Time-lapsed photo sequence of WISE 0855−0714's movement in the sky using captured images from the WISE and the Spitzer telescopes.
Epoch J2000 Equinox J2000
|Right ascension||08h 55m 10.83s|
|Declination||−07° 14′ 42.5″|
|Evolutionary stage||Sub-brown dwarf|
|Apparent magnitude (J)||25.00±0.53|
|Proper motion (μ)|| RA: −8123.7±1.3 mas/yr |
Dec.: 673.2±1.3 mas/yr
|Parallax (π)||439.0 ± 2.4 mas|
|Distance||7.43 ± 0.04 ly |
(2.28 ± 0.01 pc)
WISE 0855−0714 (full designation WISE J085510.83−071442.5) is a sub-brown dwarf 2.28±0.01 parsecs (7.43±0.04 light-years) from Earth, therefore the fourth-closest star or (sub-) brown dwarf system to the Sun, the discovery of which was announced in April 2014 by Kevin Luhman using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). As of 2014[update], WISE 0855−0714 has the third-highest proper motion (8151.6±1.8 mas/yr) after Barnard's Star (10300 mas/yr) and Kapteyn's Star (8600 mas/yr) and the fourth-largest parallax (439.0±2.4 mas) of any known star or brown dwarf. It is also the coldest object of its type found in interstellar space, having a temperature in the range 225 to 260 K (−48 to −13 °C; −55 to 8 °F).
The WISE object was detected in March 2013, and follow-up observations were taken by the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Gemini North telescope. The name WISE J085510.83−071442.5 includes the coordinates and indicates that the object is located in the constellation Hydra.
Distance and proper motion
Based on direct observations, WISE 0855−0714 has a large parallax, which specifically relates to its distance from the Solar System. This phenomenon results in a distance of around 7.43±0.04 light-years, with a small margin of error due to the strength of the parallax effect and the clarity of observations. WISE 0855−0714's proper motion across the sky is also directly observed over time, causing it to stand out in the observations, but the proper motion is itself a combination of its speed in the galactic neighborhood relative to the Solar System as well as its proximity to the Solar System. If it were moving exactly as fast but farther away, if it were moving more slowly but closer, or if it were moving more quickly near to the Sun but moving at a high angle towards or away from the Sun, it would have a smaller proper motion.
Its luminosity in different bands of the thermal infrared in combination with its absolute magnitude—because of its known distance—was used to place it in context of different models; the best characterization of its brightness was in the W2 band of 4.6 μm at an apparent magnitude of 13.89±0.05, though it was brighter into the deeper infrared. Infrared images taken with the Magellan Baade Telescope suggest evidence of water clouds.
As of 2003, the International Astronomical Union considers an object with a mass above 13 MJup, capable of fusing deuterium, to be a brown dwarf. A lighter object and one orbiting another object is considered a planet. So far this WISE object is alone, though it could be a rogue planet, something first identified in 2004 in the case of Cha 110913-773444.
Combining its luminosity, distance, and mass it is estimated to be the coldest-known brown dwarf, with a modeled effective temperature of 225 to 260 K (−48 to −13 °C; −55 to 8 °F), depending on the model.
- Clavin, Whitney; Harrington, J. D. (25 April 2014). "NASA's Spitzer and WISE Telescopes Find Close, Cold Neighbor of Sun". NASA.gov. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014.
- Davy Kirkpatrick, J.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Caselden, Dan; Schneider, Adam C.; Marocco, Federico; Cayago, Alfred J.; Smart, R. L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Wright, Edward L.; Cushing, Michael C.; Allers, Katelyn N.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella C.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Gagne, Jonathan; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Martin, Emily C.; Ingalls, James G.; Lowrance, Patrick J.; Abrahams, Ellianna S.; Aganze, Christian; Gerasimov, Roman; Gonzales, Eileen C.; Hsu, Chih-Chun; Kamraj, Nikita; Kiman, Rocio; Rees, Jon; et al. (2021). "The Field Substellar Mass Function Based on the Full-sky 20 pc Census of 525 L, T, and Y Dwarfs". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 253 (1): 7. arXiv:2011.11616. Bibcode:2021ApJS..253....7K. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/abd107. S2CID 227126954.
- Mamajek, Eric. "A Modern Mean Dwarf Stellar Color and Effective Temperature Sequence". Retrieved 7 February 2021.
- "WISEA J085510.74-071442.5". SIMBAD. Centre de données astronomiques de Strasbourg. Retrieved 15 May 2017.
- Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Meisner, Aaron M.; Caselden, Dan; Schneider, Adam C.; Marocco, Federico; Cayago, Alfred J.; Smart, R. L.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kuchner, Marc J. (2021). "The Field Substellar Mass Function Based on the Full-sky 20 pc Census of 525 L, T, and y Dwarfs". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 253 (1): 7. arXiv:2011.11616. Bibcode:2021ApJS..253....7K. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/abd107. S2CID 227126954.
- Luhman, Kevin L. (21 April 2014). "Discovery of a ~250 K Brown Dwarf at 2 pc from the Sun". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 786 (2): L18. arXiv:1404.6501. Bibcode:2014ApJ...786L..18L. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/786/2/L18. S2CID 119102654.
- Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Tinney, C. G.; Skemer, Andrew; Monson, Andrew J. (August 2014). "Indications of Water Clouds in the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf". Astrophysical Journal Letters. 793 (1): L16. arXiv:1408.4671. Bibcode:2014ApJ...793L..16F. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/793/1/L16. S2CID 119246100.
- "Working Group on Extrasolar Planets: Definition of a "Planet"". Working Group on Extrasolar Planets of the International Astronomical Union. 28 February 2003. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Papadopoulos, Leonidas (28 April 2014). "Between the Planet and the Star: A New Ultra-Cold, Sub-Stellar Object Discovered Close to Sun". AmericaSpace.com. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
- Beichman, C.; Gelino, Christopher R.; et al. (2014). "WISE Y Dwarfs As Probes of the Brown Dwarf-Exoplanet Connection". The Astrophysical Journal. 783 (2): 68. arXiv:1401.1194. Bibcode:2014ApJ...783...68B. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/783/2/68. S2CID 119302072. (Note: WISE 0855−0714 is not mentioned in this paper; it is about other Y-type objects discovered by WISE.)
- Luhman, Kevin L.; Esplin, Taran L. (2014). "A New Parallax Measurement for the Coldest Known Brown Dwarf". The Astrophysical Journal. 796 (1): 6. arXiv:1409.5899. Bibcode:2014ApJ...796....6L. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/796/1/6. S2CID 119179360.
- Wright, Edward L.; Mainzer, Amy; et al. (2014). "NEOWISE-R Observation of the Coolest Known Brown Dwarf". The Astronomical Journal. 148 (5): 82. arXiv:1405.7350. Bibcode:2014AJ....148...82W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/148/5/82. S2CID 29278388.
- WISE J0855-0714 at Solstation.com