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Indiana Jones franchise
Indiana Jones logo.svg
Created by George Lucas
Original work Raiders of the Lost Ark
Print publications
Book(s) See the Literature section
Novel(s) See the Adult novels section
Comics Indiana Jones comic books
Films and television
Film(s) Raiders of the Lost Ark
Temple of Doom
The Last Crusade
Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Television series The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles
Games
Traditional See the Merchandise section
Role-playing Indiana Jones role-playing game
Video game(s) See the Merchandise section
Audio
Soundtrack(s) Raiders of the Lost Ark, Temple of Doom, The Last Crusade, Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Miscellaneous
Toys See the Toy lines section, Lego Indiana Jones

The Indiana Jones franchise, based on the historical fantasy adventures of the eponymous fictional archaeologist, began in 1981 with the film Raiders of the Lost Ark. A prequel, Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, followed in 1984 and the sequel Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in 1989. In 1992, The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles began airing on television. A fourth film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, was released in 2008. The series was created by George Lucas; the films star Harrison Ford and were directed by Steven Spielberg.

In addition, Marvel Comics began publishing The Further Adventures of Indiana Jones in 1983, and Dark Horse Comics earned the comic book rights to the character in 1991. Novelizations of the films have been published, in addition to a series of German novels by Wolfgang Hohlbein, and twelve novels set before the films published by Bantam Books. Numerous video games about Indiana Jones have been released since 1982.

Films[edit]

Raiders of the Lost Ark[edit]

In 1973, George Lucas wrote The Adventures of Indiana Smith.[1] Like Star Wars, it was an opportunity to create a modern version of the serials of the 1930s and 1940s.[2] Lucas discussed the concept with Philip Kaufman, who worked with him for several weeks and came up with the Ark of the Covenant as the plot device. The project was stalled when Clint Eastwood hired Kaufman to direct The Outlaw Josey Wales.[3] In May 1977, Lucas was in Maui, trying to escape the enormous success of Star Wars. Friend and colleague Steven Spielberg was also there, holidaying from work on Close Encounters of the Third Kind. Spielberg told Lucas he was interested in making a James Bond film. Lucas then told him of an idea "better than James Bond", explaining the plot of Raiders of the Lost Ark. Spielberg loved it, calling it "a James Bond film without the hardware",[4] though he had the character's surname changed to "Jones".[2] Spielberg and Lucas made a deal with Paramount Pictures for five films about Indiana.[4]

Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) is set in 1936. Indiana Jones (Harrison Ford) is assigned by government agents to locate the Ark of the Covenant before the Nazis do, to make them invincible like the Israelites in the Old Testament, who revered it as the dwelling place of God. The Nazis are being helped by Indiana's nemesis René Belloq (Paul Freeman). With the help of his old flame Marion Ravenwood (Karen Allen) and Sallah (John Rhys-Davies), Indiana manages to recover the Ark in Egypt. The Nazis manage to steal the Ark and capture Indiana and Marion. Belloq and the Nazis perform a ceremony to open the Ark, but when they do so, they are all killed gruesomely by the Ark's wrath. Indiana and Marion, who survived by closing their eyes, manage to get the Ark back to America, where it is stored in a secretive government warehouse.

Temple of Doom[edit]

Spielberg and Lucas aimed to make Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom much darker, because of their personal moods following their respective break-ups and divorces. Lucas made the film a prequel as he didn't want the Nazis to be the villains again. He had ideas regarding the Monkey King and a haunted castle, but wound up creating the Sankara Stones.[5] He hired Willard Huyck and Gloria Katz to write the script as he knew of their interest in Indian culture.[6] The major scenes that were dropped from Raiders of the Lost Ark were included in this film: an escape using a giant rolling gong as a shield, a fall out of a plane in a raft, and a mine cart chase.[2]

Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984) is set in 1935, a year before Raiders. Indiana escapes Chinese gangsters with the help of singer/actress Willie Scott (Kate Capshaw) and his eleven-year-old sidekick Short Round (Jonathan Ke Quan). The trio crash-land in India where they come across a village whose children have been kidnapped. A destructive cult led by Mola Ram (Amrish Puri) have also taken the holy Sankara Stones, which they will use to take over the world. Indiana manages to overcome Mola Ram's evil power, and rescues the children and returns the stones to their rightful place, overcoming his own mercenary nature.

