fork below), Knox served as a director of the Fifth National Bank of Pittsburgh. With Henry Clay Frick and Andrew Mellon, he was a director of the Pittsburgh National Bank of Commerce. As counsel for the Carnegie Steel Company, Knox took a prominent part in organizing the United States Steel Corporation in 1901.[citation needed]

Social organizations[edit]

Knox was a member of the South Fork Fishing and Hunting Club, which had a clubhouse upriver of Johnstown, Pennsylvania. It maintained an earthen dam for a lake by the club, which was stocked for fishing. The dam failed in May 1889, causing the Johnstown Flood and severe losses of life and property downriver. When word of the dam's failure was telegraphed to Pittsburgh, Frick and other members of the South Fork Club gathered to form the Pittsburgh Relief Committee for assistance to the flood victims. They decided together to refrain from speaking publicly about the club or the flood. This strategy was a success, and Knox and Reed were able to fend off all lawsuits that would have placed blame upon the Club's members.[citation needed]

Knox was also a member of the elite Duquesne Club in Pittsburgh.

Personal[edit]

Knox's nickname was "Sleepy Phil," as he was said to have dozed off during board meetings, or because he was cross-eyed.[citation needed]

Political career[edit]

U.S. Attorney General[edit]

In 1901, Knox was appointed as US Attorney General by President William McKinley and was re-appointed by President Theodore Roosevelt. He served until 1904. While serving President Roosevelt, Knox worked hard to implement the concept of Dollar Diplomacy.

He told President Roosevelt: "I think, it would be better to keep your action free from any taint of legality,"[5] made in regard to the construction of the Panama Canal.

U.S. Senator[edit]

In June 1904, Knox was appointed by Governor Samuel W. Pennypacker of Pennsylvania to fill the unexpired term of the late Matthew S. Quay in the United States Senate. In 1905, he was elected by the state legislature to fill the remainder of the full term for the US Senate seat (to 1909).[citation needed]

Knox made an unsuccessful bid for the Republican Party nomination in the 1908 U.S. presidential election.

U.S. Secretary of State[edit]

In February 1909, President William Howard Taft nominated Senator Knox to be Secretary of State.[6] He was at first found to be constitutionally ineligible, because Congress had increased the salary for the post during his Senate term, thus violating the Ineligibility Clause.[7] In particular, Knox had been elected to serve the term from March 4, 1905, to March 4, 1911. During debate on legislation approved on February 26, 1907, as well as debate beginning on March 4, 1908, he had consistently supported pay raises for the Cabinet, which were eventually instituted for the 1908 fiscal calendar.[7][8] The discovery of the constitutional complication came as a surprise after President-elect Taft had announced his intention to nominate Knox.[7]

The Senate Judiciary Committee proposed the remedy of resetting the salary to its pre-service level, and the Senate passed it unanimously on February 11, 1909.[8] Members of the U.S. House of Representatives mounted more opposition to the relief measure and defeated it once. After a special procedural rule was applied, the measure was passed by a 173–115 vote.[9] On March 4, 1909, the salary of the Secretary of State position was reverted from $12,000 to $8,000, and Knox took office on March 6.[7][8] Later known as the "Saxbe fix", such legislation has been passed in a number of similar circumstances.

Knox served as Secretary of State in Taft's cabinet until March 5, 1913. As Secretary of State, he reorganized the Department on a divisional basis, extended the merit system to the Diplomatic Service up to the grade of chief of mission, pursued a policy of encouraging and protecting American investments abroad, declared the ratification of the Sixteenth Amendment, and accomplished the settlement of controversies related to activities in the Bering Sea and the North Atlantic fisheries.

