1709 in literature
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The year 1709 in literature involved some significant literary events and new works.
- February 1 or 2 - Alexander Selkirk, the original Robinson Crusoe, is rescued from marooning on the Juan Fernández Islands and begins his return to civilisation.
- April 12 - The magazine The Tatler is founded by Richard Steele (writing as Isaac Bickerstaff) in London. On July 8 "Mrs. (Phoebe) Crackenthorpe" (perhaps Delarivier Manley) begins publication of The Female Tatler.
- May–October 20 - Publication in London (in two volumes, anonymously) of Mrs. Delarivier Manley's roman à clef The New Atalantis (Secret Memoirs and Manners of Several Persons of Quality, of both Sexes, From The New Atalantis, an Island in the Mediterranean), purporting to be translated from Italian. Its satire of the Whigs is so scurrilous that the author is detained for questioning between October 29 and November 5. The work is popular enough to go through seven editions.
- June 28 - Historian Gustaf Adlerfelt is killed at the Battle of Poltava; his eyewitness account is continued by his son.
- Publication of The Works of Mr William Shakespear edited by dramatist Nicholas Rowe, the first modern edition of Shakespeare's plays, including scene divisions, dramatis personæ and a prefatory account of Shakespeare's life, the first substantial biography of him.
- Publication of Ælfric of Eynsham's An English-Saxon Homily on the Birth-day of St. Gregory translated from Old English by Elizabeth Elstob.
- Abbé Olivier - Memoirs of the Life and Adventures of Signor Rozelli
- Mary Astell - Bart'lemy Fair
- Thomas Baker - Reflections on Learning, showing the Insufficiency thereof in its several particulars, in order to evince the usefulness and necessity of Revelation, vol. 1
- George Berkeley - An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision
- Richard Blackmore - Instructions to Vander Beck
- Samuel Cobb - The Female Reign
- Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury - Sensus Communis (philosophy)
- Daniel Defoe - The History of the Union of Great Britain
- Charles Gildon - The Golden Spy (satire)
- White Kennett - A Vindication of the Church and Clergy of England
- William King - Miscellanies in Prose and Verse
- John Lawson - A New Voyage to Carolina
- Delarivier Manley - The New Atalantis
- John Strype - Annals of the Reformation and Establishment of Religion
- Jonathan Swift
- A Famous Prediction of Merlin
- A Project for the Advancement of Religion and the Reformation of Manners ("By a Person of Quality")
- A Vindication of Isaac Bickerstaff
- William Temple - Memoirs: Part III (ed. Jonathan Swift)
- John Trenchard - The Natural History of Superstition
- Giambattista Vico - De Nostri Temporis Studiorum Rationae ("On the Study Methods of Our Times")
- Anthony Aston - Love in a Hurry
- Susanna Centlivre
- The Busie Body
- The Man's Bewitch'd
- Colley Cibber - The Rival Fools
- Prosper Jolyot de Crébillon - Electre
- John Dennis - Appius and Virginia
- Thomas d'Urfey - The Modern Prophets
- Juan Claudio de la Hoz y Mota - José, salvador de Egipto
- Charles Johnson - Love and Liberty (not performed)
- Alain-René Lesage - Turcaret
- Mary Pix - The Adventures in Madrid
- John Reynolds - Death's Vision Represented in a Philosophical Sacred Poem
- Poetical Miscellanies: The Sixth Part (also called Tonson's Miscellanies)
- April 14 - Charles Collé, French dramatist
- August 7 - Jean-Jacques Lefranc, marquis de Pompignan, French poet (died 1784)
- August 29 - Jean-Baptiste-Louis Gresset, poet and dramatist (died 1777)
- September 3 - Joan Claudi Peiròt, Occitan language writer (died 1795)
- September 18 - Samuel Johnson, travel writer and lexicographer (died 1784)
- November 1 - Ignatius von Weitenauer, German Jesuit writer, exegete and Orientalist (died 1783)
- December 14 - Caspar Friedrich Hachenberg, German grammarian (died 1793)
- December 25 - Julien Offray de La Mettrie, French author (died 1751)
- unknown date
- James Adair, historian (died 1783)
- January - Robert Gould, poet (born c.1660)
- February 15 - John Philips, poet (born (born 1676)
- May 17 - Mary Pix, dramatist (born (born 1666)
- June 28 - Gustaf Adlerfelt, historian (born 1671; died in battle)
- June 30 - Edward Lhuyd, naturalist (born (born 1660)
- September 4 - Jean-François Regnard, French poet and dramatist (born 1655)
- December 1 - Abraham a Sancta Clara, Austrian Augustinian theologian (born 1644)
- December 8