The Last Crusade[edit]

For the third film, Spielberg revisited the Monkey King and haunted castle concepts, before Lucas suggested the Holy Grail. Spielberg had previously rejected it as too ethereal, but then came up with telling a father-son story. He thought, "The Grail that everybody seeks could be a metaphor for a son seeking reconciliation with a father and a father seeking reconciliation with a son."[7]

Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989) opens in 1912 where a thirteen-year-old Indiana (River Phoenix) attempts to recover an ornamental cross belonging to Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, a task which he finally completes in 1938. Indiana along with his friend Marcus Brody (Denholm Elliott) are assigned by American businessman Walter Donovan (Julian Glover) to find the Holy Grail. They are teamed up with Dr. Elsa Schneider (Alison Doody), following on from where Indiana's estranged father Henry (Sean Connery) left off before he disappeared. It turns out Donovan and Elsa are in league with the Nazis, who captured Henry in order to get Indiana to help them find the Grail. However, Indiana recovers his father's diary filled with his research, and manages to rescue him before finding the location of the Grail. Both Donovan and Elsa fall to the temptation of the Grail, while Indiana and Henry realize that their relationship with each other is more important than finding the relic.

Kingdom of the Crystal Skull[edit]

Following the 1989 release of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, Lucas let the series end as he felt he could not think of a good plot device to drive the next installment, and chose instead to produce The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles, which explored the character in his early years. Ford played Indiana in one episode, narrating his adventures in 1920 Chicago. When Lucas shot Ford's role in December 1992, he realized the scene opened up the possibility of a film with an older Indiana set in the 1950s. The film could reflect a science fiction 1950s B-movie, with aliens as the plot device.[8] Ford disliked the new angle, telling Lucas "No way am I being in a Steve Spielberg movie like that."[9] Spielberg himself, who depicted aliens in Close Encounters of the Third Kind and E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, resisted it. Lucas came up with a story, which Jeb Stuart turned into a script from October 1993 to May 1994.[8] Lucas wanted Indiana to get married, which would allow Henry Jones Sr. to return, expressing concern over whether his son is happy with what he has accomplished. After he learned that Joseph Stalin was interested in psychic warfare, he decided to have Russians as the villains and the aliens to have psychic powers.[10] Following Stuart's next draft, Lucas hired Last Crusade writer Jeffrey Boam to write the next three versions, the last of which was completed in March 1996. Three months later, Independence Day was released, and Spielberg told Lucas he would not make another alien invasion film. Lucas decided to focus on the Star Wars prequels.[8]

In 2000, Spielberg's son asked when the next Indiana Jones film would be released, which made him interested in reviving the project.[11] The same year, Ford, Lucas, Spielberg, Frank Marshall, and Kathleen Kennedy met during the American Film Institute's tribute to Ford, and decided they wanted to enjoy the experience of making an Indiana Jones film again. Spielberg also found returning to the series a respite from his many dark films during this period.[12] Spielberg and Lucas discussed the central idea of a B-movie involving aliens, and Lucas suggested using the crystal skulls to ground the idea. Lucas found those artifacts as fascinating as the Ark,[13] and had intended to feature them for a Young Indiana Jones episode before the show's cancellation.[8] M. Night Shyamalan was hired to write for an intended 2002 shoot,[11] but he was overwhelmed writing a sequel to a film he loved like Raiders, and claimed it was difficult to get Ford, Spielberg, and Lucas to focus.[14] Stephen Gaghan and Tom Stoppard were also approached.[11]

