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Protein YWHAE PDB 2br9.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesYWHAE, 14-3-3E, HEL2, KCIP-1, MDCR, MDS, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein epsilon
External IDsOMIM: 605066 MGI: 894689 HomoloGene: 100743 GeneCards: YWHAE
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 17 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 17 (human)[1]
Chromosome 17 (human)
Genomic location for YWHAE
Genomic location for YWHAE
Band17p13.3Start1,344,275 bp[1]
End1,400,222 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE YWHAE 210996 s at fs.png

PBB GE YWHAE 210317 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 17: 1.34 – 1.4 MbChr 11: 75.73 – 75.77 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

14-3-3 protein epsilon is a protein that in humans is encoded by the YWHAE gene.[5]


This gene product belongs to the 14-3-3 family of proteins which mediate signal transduction by binding to phosphoserine-containing proteins. This highly conserved protein family is found in both plants and mammals, and this protein is 100% identical to the mouse ortholog. It interacts with CDC25 phosphatases, RAF1 and IRS1 proteins, suggesting its role in diverse biochemical activities related to signal transduction, such as cell division and regulation of insulin sensitivity. It has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of small cell lung cancer.[6]


YWHAE has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c ENSG00000108953 GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000274474, ENSG00000108953 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020849 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Luk SC, Garcia-Barcelo M, Tsui SK, Fung KP, Lee CY, Waye MM (December 1997). "Assignment of the human 14-3-3 epsilon isoform (YWHAE) to human chromosome 17p13 by in situ hybridization". Cytogenet Cell Genet. 78 (2): 105–6. doi:10.1159/000134638. PMID 9371399.
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: YWHAE tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, epsilon polypeptide".
  7. ^ a b Conklin DS, Galaktionov K, Beach D (August 1995). "14-3-3 proteins associate with cdc25 phosphatases". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (17): 7892–6. doi:10.1073/pnas.92.17.7892. PMC 41252. PMID 7644510.
  8. ^ Vincenz C, Dixit VM (August 1996). "14-3-3 proteins associate with A20 in an isoform-specific manner and function both as chaperone and adapter molecules". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (33): 20029–34. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.33.20029. PMID 8702721.
  9. ^ Mils V, Baldin V, Goubin F, Pinta I, Papin C, Waye M, Eychene A, Ducommun B (March 2000). "Specific interaction between 14-3-3 isoforms and the human CDC25B phosphatase". Oncogene. 19 (10): 1257–65. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1203419. PMID 10713667.
  10. ^ Miska EA, Langley E, Wolf D, Karlsson C, Pines J, Kouzarides T (August 2001). "Differential localization of HDAC4 orchestrates muscle differentiation". Nucleic Acids Res. 29 (16): 3439–47. doi:10.1093/nar/29.16.3439. PMC 55849. PMID 11504882.
  11. ^ Grozinger CM, Schreiber SL (July 2000). "Regulation of histone deacetylase 4 and 5 and transcriptional activity by 14-3-3-dependent cellular localization". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 97 (14): 7835–40. doi:10.1073/pnas.140199597. PMC 16631. PMID 10869435.
  12. ^ Kagan A, Melman YF, Krumerman A, McDonald TV (April 2002). "14-3-3 amplifies and prolongs adrenergic stimulation of HERG K+ channel activity". EMBO J. 21 (8): 1889–98. doi:10.1093/emboj/21.8.1889. PMC 125975. PMID 11953308.
  13. ^ a b Craparo A, Freund R, Gustafson TA (April 1997). "14-3-3 (epsilon) interacts with the insulin-like growth factor I receptor and insulin receptor substrate I in a phosphoserine-dependent manner". J. Biol. Chem. 272 (17): 11663–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.17.11663. PMID 9111084.
  14. ^ Fanger GR, Widmann C, Porter AC, Sather S, Johnson GL, Vaillancourt RR (February 1998). "14-3-3 proteins interact with specific MEK kinases". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (6): 3476–83. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.6.3476. PMID 9452471.
  15. ^ Toyo-oka K, Shionoya A, Gambello MJ, Cardoso C, Leventer R, Ward HL, Ayala R, Tsai LH, Dobyns W, Ledbetter D, Hirotsune S, Wynshaw-Boris A (July 2003). "14-3-3epsilon is important for neuronal migration by binding to NUDEL: a molecular explanation for Miller-Dieker syndrome". Nat. Genet. 34 (3): 274–85. doi:10.1038/ng1169. PMID 12796778.
  16. ^ Kimura MT, Irie S, Shoji-Hoshino S, Mukai J, Nadano D, Oshimura M, Sato TA (May 2001). "14-3-3 is involved in p75 neurotrophin receptor-mediated signal transduction". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (20): 17291–300. doi:10.1074/jbc.M005453200. PMID 11278287.
  17. ^ McGonigle S, Beall MJ, Feeney EL, Pearce EJ (February 2001). "Conserved role for 14-3-3epsilon downstream of type I TGFbeta receptors". FEBS Lett. 490 (1–2): 65–9. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01)02133-0. PMID 11172812.

Further reading[edit]