Viceroy of Zhili

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Viceroy of Zhili
Traditional Chinese 直隸總督
Simplified Chinese 直隶总督
Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs
(full title)
Traditional Chinese 總督直隸等處地方,提督軍務、糧餉、管理河道兼巡撫事
Simplified Chinese 总督直隶等处地方,提督军务、粮饷、管理河道兼巡抚事

The Viceroy of Zhili, fully referred to in Chinese as the Governor-General of Zhili and Surrounding Areas Overseeing Military Affairs and Food Production, Manager of Waterways, Director of Civil Affairs, was one of eight regional Viceroys in China proper during the Qing dynasty. The Viceroy of Zhili was an important post because the province of Zhili, which literally means "directly ruled", was the area surrounding the imperial capital, Beijing. The administrative centre was in Tianjin even though the provincial capital was in Baoding. The Viceroy's duties and responsibilities have never been defined entirely. Generally speaking, the Viceroy oversaw the military and civil affairs of Zhili, Shandong and Henan provinces. The Viceroy of Zhili was also highly influential in imperial court politics.

History[edit]

The office was first created on 30 September 1649 during the reign of the Shunzhi Emperor, but was later abolished on 1 June 1658. On 23 November 1661, during the reign of the Kangxi Emperor, the office was recreated but abolished again later on 28 July 1669. After the Yongzheng Emperor restored it on 14 December 1724, the office had remained in place until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

From 1870 onwards, the Viceroy of Zhili concurrently held the position of "Beiyang Trade Minister" (北洋通商大臣); cf. "Nanyang Trade Minister" (南洋通商大臣) held by the Viceroy of Liangjiang.

47 people had held the position from 1649 to 1912. Among them, the more notable ones included Li Wei, Tang Zhiyu, Fang Guancheng, Zeng Guofan, Li Hongzhang, Ronglu and Yuan Shikai. Li Hongzhang, in particular, held the office for about 25 years in total during the height of his political career.

List of Viceroys of Zhili[edit]