Frank Darabont, who wrote various Young Indiana Jones episodes, was hired to write in May 2002.[15] His script, entitled Indiana Jones and the City of Gods,[8] was set in the 1950s, with ex-Nazis pursuing Jones.[16] Spielberg conceived the idea because of real life figures such as Juan Perón in Argentina, who protected Nazi war criminals.[8] Darabont claimed Spielberg loved the script, but Lucas had issues with it, and decided to take over writing himself.[8] Lucas and Spielberg acknowledged the 1950s setting could not ignore the Cold War, and the Russians were more plausible villains. Spielberg decided he could not satirize the Nazis after directing Schindler's List,[17] while Ford felt "We plum[b] wore the Nazis out."[9] Darabont's main contribution was reintroducing Marion Ravenwood as Indiana's love interest, but gave them a 13-year old daughter, which Spielberg decided was too similar to The Lost World: Jurassic Park.[8]

Jeff Nathanson met with Spielberg and Lucas in August 2004, and turned in the next drafts in October and November 2005, titled The Atomic Ants. David Koepp continued on from there, giving his script the subtitle Destroyer of Worlds,[8] based on the Robert Oppenheimer quote. It was changed to Kingdom of the Crystal Skull, as Spielberg found it more inviting a title and actually named the plot device.[18] Koepp wanted to make Mutt into a nerd, but Lucas refused, explaining he had to resemble Marlon Brando in The Wild One; "he needs to be what Indiana Jones' father thought of [him] – the curse returns in the form of his own son – he's everything a father can't stand".[8] Koepp collaborated with Lawrence Kasdan on the film's "love dialogue".[19]

Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull (2008) is set in 1957, making it nineteen years since The Last Crusade, and thus acknowledging the real-life passing of years between films. Indiana is having a quiet life teaching before being thrust back into his old adventuring. He races against agents of the Soviet Union, led by Irina Spalko (Cate Blanchett) for the crystal skull. Indy's journey takes him across Nevada, Connecticut, Peru, and the forest of the Amazon in Brazil. In the film. Indiana is faced with betrayal by one of his best friends, Mac (Ray Winstone), is introduced to a greaser named Mutt Williams (Shia LaBeouf), who turns out to be his son, and is reunited with his old flame Marion Ravenwood.

Future[edit]

The introduction of Mutt Williams (Shia LaBeouf) in Kingdom of the Crystal Skull has led to speculation that he will take over the franchise from Ford.[20] In an interview with IGN, "Spielberg indicated that LaBeouf has to make multiple Transformers movies before he can move over and take on the fedora and bullwhip of Indiana Jones."[21] The actor himself said, "Am I into it? Who wouldn't be? I don't think that's reality. It's a fun rumor."[22] Ford said he would return for a fifth film if it doesn't take another twenty years to develop,[23] while Spielberg responded it would happen "only if you [the audience] want more".[24] In an interview with Time, when asked about passing the fedora to Shia in the next Indy movie, Ford said, "What are you talking about? It's mine. I would love to do another Indiana Jones movie. George Lucas is working on an idea now. Shia can get his own hat. I earned that hat."[25]

George Lucas made another suggestion that there would be a fifth film. While at the 2008 Cannes Film Festival, he revealed his idea "to make Shia LaBeouf the lead character next time and have Harrison Ford come back like Sean Connery did in the third film". Lucas has also said that age will not be a factor, as Ford was "65 and did everything in Crystal Skull. The old chemistry is there, and it's not like he's an old man. He's incredibly agile; he looks even better than he did 20 years ago, if you ask me".[26] In August 2008, Lucas was researching potential plot devices, and stated Spielberg was more open to the idea of the fifth film.[27] He also changed his mind about continuing the series with a spin-off, joking "Indiana Jones is Indiana Jones. Harrison Ford is Indiana Jones. If it was Mutt Williams it would be Mutt Williams and the Search for Elvis or something."[28] Two months later, Ford stated that he would not return if the fifth film was an animated film like The Clone Wars, because "I'd hate to see it reduced in any way from the movies that we have done and the way we have done them." He also called Lucas' concept for the fifth film "crazy but great".[29]

When asked how being married to Marion Ravenwood and having a son would affect the character in a fifth film, Ford only replied "He's seen something. Remember those are the only witness to what he's seen. That's kind of interesting."[30] In January 2010, Ford said, "I think it would be interesting to advance the understanding of the character, as we always have had that ambition throughout the series. I think it would be interesting to deepen the relationship between he and his son and play on that relationship. ... It's full of opportunity. The series is full of opportunity."[31]

