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Abu Sa'id Uthman Ibn Sa‘id al-Qutbi, better known as Warsh (110-197AH), was a significant figure in the history of the Qira'at, or canonical methods of reciting the Qur'an.[1] Alongside Qalun, he is one of the two primary transmitters of the canonical Qur'an reading method of Nafi‘ al-Madani.[1][2][3] Together, their style is the most common form of Qur'anic recitation in the generality of African mosques outside of Egypt,[4] and is also popular in Yemen[5] and Darfur despite the rest of Sudan following the method of Hafs.[6] The method of Warsh and his counterpart Qalun was also the most popular method of recitation in Islamic Spain.[7] The majority of printed Mushafs today in North Africa and West Africa follow the reading of Warsh.[8]

He died in 812CE.[2]


  1. ^ a b Muhammad Ghoniem and MSM Saifullah, The Ten Readers & Their Transmitters. (c) Islamic Awareness. Updated January 8, 2002; accessed April 11, 2016.
  2. ^ a b Shady Hekmat Nasser, Ibn Mujahid and the Canonization of the Seven Readings, p. 129. Taken from The Transmission of the Variant Readings of the Qur'an: The Problem of Tawaatur and the Emergence of Shawaadhdh. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2012. ISBN 9789004240810
  3. ^ Claude Gilliot, Creation of a fixed text, pg. 50. Taken from The Cambridge Companion to the Qur'an by Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 9780521539340
  4. ^ Cyril Glasse, The New Encyclopedia of Islam, p. 268. Intr. by Huston Smith. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003. ISBN 9780759101906
  5. ^ Keith E. Small, Textual Criticism and Qur'an Manuscripts, pg. 27. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2011. ISBN 9780739142912
  6. ^ Hamid Eltgani Ali, Darfur's Political Economy: A Quest for Development, pg. 9. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge, 2014. ISBN 9781317964643
  7. ^ L. P. Harvey, Muslims in Spain, 1500 to 1614, pg. 145. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008. ISBN 9780226319650
  8. ^ Aisha Geissinger, Gender and Muslim Constructions of Exegetical Authority: A Rereading of the Classical Genre of Qurʾān Commentary, pg. 79. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2015. ISBN 9789004294448