Under Taft the focus of foreign policy was the encouragement and protection of U.S. investments abroad called Dollar diplomacy. This was first applied in 1909, in a failed attempt to help China assume ownership of the Manchurian railways.[10] Knox felt that not only was the goal of diplomacy to improve financial opportunities, but also to use private capital to further U.S. interests overseas. In spite of successes, "dollar diplomacy" failed to counteract economic instability and the tide of revolution in places like Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Nicaragua, and China.[11]

Return to the Senate[edit]

Following his term of office, Knox resumed the practice of law in Pittsburgh. In 1916, Knox was elected by popular vote to the Senate from Pennsylvania for the first time, after passage of the Seventeenth Amendment providing for such popular elections. He served from 1917 until his death in 1921. While a Senator, he was highly critical of the Treaty of Versailles ending World War I, saying "this Treaty does not spell peace but war — war more woeful and devastating than the one we have but now closed".[12]

At the 1920 Republican National Convention, Knox was considered a potential compromise candidate who could unite the progressive and conservative factions of the party. Many thought that California Senator Hiram Johnson would release his delegates to back his friend Knox, but Johnson never did. Warren G. Harding instead emerged as the compromise candidate, and Harding went on to win the 1920 election.[13] After the election, Knox urged President Harding to consider Andrew Mellon for the position of Secretary of the Treasury, and Mellon ultimately took the position.[14]

In April 1921, he introduced a Senate resolution to bring a formal end to American involvement in World War I. It was combined with a similar House resolution to create the Knox–Porter Resolution, signed by President Warren G. Harding on July 2.[15]

Death[edit]

Knox died in Washington, D.C. on October 12, 1921, aged 68.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Philander Chase Knox" (PDF). New York Times. October 14, 1921.
  2. ^ Demmler, Ralph H (1977). "Knox & Reed; Reed, Smith, Shaw & Beal; Reed, Smith, Shaw & McClay", p. 7
  3. ^ Dodds, A. John (Mar–Jun 1950). "Philander C. Knox – Legal Adviser to Pittsburgh Business". The Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. 33: 11–20.
  4. ^ Beveridge, Albert J. (1923). "Philander Chase Knox, American Lawyer, Patriot, Statesman". The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography. 47.2: 89–114 – via JSTOR.
  5. ^ Morris, Edmund (2001). Theodore Rex. New York: The Modern Library. p. 300. ISBN 0-8129-6600-7.
  6. ^ 43 Congressional Record 2390-403 (1909).
  7. ^ a b c d "Knox Seems Barred From the Cabinet". The New York Times. 1909-02-10. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  8. ^ a b c "Knox Relief Bill Passes in Senate" (PDF). The New York Times. 1909-02-12. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  9. ^ "Way Clear For Knox to Enter Cabinet" (PDF). The New York Times. 1909-02-16. Retrieved 2009-01-25.
  10. ^ For more on Knox's actions in Manchuria, see Michael H. Hunt, Frontier Defense and the Open Door: Manchuria in Chinese-American Relations, 1895–1911, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1973
  11. ^ "Dollar Diplomacy, 1909–1913". Office of the Historian, United States Department of State. Retrieved 28 August 2016. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  12. ^ "Harmony of the Secret Treaties and the 14 Points". Harper's Weekly, Vol. 2: 33. 1919. Retrieved April 2, 2015.
  13. ^ "Harding Nominated for President on the Tenth Ballot at Chicago; Coolidge Chosen for Vice President". New York Times. 13 June 1920. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  14. ^ Cannadine, David (2006). Mellon: An American Life. A. A. Knopf. pp. 525–526. ISBN 0-679-45032-7.
  15. ^ Staff (July 3, 1921). "Harding Ends War. Signs Peace Decree At Senator's Home. Thirty Persons Witness Momentous Act in Frelinghuysen Living Room at Raritan". The New York Times.

External links[edit]

Legal offices
Preceded by
John W. Griggs
United States Attorney General
1901–1904
Succeeded by
William Moody
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Matthew Quay
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Pennsylvania
1904–1909
Served alongside: Boies Penrose
Succeeded by
George T. Oliver
Preceded by
John Spooner
Chair of the Senate Rules Committee
1907–1909
Succeeded by
Murray Crane
Preceded by
George T. Oliver
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Pennsylvania
1917–1921
Served alongside: Boies Penrose
Succeeded by
William E. Crow
Preceded by
Lee Overman
Chair of the Senate Rules Committee
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Charles Curtis
Political offices
Preceded by
Robert Bacon
United States Secretary of State
1909–1913
Succeeded by
William Jennings Bryan
Party political offices
First Republican nominee for U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania
(Class 1)

1916
Succeeded by
David Reed