The possibility of Indiana Jones 5 continued to be discussed through 2009 and 2010. Reports speculated in June 2009 that the fifth installment would start filming in 2011 and involved a plot that revolved around the Bermuda Triangle,[32] although these rumors were later confirmed as "completely false" by Frank Marshall on his Twitter page.[33] Speaking to BBC journalist Lizo Mzimba in June 2009, LaBeouf confirmed that "Steven [Spielberg] just said that he cracked the story on it [the fifth film], I think they're gearing that up."[34] Lucas stated he was working on the film as of December 2009.[35] Most recently, in November 2010, Ford said that he and Spielberg are waiting for Lucas to present an idea to them.[36]

Reception[edit]

Box office performance[edit]

Film Release date Box office revenue Box office ranking Budget Ref
North America Foreign Worldwide All time domestic All time worldwide
Raiders of the Lost Ark June 12, 1981
(July 16, 1982)(R)
(March 25, 1983)(R)
$242,374,454 (R) $141,766,000 $384,140,454 #57
#16 (A)
#123 $18,000,000 [37]
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom May 23, 1984 $179,870,271 $153,237,000 $333,107,271 #126
#83 (A)
#178 $28,000,000 [38]
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade May 24, 1989 $197,171,806 $277,000,000 $474,171,806 #100
#93 (A)
#80 $48,000,000 [39]
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull May 22, 2008 $317,101,119 $469,534,914 $786,636,033 #24
#119 (A)
#26 $185,000,000 [40]
Total $936,517,650 $1,041,537,914 $1,978,055,564 $279,000,000
List indicator(s)
  • (A) indicates the adjusted totals based on current ticket prices (calculated by Box Office Mojo).
  • (R) totals for the domestic release and the following 2 re-releases of Raiders of the Lost Ark.

Critical reaction[edit]

Film Rotten Tomatoes Metacritic Yahoo! Movies The Internet Movie Database
Overall Cream of the Crop
Raiders of the Lost Ark 94% (47 reviews)[41] 67% (6 reviews)[42] 90 (11 reviews)[43] A (7 reviews)[44] 8.7 (246,350 votes) #22 of Top 250[45]
Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom 84% (58 reviews)[46] 50% (6 reviews)[47] 7.5 (111,861 votes)[48]
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade 89% (54 reviews)[49] 71% (7 reviews)[50] 65 (14 reviews)[51] A- (5 reviews)[52] 8.3 (174,425 votes) #103 of Top 250[53]
Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull 77% (248 reviews)[54] 61% (39 reviews)[55] 65 (40 reviews)[56] B (15 reviews)[57] 6.6 (136,754 votes)[58]
Average Ratings 86 out of 100% 62% 73 N/A 7.775 out of 10

Academy Awards[edit]

Award Awards Won
Raiders of the Lost Ark Temple of Doom Last Crusade Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Art Direction Win
Best Sound Win Nomination
Cinematography Nomination
Director Nomination
Film Editing Win
Music (Original Score) Nomination Nomination Nomination
Picture Nomination
Sound Editing Win
Visual Effects Win Win
Special Achievement Award Win
(Ben Burtt and
Richard L. Anderson)

Television[edit]

A TV series entitled The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles (1992–1996) featured three incarnations of Indy: Sean Patrick Flanery played Indy aged 16–20; Corey Carrier played the 8- to 10-year-old Indy in several episodes; and George Hall narrated the show as the 93-year-old Indy, who bookended each episode. Lucas began developing the series in 1990 as "edutainment" that would be more cerebral than the films. The show was his first collaboration with producer Rick McCallum, and he wrote the stories for each episode. Writers and directors on the show included Carrie Fisher, Frank Darabont, Vic Armstrong, Ben Burtt, Terry Jones, Nicolas Roeg, Mike Newell and Joe Johnston. In the Chronicles, Indy crosses path with many historical figures, played by stars such as Daniel Craig, Christopher Lee, Bob Peck, Jeffrey Wright, Marc Warren, Catherine Zeta-Jones, Elizabeth Hurley, Anne Heche, Vanessa Redgrave, Julian Fellowes, Timothy Spall and even Harrison Ford as the 50-year-old Indy in a season two episode (taking the usual place of Hall).[59][60][61]

