2003 Atlantic hurricane season

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2003 Atlantic hurricane season
Season summary map
First system formed April 20, 2003
Last system dissipated December 11, 2003
Strongest storm Isabel – 915 mbar (hPa) (27.03 inHg), 165 mph (270 km/h)
Total depressions 21
Total storms 16
Hurricanes 7
Major hurricanes (Cat. 3+) 3
Total fatalities 92 total
Total damage $4.4 billion (2003 USD)
Atlantic hurricane seasons
2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005
Related articles

The 2003 Atlantic hurricane season was an active Atlantic hurricane season with tropical activity before and after the official bounds of the season – the first such occurrence in 50 years. The season produced 21 tropical cyclones, of which 16 developed into named storms; seven cyclones attained hurricane status, of which three reached major hurricane status. With sixteen storms, the season was tied for the sixth most active Atlantic hurricane season on record. The strongest hurricane of the season was Hurricane Isabel, which reached Category 5 status on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale northeast of the Lesser Antilles; Isabel later struck North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane, causing $3.6 billion in damage (2003 USD, $4.62 billion 2014 USD) and a total of 51 deaths across the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States.

The season began with Subtropical Storm Ana on April 20, prior to the official start of the season; the bounds of the season are from June 1 to November 30, which conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the Atlantic basin. In early September, Hurricane Fabian struck Bermuda as a Category 3 hurricane, where it was the worst hurricane since 1926; on the island it caused four deaths and $300 million in damage (2003 USD, $385 million 2014 USD). Hurricane Juan caused considerable destruction to Nova Scotia, particularly Halifax, as a Category 2 hurricane, the first hurricane of significant strength to hit the province since 1893. Additionally, Hurricanes Claudette and Erika struck Texas and Mexico, respectively, as minimal hurricanes.

Seasonal forecasts[edit]

Predictions of tropical activity in the 2003 season
Source Date Tropical
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
CSU Average (1950–2000) 9.6 5.9 2.3
NOAA Average[1] 11 6 2
NOAA May 19, 2003 11–15 6–9 2–4
CSU April 4, 2003 12 8 3
CSU May 30, 2003 14 8 3
CSU August 6, 2003 14 8 3
Actual activity 16 7 3

Pre-season outlook[edit]

On May 19, prior to the start of the season, NOAA forecasters issued a 55% probability of above normal activity. The forecasters predicted 11–15 tropical storms, 6–9 of those becoming hurricanes, and 2–4 of those hurricanes reaching at least Category 3 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale. The above normal activity predicted was due to the likelihood of La Niña developing in the season.[2]

Noted hurricane expert Dr. William M. Gray on April 4 predicted twelve named storms, with eight reaching hurricane strength and three of the eight reaching Category 3 strength.[3] The prediction issued on May 30 was similar, increasing the named storms to fourteen. The synoptic pattern of the season prior to June 1 resembled other previous seasons, with the 1952, 1954, 1964, 1966, and 1998 seasons considered the best analogs for the season. The prediction also included a 68% probability for a hurricane landfall along the United States.[4]

Mid-season outlook[edit]

On August 6, Dr. Gray announced he had maintained his previous prediction; with an active start of the season, the rest of the season was forecast to have been only slightly above average, due to an anticipated overall less favorable environment across the Atlantic Ocean.[5] A day later, NOAA released an updated prediction as well, with a 60% probability of above normal activity, with 12–15 named storms, 7–9 hurricanes, and 3–4 major hurricanes expected.[6]

A normal season, as defined by NOAA, has 6–14 tropical storms, 4–8 of which reach hurricane strength, and 1–3 of those reaching Category 3 strength.[7]

Storms[edit]

April through July[edit]

Pre-season Tropical Storm Ana on April 22

The official beginning of the season was on June 1, 2003,[8] though Subtropical Storm Ana formed on April 20, well before the start to the season. When Ana transitioned into a tropical cyclone the next day, it became the first Atlantic tropical storm on record in the month of April. The storm caused two deaths in Florida from increased waves and rip currents.[9]

