3rd New Zealand Parliament

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The third New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Elections for this term were held between 12 December 1860 and 28 March 1861 in 43 electorates to elect 53 MPs. Two electorates were added to this during this term, Gold Fields District (overlaid over existing Otago electorates) and a new Dunedin electorate created by splitting the existing City of Dunedin into Dunedin and Suburbs North and Dunedin and Suburbs South, increasing the number of MPs to 57. During the term of this Parliament, six Ministries were in power.

Historical context[edit]

The third Parliament opened on 30 May 1861,[1] following New Zealand's 1860–61 election. It was the second Parliament under which New Zealand had responsible government, meaning that unlike the first Parliament, the Cabinet was chosen (although not officially appointed) by Parliament rather than by the Governor.

Political parties had not been established yet; this only happened after the 1890 election. Anyone attempting to form an administration thus had to win support directly from individual MPs. This made first forming, and then retaining a government difficult and challenging.[2]

The third Parliament sat during the time of the New Zealand land wars. Even before the first session started, William Cutfield King (representing the Grey and Bell electorate) was killed in the First Taranaki War.[3] Marmaduke Nixon (Franklin electorate) was killed in action in 1864 whilst leading an assault on a Māori village during the Invasion of Waikato.[4]

Ministries[edit]

Since 1856, the first Stafford Ministry, led by Edward Stafford, was in place. This was the third administration under responsible government, and it was dissolved on 12 July 1861. Stafford was the third Premier of New Zealand.[2] William Fox then formed the second Fox Ministry, which was in place from 12 July 1861 to 6 August 1862. Fox had previously been the Premier under the second administration.[2] Alfred Domett, the fourth Premier, led the fifth administration, the Domett Ministry. This was in place from 6 August 1862 until 30 October 1863.[2]

The Whitaker–Fox Ministry was the next administration, led by Frederick Whitaker as the fifth Premier. This administration was in place from 30 October 1863 to 24 November 1864.[2] This was followed by the Weld Ministry under Frederick Weld as the sixth Premier. This was in place from 24 November 1864 to 16 October 1865.[2] A few months before the 1866 general elections, Stafford once again became Premier on 16 October 1865, leading the second Stafford Ministry. This lasted well into the term of the fourth Parliament on 28 June 1869.[2]

Sessions[edit]

Parliament sat for five sessions:[5]

Session from to
First 3 Jun 1861 7 Sep 1861
Second 7 Jul 1862 15 Sep 1862
Third 19 Oct 1863 14 Dec 1863
Fourth 24 Jul 1864 13 Dec 1864
Fifth 26 Jul 1865 30 Oct 1865

The first session started on 30 May 1861.[1] The fifth session started on 26 July 1865[6] and Parliament was prorogued on 30 October.[7]

Electoral boundaries for the third Parliament[edit]

43 electorates were used for the 1860–61 elections. This was a significant increase from the previous 28 electorates, and resulted from the passage of the Representation Act 1860.[8]

Initial composition of the third Parliament[edit]

53 seats were created across the 43 electorates. The City of Wellington electorate was the only three-member electorate, and eight electorates were represented by two members. The remaining 34 electorates were represented by a single member.[8]