The show was ambitiously shot in over 25 countries for over 150 weeks. Series one shot from March 1991 to March 1992; the second series began two months later and wrapped in April 1993.[62] The American Broadcasting Company were unsure of Lucas's cerebral approach, and attempted to advertise the show as an action-adventure like the films. Ratings were decent if unspectacular, and ABC was nervous enough to put it on hiatus after six episodes until September 1992.[59] With only four episodes left of the second season to air, ABC eventually sold the show to Family; they changed the format from 50-minute episodes to 90-minute TV movies. Filming for the final four episodes took place from January 1994 to May 1996.[62] The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles received mixed reception from fans, although it won 10 Emmy Awards out of 23 nominations, and also earned a 1994 Golden Globe nomination for Best Drama series. It was an experimentation ground in digital effects for Lucasfilm.[59]

As detailed in the revised and updated edition of the Charles Champlin book George Lucas: The Creative Impulse, Lucas had been working for some time on drastically reediting and restructuring the show for a DVD release. According to a statement by series producer Rick McCallum of Lucasfilm, this work had been 'ramped up' in order for a boxset release to tie in with the theatrical debut of Kingdom of the Crystal Skull. Amongst other extras, the discs include approximately 100 new historical featurettes. Major structural changes are alleged to have been made to the show, including the complete removal of the 93-year-old Jones 'bookend' sections, extensive reshoots.[citation needed]

Characters[edit]

This is a list of characters who have appeared in the Indiana Jones film franchise.

Character Film/TV Series
Raiders of the Lost Ark Temple of Doom The Last Crusade The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles Kingdom of the Crystal Skull
Indiana Jones Harrison Ford Harrison Ford
River Phoenix
Sean Patrick Flanery
Corey Carrier
George Hall
Harrison Ford
Harrison Ford
Marcus Brody Denholm Elliott Denholm Elliott Mentioned Only
Marion Ravenwood Karen Allen Karen Allen
Sallah John Rhys-Davies John Rhys-Davies
Henry Jones, Sr. Sean Connery
Alex Hyde-White
Lloyd Owen Mentioned Only
Toht Ronald Lacey
René Belloq Paul Freeman
Willie Scott Kate Capshaw
Short Round Jonathan Ke Quan
Mola Ram Amrish Puri
Walter Donovan Julian Glover
Elsa Schneider Alison Doody
Anna Jones Ruth de Sosa
Helen Seymour Margaret Tyzack
Remy Baudouin Ronny Coutteure
Mac Ray Winstone
Irina Spalko Cate Blanchett
Mutt Williams Shia LaBeouf
Harold Oxley John Hurt

Literature[edit]

Adult novels[edit]

The first novelization was of Raiders of the Lost Ark, written by Campbell Black and published by Ballantine Books in April 1981.[63] It was followed by Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom, written by James Kahn and published by Ballantine in May 1984.[64] Finally, they published Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade in May 1989. It was the first Indy book by Rob MacGregor.[65] MacGregor was awarded the job after helping an editor on another project. Neither the editor nor LucasFilm were aware of MacGregor's interest in history and archaeology. A fan of the first two films, MacGregor admitted writing the novelization made him "somewhat disappointed with [the third]. That’s because I took the script and expanded it to novel length [and] adding scenes while Spielberg took the same script and trimmed a few scenes to tighten the story. So, for me, it was all very familiar when I saw the movie, but it seemed somehow to be missing something."[66]

German Fantasy and SF author Wolfgang Hohlbein wrote eight novels from 1990—1993 published by the Goldmann Verlag, but none of these were translated into English.[67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74] Hohlbein set his books from 1938—1944, except for the first which he set in 1929 and 1932. Lucas had no involvement in this series.[75]