Starting at the official start of the season, the National Hurricane Center began issuing five-day forecasts, extending from the three-day forecasts issued since 1964. Officials conducted tests during the previous two seasons, indicating the new five-day forecasts would be as accurate as the three-day forecasts were 15 years earlier.[10] The tropics were active and well ahead of climatology in the early portion of the season, with the seventh tropical depression forming by the end of July.[11]

Within the first week of the official start of the season, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa, and on June 11 developed into Tropical Depression Two; unfavorable conditions prevailed, and it dissipated within 24 hours of developing.[12]

By the end of June, the third tropical depression of the season developed near the Yucatán Peninsula; it tracked northward, strengthening into Tropical Storm Bill before striking the southern Louisiana coast on June 30. The storm caused moderate rainfall and a tornado outbreak across the southern United States, resulting in four deaths and $30 million in damage (2003 USD, $38.5 million 2014 USD).[13]

Claudette at Texas landfall

On July 8, a well organized tropical wave in the Caribbean Sea organized into Tropical Storm Claudette. Its intensity fluctuated while crossing the basin, attaining hurricane status before weakening and striking the Yucatán Peninsula as a tropical storm. Claudette re-intensified to hurricane status and struck southeastern Texas on July 15, causing a total of three deaths, one of which directly, and $180 million in damage (2003 USD, $231 million 2014 USD).[14]

Hurricane Danny formed on July 16 from a tropical wave well to the east of Bermuda. It strengthened while tracking around an anticyclone, and attained hurricane status further north than any other Atlantic tropical cyclone in July. It turned to the east and dissipated without affecting land.[15]

Tropical Depression Six developed on July 19 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean,[16] and was initially forecast to attain hurricane status.[17] However, it tracked quickly westward, and degenerated into an open tropical wave on July 21 near the Lesser Antilles.[16]

The tropical wave that spawned the previous tropical depression developed an area of convection further to the north, which organized into Tropical Depression Seven on July 25 off the coast of Florida. It failed to develop, and made landfall on Georgia as a tropical depression before dissipating on July 27.[18]

August[edit]

Hurricane Fabian near Bermuda

After a short respite in activity, a westward-moving tropical disturbance organized near Florida and developed into Tropical Storm Erika in the Gulf of Mexico on August 14. It continued quickly across the body of water, and made landfall in the Mexican state of Tamaulipas as a hurricane on August 17. The hurricane caused two deaths from floodwater drowning in Mexico, as well as minor damage in southern Texas.[19]

Tropical Depression Nine formed on August 21 in the eastern Caribbean Sea from a tropical wave.[20] Despite predictions of it intensifying to a strong tropical storm,[21] it failed to strengthen due to strong wind shear, and on August 22 the depression dissipated.[20]

Hurricane Fabian developed from a tropical wave on August 27 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Tracking west-northwestward around the subtropical ridge, it encountered favorable conditions, and steadily intensified to reach peak winds of 145 mph (230 km/h) on September 1. Fabian turned to the north and gradually weakened, passing just west of Bermuda on September 5 as a major hurricane. On September 8, it became an extratropical cyclone after causing four deaths and $300 million (2003 USD, $385 million 2014 USD) in damage on Bermuda; there, it was considered the worst hurricane in nearly 80 years. Elsewhere, rough waves from the hurricane killed a surfer in North Carolina and three fishermen off Newfoundland.[22]

A tropical disturbance organized into Tropical Storm Grace in the Gulf of Mexico on August 30; with a nearby upper-level low causing unfavorable wind shear, the storm failed to organize significantly, and it moved ashore along Texas. The storm dropped moderate rainfall across much of the southern United States.[23]

September[edit]