# Name Portrait Start of term End of term Notes
Viceroy of Zhili, Shandong and Henan
(1649–1658)
1 Zhang Cunren
張存仁
30 September 1649 November 1651 Died in office
2 Ma Guanghui
馬光輝
29 November 1651 8 April 1654 Left office due to illness
3 Li Zuyin
李祖蔭
16 April 1654 4 February 1657 Reassigned to serve as Viceroy of Huguang
4 Zhang Xuanxi
張懸錫
24 February 1657 1 June 1658 Demoted and dismissed from office on 29 June 1658
Viceroy of Zhili
(1661–1665)
5 Miao Cheng
苗澄
23 November 1661 4 July 1665 Dismissed from office
Viceroy of Zhili, Shandong and Henan
(1665–1669)
6 Zhu Changzuo
朱昌祚
13 July 1665 8 January 1667 Dismissed from office
7 Bai Bingzhen
白秉貞
27 January 1667 30 September 1669 Dismissed from office on 28 July 1669
Viceroy of Zhili
(1724–1912)
8 Li Weijun
李維鈞
14 December 1724 26 September 1725 Dismissed from office
Cai Ting
蔡珽
26 September 1725 Stand-in as the Secretary of Defence
9 Li Fu
李紱
1 October 1725 16 January 1727 Reassigned to serve as Right Vice Secretary of Works
Yi Zhaoxiong
宜兆熊
16 January 1727 23 June 1728 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Huguang
Liu Shishu
劉師恕
16 January 1727 8 March 1729 Stand-in as the Right Vice Secretary of Rites
He Shiji
何世璂
23 June 1728 4 March 1729 Stand-in as the Right Vice Secretary of Personnel
Yang Kun
楊鯤
24 February 1729 1 July 1729 Stand-in as the Governor-General of Zhili
Tang Zhiyu
唐執玉
1 July 1729 27 October 1731 Stand-in as the Left Censor-in-Chief
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
27 October 1731 2 September 1732 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Li Wei
李衛
2 September 1732 September 1732 Acting Viceroy of Zhili
10 Li Wei
李衛
September 1732 29 November 1738 Retired due to illness
Tang Zhiyu
唐執玉
19 February 1733 April 1733 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Sun Jiagan
孫嘉淦
29 November 1738 6 December 1738 Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel
11 Sun Jiagan
孫嘉淦
6 December 1738 26 September 1741 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Huguang
12 Gao Bin
高斌
26 September 1741 19 June 1745 Promoted to Secretary of Personnel
Liu Yuyi
劉於義
28 February 1745 Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel
13 Nasutu
那蘇圖
19 June 1745 18 August 1749 Died in office
Chen Dashou
陳大受
1749 Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel and Assisting Grand Secretary
14 Fang Guancheng
方觀承
18 August 1749 25 September 1768 Retired due to illness
Emida
鄂彌達
30 October 1755 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Yang Tingzhang
楊廷璋
25 September 1768 27 September 1768 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
15 Yang Tingzhang
楊廷璋
27 September 1768 26 November 1771 Reassigned to serve as the Secretary of Justice
16 Zhou Yuanli
周元理
26 November 1771 27 April 1779 Dismissed from office
Ying Lian
英廉
27 April 1779 29 April 1779 Stand-in as the Secretary of Revenue
17 Yang Jingsu
楊景素
29 April 1779 27 January 1780 Died in office
18 Yuan Shoutong
袁守侗
27 January 1780 13 January 1782 Left office for filial mourning
Zhou Yuanli
周元理
27 January 1780 Acting Viceroy of Zhili
Ying Lian
英廉
13 January 1782 Stand-in as the Grand Secretary
19 Zheng Dajin
鄭大進
13 January 1782 25 November 1782 Died in office
20 Yuan Shoutong
袁守侗
25 November 1782 16 June 1783 Died in office
Liu Yong
劉墉
Liu Yong.png 16 June 1783 Stand-in as the Secretary of Works
21 Liu E
劉峨
16 June 1783 10 April 1790 Demoted to serve as Left Vice Secretary of Defence
22 Liang Kentang
梁肯堂
10 April 1790 20 February 1798 Promoted to Secretary of Justice
23 Hu Jitang
胡季堂
20 February 1798 24 November 1800 Left office due to illness
Yan Jian
顏檢
24 November 1800 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
24 Jiang Sheng
姜晟
姜晟.jpg 5 December 1800 19 July 1801 Dismissed from office and arrested
Xiong Mei
熊枚
19 July 1801 Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Justice
25 Chen Dawen
陳大文
20 July 1801 3 May 1802 Left office due to illness
Xiong Mei
熊枚
3 May 1802 Stand-in as the Left Censor-in-Chief
Yan Jian
顏檢
9 May 1802 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Henan
26 Yan Jian
顏檢
27 September 1802 4 July 1805 Demoted to a zhushi (主事)
Xiong Mei
熊枚
4 July 1805 Stand-in as the Secretary of Works
27 Wu Xiongguang
吳熊光
4 July 1805 12 December 1805 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Liangguang
Qiu Xingjian
裘行簡
6 November 1805 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Qiu Xingjian
裘行簡
12 December 1805 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili and acting Vice Secretary of Defence
Qin Cheng'en
秦承恩
8 November 1806 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Wen Chenghui
溫承惠
23 November 1806 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Fujian
28 Wen Chenghui
溫承惠
16 October 1807 5 November 1813 Dismissed from office
Zhang Xu