Meanwhile, Lucas asked Rob MacGregor to continue writing original novels for Bantam Books. They chose to make them prequels set in the 1920s (after Indy graduates from college), so to not interfere with the films. Lucas only permitted Marcus Brody to appear.[66] Lucas also told MacGregor to base the books on real myths, but except for the deletion of a sex scene, MacGregor was given total creative freedom. Barring Stonehenge, MacGregor chose locations he had visited in the past.[76] His six books -- Indiana Jones and the Peril at Delphi, Indiana Jones and the Dance of the Giants, Indiana Jones and the Seven Veils, Indiana Jones and the Genesis Deluge, Indiana Jones and the Unicorn's Legacy, and Indiana Jones and the Interior World -- were published from February 1991—November 1992. The fourth book, The Genesis Deluge (Feb 1992), featuring Noah's Ark, was the best-selling novel. MacGregor felt it "had a strong following among religious-oriented people [...] because they tend to take the Noah’s Ark story to heart and think of it as history and archaeological fact, rather than myth. They also see Indy as one of their own, even though he's actually quite an iconoclast [...] However, Indy follows the trail and indeed finds 'an ark' on Mount Ararat." MacGregor's own favorite of his books was the preceding third book The Seven Veils.[66] This featured real-life explorer Percy Fawcett, and the tragic death of Indy's wife, Deirdre Campbell. Deirdre, a red haired student of Indy at the University of London, dies in the book's climactic plane crash.[77][78][79][80][81][82]

Martin Caidin wrote the next two novels in Bantam's series, Indiana Jones and the Sky Pirates and Indiana Jones and the White Witch. These both feature Gale Parker (like Deirdre Campbell, a red haired woman) as Indiana's sidekick, and also introduced afterwords to the series, regarding the novel's historical context.[83][84] Caidin became ill,[85] so Max McCoy took over in 1995 and wrote the final four novels, Indiana Jones and the Philosopher's Stone, Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs, Indiana Jones and the Hollow Earth, and Indiana Jones and the Secret of the Sphinx. McCoy set his books nearer to Raiders, which informed his characterization of Indy. "The Raiders Indy was a bit darker [...] Not evil, just a shade rougher, and a little closer to Belloq than he would like to admit. In Raiders, Indy had to decide to be a hero," he said. McCoy gave a sample to his editors, featuring the crystal skull, which became the prologue of the first book.[86] The skull became a recurring story, which concludes when Indy gives it up in the final novel. McCoy spent a longer time researching his novels, and Lucas's involvement was limited. LucasFilm also had to censor sexual or outlandish elements of his novels, in order to make McCoy's adult sensibilities appeal to younger readers,[85] and they also rejected time travel in the final book because it was too science-fictional.[86] Sallah, Lao Che, Rene Belloq and the Nazis made appearances, and McCoy also pitted Indy against Benito Mussolini's fascists and the Japanese. Indy has a doomed romance with Alecia Dunstin, a red-haired librarian at the British Museum, in this cycle.[87][88][89][90] A novel involving the spear of destiny was dropped because Dark Horse Comics was developing the idea.[86]

IGN journalist Scott Chitwood felt, "Bantam never marketed [the books] very well and many people never knew they existed." He asked former Bantam editor Tom Dupree in 2000, why they were not published in hardback. He answered, "Indy is just a better educated, more erudite, more human Doc Savage. Who wants to pay $22 for an adventure novel? Keep them at the paperback price, then if Indy 4 gets closer to reality, maybe we might rethink."[91] In February 2008, the novelizations of the first three films were published in one edition.[92] James Rollins' Kingdom of the Crystal Skull novelization arrived the following May.[93] Children's novelizations of all four films were published by Scholastic in 2008.[94] MacGregor is writing new books for Ballantine for early 2009,[95] as is Steve Perry, whose Army of the Dead is due April 28, 2009.[96] In May 2009, a new "middle grade" series entitled Untold Adventures will begin. The first two books are entitled Pyramid of the Sorcerer and Mystery of Mount Sinai.[97]

Indiana Jones (Prequels) - Bantam Books[edit]

This series of 12 books was published by Bantam Books between 1991 and 1999. The books were geared toward an adult / young adult audience and are prequels to the storyline of the film series, as they are set in the 1920s and early 1930s.