Henri, Fabian, and Isabel on September 7

Tropical Storm Henri formed in the Gulf of Mexico on September 3, and it crossed central Florida without causing significant damage or flooding. On September 8 it degenerated into a remnant low pressure area,[24] which dropped heavy rainfall in the Mid-Atlantic States. Flooding from the storm's remnants caused about $19.6 million in damage (2003 USD, $25.1 million 2014 USD), which was compounded by the effects of Hurricane Isabel a week later.[25][26]

A tropical wave spawned Hurricane Isabel on September 6 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. Encountering favorable conditions, it gradually intensified while tracking generally west-northwestward, and on September 11 Isabel attained peak winds of 165 mph (270 km/h), the strongest storm of the season. After fluctuating in intensity for the subsequent four days, it weakened and struck North Carolina as a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane scale. Across the East Coast of the United States, Isabel caused a total of 51 fatalities and $3.6 billion in damage (2003 USD, $4.62 billion 2014 USD).[27]

Brief Tropical Depression Fourteen formed on September 8 just off the coast of Africa. An upper-level low hindered its development and changed its motion to the north-northwest, and on September 10 the depression dissipated after passing near the Cape Verde islands.[28]

On September 24 a tropical depression developed southeast of Bermuda, and while tracking northward it quickly intensified to become Hurricane Juan. Juan maintained its strength as it accelerated northward, and on September 29 it struck Halifax, Nova Scotia with winds of 100 mph (160 km/h). The hurricane caused a total of 8 fatalities,[29] as well as $150 million in damage (2003 USD, $192 million 2014 USD).[30] It was considered one of the worst hurricanes on modern record in Halifax.[29]

A tropical wave spawned a tropical depression on September 25, which tracked northwestward before turning to the northeast and becoming Hurricane Kate. The hurricane then turned sharply westward, reaching major hurricane status before turning northward and becoming extratropical on October 7. It did not have a significant effect on land.[31]

October through December[edit]

Tropical Storm Peter near peak intensity

An extratropical storm formed in the Bay of Campeche on September 30, and remaining nearly stationary it transitioned into Tropical Storm Larry by October 1. The storm drifted southward, reaching peak winds of 65 mph (100 mph) before moving ashore along the Mexican state of Tabasco. Larry caused five deaths in Mexico, as well as heavy rainfall and mudslides.[32]

On October 10, a tropical disturbance organized into Tropical Storm Mindy just off the northeast coast of the Dominican Republic. After moving northwestward, it turned sharply eastward and dissipated on October 14, after earlier dropping light to moderate rainfall across the Greater Antilles.[33]

Tropical Storm Nicholas developed from a tropical wave on October 13 in the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The storm strengthened to near-hurricane intensity before weakening while turning northward and later to the northwest. On October 24, Nicholas transitioned into an extratropical low, which, after executing an anticyclonic loop, meandered erratically before being absorbed by a non-tropical low to the southwest of Bermuda on November 1.[34]

Early in November, the system that absorbed Nicholas tracked westward across the Atlantic Ocean, nearly developing into a subtropical cyclone before crossing Florida and dissipating on November 5.[34][35] The season officially ended on November 30, 2003,[8] although Tropical Storm Odette formed on December 4 to the northwest of Colombia from a tropical disturbance; it became the second December tropical storm on record to form in the Caribbean Sea, after a hurricane in 1822.[36][37]

The final storm of the season, Tropical Storm Peter, formed on December 7 in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. It strengthened to near hurricane status, but rapidly weakened due to increased wind shear and dissipated on December 11.[38]

Impact and records[edit]

Flooding from Hurricane Isabel

No cyclones in the season had a significant impact on South America or Central America. However, a total of eight tropical cyclones made landfall on Mexico from either the Atlantic or the Pacific Ocean, which was the greatest total since the record of nine in 1971. A total of seven deaths occurred in Mexico from Atlantic hurricanes. Much of the Caribbean did not receive significant impact from tropical cyclones during the season.[39] However, Tropical Storm Odette caused eight direct deaths, as well as two indirect deaths, when it crossed the Dominican Republic in December.[36] The storm damaged or destroyed over 1,000 homes, and heavy damage was reported to the banana crop.[39]