章煦
10 October 1813 Stand-in as the Secretary of Works
Zuo Wenning
左文寧
9 December 1813 Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Personnel
29 Na Yancheng
那彥成
5 November 1813 24 July 1816 Dismissed from office
30 Fang Shouchou
方受疇
24 July 1816 29 January 1822 Left office due to illness
Changling
長齡
29 January 1822 18 February 1822 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
Tu Zhishen
屠之申
18 February 1822 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Songyun
松筠
18 January 1822 Stand-in as the Secretary of Personnel
31 Yan Jian
顏檢
29 January 1822 15 May 1823 Reassigned to serve as Vice Secretary of Storage (倉場侍郎)
32 Jiang Youxian
蔣攸銛
15 May 1823 7 December 1825 Reassigned to serve in the Imperial Cabinet
33 Na Yancheng
那彥成
7 December 1825 25 March 1831 Dismissed from office
Mingshan
明山
22 December 1827 26 December 1827 Stand-in as the Secretary of Justice
Tu Zhishen
屠之申
26 December 1827 18 May 1829 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Songyun
松筠
21 May 1829 Stand-in as the Secretary of Rites
Wang Ding
王鼎
WangDing.jpg 25 March 1831 Stand-in as the Secretary of Revenue
34 Qishan
琦善
25 March 1831 14 April 1837 Left office for filial mourning
Mujangga
穆彰阿
14 April 1837 Stand-in as the Grand Secretary
Qishan
琦善
25 July 1837 28 September 1840 Reassigned
Na'erjing'e
訥爾經額
28 September 1840 26 February 1841 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Shaan-Gan
34 Na'erjing'e
訥爾經額
26 February 1841 6 October 1853 Dismissed from office
35 Guiliang
桂良
6 October 1853 21 January 1857 Promoted to Grand Secretary of the Eastern Cabinet (東閣大學士)
Tan Tingxiang
譚廷襄
21 January 1857 26 April 1858 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shaanxi
36 Tan Tingxiang
譚廷襄
26 April 1858 26 July 1858 Dismissed
Ruilin
瑞麟
JUI-LIN, GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF THE TWO KWANG PROVINCES.jpg 26 July 1858 Stand-in as the Secretary of Rites
37 Qingqi
慶祺
26 July 1858 25 March 1859 Died in office
Wenyu
文煜
25 March 1859 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
38 Hengfu
恒福
25 March 1859 26 February 1861 Left office due to illness
Wenyu
文煜
26 February 1861 14 February 1863 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shandong
Chonghou
崇厚
Chonghou.jpg 14 February 1863 20 April 1863 Stand-in as the Left Vice Secretary of Defence
39 Liu Changyou
劉長佑
14 February 1863 29 November 1867 Dismissed from office
Guanwen
官文
29 November 1867 6 September 1868 Stand-in as the Grand Secretary of Wenhua Hall (文華殿大學士)
40 Zeng Guofan
曾國藩
Zeng Guofan.png 6 September 1868 29 August 1870 Reassigned to serve as the Viceroy of Liangjiang
41 Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 29 August 1870 26 April 1882 Left office for filial mourning
Zhang Shusheng
張樹聲
19 April 1882 13 July 1883 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Liangguang
Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 13 July 1883 23 September 1884 Acting Viceroy of Zhili
42 Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 23 September 1884 28 August 1895 Reassigned to the Imperial Cabinet
Wang Wenshao
王文韶
Wang Wenshao.jpg 13 February 1895 28 August 1895 Stand-in as the Viceroy of Yun-Gui
43 Wang Wenshao
王文韶
Wang Wenshao.jpg 28 August 1895 23 June 1898 Promoted to Secretary of Revenue
Ronglu
榮祿
Ronglu.jpg 15 June 1898 23 June 1898 Stand-in as the Grand Secretary
44 Ronglu
榮祿
Ronglu.jpg 23 June 1898 25 September 1898 Recalled to the capital
Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
YuanShika Colour.jpg 25 September 1898 Stand-in as an acting Vice Secretary
45 Yulu
裕祿
Yulu.jpg 28 September 1898 27 July 1900 Died in office
Tingyong
廷雍
廷雍.jpg 9 August 1900 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
46 Li Hongzhang
李鴻章
Li Hung Chang in 1896.jpg 8 July 1900 7 November 1901 Died in office
Zhou Fu
周馥
7 November 1901 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
YuanShika Colour.jpg 7 November 1901 9 June 1902 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shandong
47 Yuan Shikai
袁世凱
YuanShika Colour.jpg 9 June 1902 4 September 1907 Promoted to Secretary of Foreign Affairs
Wu Chongxi
吳重熹
18 October 1902 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
Yang Shixiang
楊士驤
5 September 1907 23 July 1908 Stand-in as the Provincial Governor of Shandong
48 Yang Shixiang
楊士驤
23 July 1908 28 June 1909 Died in office
Natong
那桐
Natong.jpg 28 June 1909 Stand-in as the Grand Secretary and Assisting Minister of Foreign Affairs
49 Duanfang
端方
Duan Fang.jpg 28 June 1909 23 January 1910 Dismissed from office
Cui Yong'an
崔永安
23 January 1910 Stand-in as the Lieutenant-Governor of Zhili
50 Chen Kuilong
陳夔龍
Chen Kuilong.jpg 23 January 1910 3 February 1912 Left office due to illness
Zhang Zhenfang
張鎮芳
3 February 1912 Acting Viceroy of Zhili

References[edit]