Indiana Jones - Del Rey[edit]

Find Your Fate[edit]

There were eleven Indiana Jones books released in the Find Your Fate line, written by various authors. These books were similar to the Choose Your Own Adventure series, allowing the reader to select from options that change the outcome of the story. Nearly the entire 17 book Ballantine Books Find Your Fate series was dedicated to stories within the world of Indiana Jones, with the exception of books #10 - #15 which centered around either Morgan Swift (# 10 & 15) or James Bond (# 11-14).

Young Indiana Jones[edit]

Random House
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Plantation Treasure - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Tomb of Terror - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Circle of Death - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Secret City - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Princess of Peril - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Gypsy Revenge - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Ghostly Riders - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Curse of Ruby Cross - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Titanic Adventure - by Les Martin
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Lost Gold of Durango - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Face of the Dragon - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Journey to the Underworld - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Mountain of Fire - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Pirates' Loot - by J.N. Fox
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Eye of the Tiger - by William McCay
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Mask of the Madman - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • Young Indiana Jones and the Ring of Power - Megan Stine
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Mummy's Curse - by Megan Stine and H. William Stine
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Field of Death - by Les Martin
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Safari Sleuth - by A.L. Singer
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Secret Peace - by William McCay
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: The Trek of Doom - by Les Martin
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Revolution! - by Gavin Scott
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Race to Danger - by Stephanie Calmenson
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: Prisoner of War - by Sam Mclean
Bantam Books

The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles:

  • The Valley of The Kings - by Richard Brightfield
  • South of the Border - by Richard Brightfield
  • Revolution in Russia - by Richard Brightfield
  • Masters of the Louvre - by Richard Brightfield
  • African Safari - by Richard Brightfield
  • Behind the Great Wall - by Richard Brightfield
  • The Roaring Twenties - by Richard Brightfield
  • The Irish Rebellion - by Richard Brightfield
Ballantine Books

Young Indiana Jones:

  • The Mata Hari Affair - by James Luceno
  • The Mummy's Curse - by Parker Smith
Graphic novels
  • The Curse of the Jackal - by Dan Barry
  • The Search for the Oryx - by Dan Barry
  • The Peril of the Fort - by Dan Barry
Non-fiction books
  • Lost Diaries of Young Indiana Jones by Eric D. Weiner
  • The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles: On the Set and Behind the Scenes by Dan Madsen
  • Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Egypt - by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Rome - by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores Ancient Greece - by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores The Vikings - by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores The Incas - by John Malam
  • Indiana Jones Explores The Aztecs - by John Malam

Comic books[edit]

Video games[edit]

The first Indiana Jones video game was a 1982 adaptation of Raiders of the Lost Ark, released on the Atari 2600. Atari released Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom in 1985. In 1988, an NES version of Temple of Doom was released. LucasArts released two versions of Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade, entitled The Action Game and The Graphic Adventure. An NES version of The Last Crusade was released in 1991. The final adaptation of the films, until 2008, was Indiana Jones' Greatest Adventures, released on the Super Nintendo Entertainment System in 1994. In 2008, LucasArts released Lego Indiana Jones: The Original Adventures, which was based on the original three movies.

LucasArts released the first original Indiana Jones game, Indiana Jones and the Fate of Atlantis, in 1992, which was a personal computer game. A sequel, entitled Indiana Jones and the Iron Phoenix, was intended for a 1995 release, but was cancelled. Indiana Jones and His Desktop Adventures followed instead in 1996. LucasArts released Indiana Jones and the Infernal Machine in 1999 on the PC, and it was also released on the Nintendo 64 and the Game Boy Color by 2001. The game featured the return of Sophia Hapgood, Indy's sidekick from Fate of Atlantis. Indiana Jones and the Emperor's Tomb, a prequel to Temple of Doom, was released on the PlayStation 2, Xbox, Apple Macintosh and Microsoft Windows in 2003. Another game with the title Indiana Jones and the Staff of Kings was released in June 2009 for the Nintendo DS, Wii, PSP and PS2.[98]

Attractions[edit]

[[Image:Indiana Jones Stunt Spectacular.jpg|thumb|right|200px|Action on the set of the "Indiana Jones Epic Stunt Spectacular!"]] George Lucas has collaborated with Walt Disney Imagineering on four occasions to create Indiana Jones attractions for Disney theme parks worldwide:

Merchandise[edit]

Toy lines[edit]

For the holiday season following the June 1981 debut of Raiders of the Lost Ark, Kenner produced a 12-inch-tall "Authentically styled Action Figure" of Indiana Jones. The next spring they delivered nine smaller-scale (3-3/4") action figures, three playsets, and replicas of the German "Desert Convoy Truck," and Indy's Arabian horse, all based on characters and situations from the Raiders movie.[99] They also offered a Kenner-branded Raiders board game.[100] In conjunction with the theatrical release of Temple of Doom (1984), TSR, Inc. put out miniature metal versions of twelve characters from both ToD and Raiders for a role playing game. LJN Toys Ltd. released just three six-inch action figures for Temple of Doom in 1984: Indy, Mola Ram, and the Giant Thugee; there were plans for the addition of Willie Scott and Short Round, and also a mine car racing set, but these followups were never made available.[101] The third Indy feature film, The Last Crusade (1989), saw no toy merchandise tie-ins, but by 1993 Horizon filled the void with highly detailed vinyl model kits of Indy and his father, Henry, Sr.,[102] while in 1995 Micro Machines released a box set of ten die-cast toy vehicles from all the films to that point.[100] Micro Machines also considered a mini. playset that was never made available to the buying public.[103] Toys McCoy released a Japanese-market-only limited edition (3000 units) 12-inch Indy and his horse from Raiders in 1999.[104] In January 2001, Walt Disney Parks and Resorts sold new and exclusive action figures and vehicle models,[105] and a second wave followed in August 2003. This included G.I. Joe versions of Indy, including an African-American styled toy, to honor the black performers at their stunt shows.[106]

Hasbro released toys based on Raiders of the Lost Ark and Kingdom of the Crystal Skull on May 1, 2008. Figure waves including characters from The Last Crusade, and Temple of Doom followed later in the year, but ended up being distributed on a very limited basis, and proved rather difficult for collectors to find. The new toy line consists of 3 3/4-inch sized, highly articulated figures (each packed with a "Hidden Relic" artifact), supporting vehicles, and an Akator playset. A run of eight large (12-inch-tall) action figures was also issued, along with a series of "Adventure Heroes" aimed at young children. Die-cast vehicles, and some role-playing items rounded out the line.[107] Hasbro ran several incentive mail-away offers requiring proof of purchase to receive an exclusive one sixth-scale (sized for 12-inch figures) Ark of the Covenant, an "Adventure Heroes" Indy with his horse from the first film, or a crystal skeleton action figure from the fourth film.[108] Hasbro announced the cancellation of the line in the fall of 2008, due to poor overall sales, coupled with a down economy in the U.S. . Sideshow Collectibles, Gentle Giant, Diamond Select Toys and Kotobukiya[109] also earned the Indiana Jones licensing rights in 2008.[110][111][112][113] Lego will release eight play sets to coincide with the fourth film. Only half of them are based on Kingdom of the Crystal Skull: three are based on Raiders and another is based on Crusade.[114][115]

Merchandise featuring franchise cross-overs include a spoofy Mr. Potato Head Taters Of The Lost Ark set by Hasbro,[116] Mickey Mouse as Indiana Jones (available only in Disney parks),[117] and a Muppets-brand Adventure Kermit action figure, produced by Palisades Toys, based on the frog's appearance in the Disney World stunt show as seen in The Muppets at Walt Disney World (although for legal reasons, the producers and figure's packaging made it clear that "Adventure Kermit" was in no way affiliated with Indiana Jones; the item nonetheless appears in DK's Indiana Jones: The Ultimate Guide, published in 2008).[118]

Role playing games[edit]

Pinball[edit]

A pinball machine based on the first three films was released in 1993. Stern Pinball released a new edition in 2008, which featured all four movies.[119]

References[edit]

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  84. ^ Martin Caidin (1994). Indiana Jones and the White Witch. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-56194-4.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
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  88. ^ Max McCoy (1996). Indiana Jones and the Dinosaur Eggs. Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-56193-7. 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]