Six tropical cyclones made landfall along the coast of the United States during the season, including two hurricanes. The first, Claudette, caused locally heavy damage in southeastern Texas in July; two deaths were reported in the state, while earlier in its duration it caused an indirect death from rough waves in Florida.[14] In September, Hurricane Isabel caused deaths and damage from North Carolina through southern Canada.[27] The worst damage from the hurricane occurred in Virginia, where it was the costliest disaster in the history of the state;[40] there, damage totaled $1.85 billion (2003 USD, $2.37 billion 2014 USD), and there were 32 fatalities, ten of which were caused directly by the hurricane.[27] Hurricane Isabel caused deaths in seven states and one Canadian province, and about 6 million people were left without power as a result of the storm.[41]

Damage from Hurricane Fabian

Several cyclones impacted Bermuda during the season, most significantly Hurricane Fabian. On the island, its passage proved to be the costliest and resulted in the first death since a hurricane in 1926.[42] The hurricane killed four on the island when its strong waves and storm surge washed two cars off the causeway between St. George's Parish and St. David's Island.[43] Damage from the hurricane totaled $300 million (2003 USD, $385 million 2014 USD).[22] Elsewhere, Hurricane Juan was considered among the most damaging in the history of Halifax, Nova Scotia, where strong winds downed thousands of trees and left low-lying areas flooded from a record storm surge to the city. The hurricane caused a total of eight deaths and damage estimated at $200 million (2003 CAD, $150 million 2003 USD, $192 million 2014 USD).[30]

The season is one of only four with a storm before and after the official bounds of the season; the others are 1887, 1953, and 2007. When Tropical Storm Peter formed on December 7, the season became the second on record with two December storms. The 235 days between the development of the first storm, Tropical Storm Ana, and the dissipation of the last storm, Peter, made the 2003 season the longest season since 1952. The season was the eighth most active on record, behind the 2005, 1933, 2011, 2010, 1995, 1887, 1969, and 2012 seasons, and tied with the 1936 and 2008 seasons.[44]

Season impact[edit]

2003 North Atlantic tropical cyclone statistics
Storm
name
Dates active Storm category

at peak intensity

Max
wind

(mph)

Min.
press.
(mbar)
Landfall(s) Damage
(millions
USD)
Deaths
Where When Wind

(mph)

Ana April 20 – April 24 Tropical storm 60 994 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
Two June 11 – June 12 Tropical depression 35 1008 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
Bill June 28 – July 2 Tropical storm 60 997 Terrebonne Parish, Louisiana
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
June 30 60 50.5 
Claudette July 8 – July 17 Category 1 hurricane 90 979 Puerto Morelos, Quintana Roo
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
July 11 50 181 1 (2) 
Matagorda Island, Texas
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
July 15 90
Danny July 16 – July 21 Category 1 hurricane 75 1000 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
Six July 19 – July 21 Tropical depression 35 1010 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
Seven July 25 – July 27 Tropical depression 35 1016 St. Catherines Island, Georgia
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
July 26 30
Erika August 14 – August 17 Category 1 hurricane 75 988 Northeastern Tamaulipas
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
August 16 75 .01+ 2
Nine August 21 – August 22 Tropical depression 35 1007 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
0.02 
Fabian August 27 – September 8 Category 4 hurricane 145 939 Bermuda (direct hit, no landfall)
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
September 5 115 300 8
Grace August 30 – September 2 Tropical storm 40 1007 Galveston Island, Texas
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
August 31 40 .1 
Henri September 3 – September 8 Tropical storm 60 997 Clearwater, Florida
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
September 6 35 20.6 
Isabel September 6 – September 19 Category 5 hurricane 165 915 Drum Inlet, North Carolina
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
September 18 105 3,600  16 (34)
Fourteen September 8 – September 10 Tropical depression 35 1007 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
Juan September 24 – September 29 Category 2 hurricane 105 969 Prospect, Nova Scotia
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
September 29 100 200  4 (4) 
Borden-Carleton, Prince Edward Island
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
September 29 75
Kate September 25 – October 7 Category 3 hurricane 125 952 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
0 0
Larry October 1 – October 6 Tropical storm 65 993 near Paraíso, Tabasco
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
October 5 60 53.6 
Mindy October 10 – October 14 Tropical storm 45 1002 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
.05 
Nicholas October 13 – October 23 Tropical storm 70 990 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
Odette December 4 – December 7 Tropical storm 65 993 Southern Dominican Republic
‹The template TC stats first landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
‹The template TC stats landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
December 6 60 8 (2) 
Peter December 7 – December 11 Tropical storm 70 990 none
‹The template TC stats no landfall is being considered for deletion.› 
Season Aggregates
21 cyclones April 21 – December 11   165 915 12 landfalls 4400 48 (44)

Storm names[edit]

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the North Atlantic in 2003. The names not retired from this list were used again in the 2009 season. This is the same list used for the 1997 season. Storms were named Larry, Mindy, Nicholas, Odette, and Peter for the first time in 2003. Names that were not assigned are marked in gray. Ana became the first name in the six list rotation to be used five times. Both Ana and Claudette were used in 1979, 1985, 1991, 1997, 2003 and 2009.

  • Odette
  • Peter
  • Rose (unused)
  • Sam (unused)
  • Teresa (unused)
  • Victor (unused)
  • Wanda (unused)

Retirement[edit]

The World Meteorological Organization retired three names in the spring of 2004: Fabian, Isabel, and Juan. They were replaced in the 2009 season by Fred, Ida, and Joaquin, respectively.[39]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ NOAA (April 13, 2006). "NOAA Reviews Record-Setting 2005 Atlantic Hurricane Season". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 23 April 2006. Retrieved April 26, 2006. 
  2. ^ NOAA (May 19, 2003). "NOAA Forecasters Say Six to Nine Hurricanes Could Threaten in 2003". NOAA. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  3. ^ William M. Gray, Philip J. Klotzbach, and Christopher W. Landsea (April 4, 2003). "Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and U.S. Landfall Strike Probability for 2003". Colorado State University. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  4. ^ William M. Gray, Philip J. Klotzbach, and Christopher W. Landsea (May 30, 2003). "Extended Range Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and U.S. Landfall Strike Probability for 2003". Colorado State University. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  5. ^ William M. Gray, Philip J. Klotzbach, and Christopher W. Landsea (August 6, 2003). "Updated Forecast of Atlantic Seasonal Hurricane Activity and U.S. Landfall Strike Probability for 2003". Colorado State University. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  6. ^ NOAA (August 7, 2003). "2003 Atlantic Hurricane Outlook Update". NOAA. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  7. ^ Climate Prediction Center, NOAA (2002). "Background Information: The North Atlantic Hurricane Season". NOAA. Retrieved June 2, 2006. 
  8. ^ a b Jack Beven (2003). "June 1 Tropical Weather Outlook". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  9. ^ Jack Beven (2003). "Tropical Storm Ana Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved December 14, 2007. 
  10. ^ Frank Lepore (2003). "NOAA Extends Hurricane Forecasts From Three To Five Days". NOAA. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  11. ^ National Hurricane Center (2003). "Tropical Weather Summary for July 2003". Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  12. ^ James Franklin (2003). "Tropical Depression Two Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  13. ^ Avila (2003). "Tropical Storm Bill Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 18, 2006. 
  14. ^ a b Jack Beven (2003). "Hurricane Claudette Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  15. ^ National Hurricane Center. "Hurricane Danny Tropical Cyclone Report". NOAA. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  16. ^ a b Miles B. Lawrence (2003). "Tropical Depression Six Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 16, 2007. 
  17. ^ Lixion Avila (2003). "Tropical Depression Six Discussion One". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 16, 2007. 
  18. ^ Richard Pasch (2003). "Tropical Depression Seven Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  19. ^ James Franklin (2003). "Hurricane Erika Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  20. ^ a b Lixion Avila (2003). "Tropical Depression Nine Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 24, 2006. 
  21. ^ Avila (2003). "Tropical Depression Nine Discussion One". NHC. Retrieved October 24, 2006. 
  22. ^ a b Pasch, Blake, & Brown (2003). "Hurricane Fabian Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 17, 2007. 
  23. ^ Stacy R. Stewart (2003). "Tropical Storm Grace Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 22, 2007. 
  24. ^ Daniel P. Brown and Miles Lawrence (2003). "Tropical Storm Henri Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 19 February 2006. Retrieved February 19, 2006. 
  25. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Event Report for Delaware". Retrieved December 19, 2007. 
  26. ^ National Climatic Data Center (2003). "Event Report for Pennsylvania". Retrieved December 19, 2007. 
  27. ^ a b c Jack Beven & Hugh Cobb (2003). "Hurricane Isabel Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved December 19, 2007. 
  28. ^ James L. Franklin (2003). "Tropical Depression Fourteen Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 19, 2007. 
  29. ^ a b Lixion Avila (2003). "Hurricane Juan Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center (NHC). Archived from the original on 25 December 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2007. 
  30. ^ a b Chris Fogarty (2003). "Hurricane Juan Storm Summary" (PDF). Canadian Hurricane Centre/Environment Canada. Archived from the original on 1 December 2007. Retrieved December 21, 2007. 
  31. ^ Pasch & Molleda (2003). "Hurricane Kate Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 4, 2006. 
  32. ^ Stacy Stuart (2003). "Tropical Storm Larry Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 29 June 2006. Retrieved June 3, 2006. 
  33. ^ Miles B. Lawrence (2003). "Tropical Storm Mindy Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 9, 2006. 
  34. ^ a b Jack Beven (2003). "Tropical Storm Nicholas Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved October 13, 2006. 
  35. ^ Avila (2003). "November 1 Tropical Weather Outlook". NHC. Retrieved October 14, 2006. 
  36. ^ a b James Franklin (2003). "Tropical Storm Odette Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Archived from the original on 15 December 2007. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  37. ^ Chenoweth (2006). "A Reassessment of Historical Atlantic Basin Tropical Cyclone Activity, 1700–1855". NOAA. Retrieved December 15, 2007. 
  38. ^ Lixion Avila (2003). "Tropical Storm Peter Tropical Cyclone Report". National Hurricane Center. Retrieved December 22, 2007. 
  39. ^ a b c World Meteorological Organization (2004). "Final Report of the Twenty-Sixth Session" (PDF). Retrieved June 3, 2006. 
  40. ^ Church World Service (2003). "The CWS Response" (PDF). Archived from the original on February 3, 2007. Retrieved February 21, 2007. 
  41. ^ United States Department of Commerce (2004). "Service Assessment of Hurricane Isabel" (PDF). NOAA. Retrieved February 10, 2007. 
  42. ^ PartnerRE Ltd. (2003). "PartnerRe Weathers Hurricane Fabian". Retrieved October 17, 2006. 
  43. ^ Karen Smith and Dan Rutstein (September 6, 2003). "Search for the missing a 'difficult job'". The Royal Gazette. Retrieved December 9, 2011. 
  44. ^ National Hurricane Center; Hurricane Research Division (April 1, 2014). "Atlantic hurricane best track (HURDAT version 2)". United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved August 20, 2014. 

External links[edit]