Member Electorate Province MP's term Election date
White, AugustusAugustus White Akaroa Canterbury First 13 February 1861[9]
Russell, ThomasThomas Russell Auckland East Auckland First 11 January 1861[10]
Firth, JosiahJosiah Firth Auckland West Auckland First 11 January 1861[11]
John Williamson Auckland West Auckland Second 11 January 1861[12]
Creyke, AlfredAlfred Creyke Avon Canterbury First 1 February 1861[13]
Carleton, HughHugh Carleton Bay of Islands Auckland Third 13 February 1861[14]
Gillies, ThomasThomas Gillies Bruce Otago Second 11 February 1861[15]
Kettle, CharlesCharles Kettle[16] Bruce Otago First 11 February 1861[17]
Weld, FrederickFrederick Weld Cheviot Canterbury Third 1 March 1861[9]
Cracroft Wilson, JohnJohn Cracroft Wilson Christchurch, City ofCity of Christchurch Canterbury First 31 January 1861[12]
Ormond, JohnJohn Ormond Clive Hawke's Bay First 20 February 1861[18]
Richmond, AndrewAndrew Richmond[19] Collingwood Nelson First 4 February 1861[20]
Dick, ThomasThomas Dick Dunedin, City ofCity of Dunedin Otago First 24 December 1860[21]
McGlashan, EdwardEdward McGlashan[22] Dunedin, City ofCity of Dunedin Otago First 24 December 1860[23]
Rowley, ThomasThomas Rowley[24] Ellesmere Canterbury First 25 January 1861[20]
Graham, RobertRobert Graham Franklin Auckland Second 28 January 1861[25]
Nixon, MarmadukeMarmaduke Nixon Franklin Auckland First 28 January 1861[26]
King, WilliamWilliam King Grey and Bell Taranaki First 27 November 1860[17]
Fraser, ThomasThomas Fraser Hampden Otago First 20 February 1861[27]
Hall, GeorgeGeorge Hall[28] Heathcote Canterbury First 12 February 1861[29]
Fitzherbert, WilliamWilliam Fitzherbert Hutt Wellington Second 12 December 1860[11]
Renall, AlfredAlfred Renall[30] Hutt Wellington Second 12 December 1860[31]
Cookson, IsaacIsaac Cookson Kaiapoi Canterbury Second 7 February 1861[32]
Ward, CrosbieCrosbie Ward Lyttelton, Town ofTown of Lyttelton Canterbury Second 25 January 1861[33]
Munro, JohnJohn Munro Marsden Auckland First 20 January 1861[34]
Butler, WilliamWilliam Butler Mongonui Auckland First 30 January 1861[35]
Curtis, HerbertHerbert Curtis[36] Motueka Nelson Second 5 February 1861[13]
Stark, HenryHenry Stark Napier Hawke's Bay First 19 February 1861[37]
Domett, AlfredAlfred Domett Nelson, City ofCity of Nelson Nelson Second 27 December 1860[38]
Stafford, EdwardEdward Stafford Nelson, City ofCity of Nelson Nelson Second 27 December 1860[37]
Wemyss, JamesJames Wemyss[39] Nelson, Suburbs ofSuburbs of Nelson Nelson First 28 January 1861[9]
Richmond, WilliamWilliam Richmond New Plymouth, Town ofTown of New Plymouth Taranaki Second 28 December 1860[20]
Graham, GeorgeGeorge Graham[40] Newton Auckland First 28 January 1861[25]
Henderson, ThomasThomas Henderson Northern Division Auckland Second 22 January 1861[41]
O'Neill, JamesJames O'Neill Northern Division Auckland Second 22 January 1861[18]
Richmond, JamesJames Richmond Omata Taranaki First 30 December 1860[20]
O'Rorke, MauriceMaurice O'Rorke Onehunga, Town ofTown of Onehunga Auckland First 18 January 1861[18]
Wood, ReaderReader Wood Parnell Auckland First 15 January 1861[42]
Mason, WilliamWilliam Mason Pensioner Settlements Auckland First 21 January 1861[43]
Monro, DavidDavid Monro Picton Marlborough Third 16 February 1861[44]
Brandon, AlfredAlfred Brandon Porirua Wellington Second 20 December 1860[45]
Taylor, CharlesCharles Taylor Raglan Auckland Third 11 February 1861[46]
Fox, WilliamWilliam Fox Rangitiki Wellington Second 4 February 1861[27]
Jollie, FrancisFrancis Jollie Timaru Canterbury First 25 March 1861[47]
Saunders, AlfredAlfred Saunders Waimea Marlborough First 1 February 1861[10]
Carter, CharlesCharles Carter Wairarapa Wellington Second 12 December 1860[48]
Eyes, WilliamWilliam Eyes Wairau Marlborough First 15 February 1861[49]
Bell, DillonDillon Bell Wallace Otago Second 14 March 1861[50]
Mantell, WalterWalter Mantell Wallace Otago First 14 March 1861[43]
Harrison, HenryHenry Harrison[51] Wanganui, Wanganui Wellington First 1 February 1861[52]
Featherston, IsaacIsaac Featherston Wellington, City ofCity of Wellington Wellington Third 11 December 1860[49]
Rhodes, WilliamWilliam Rhodes Wellington, City ofCity of Wellington Wellington Third 11 December 1860[53]
Taylor, WilliamWilliam Taylor[54] Wellington, City ofCity of Wellington Wellington First 11 December 1860[46]

Changes during term[edit]

There were numerous changes during the term of the third Parliament.

List of by-elections[edit]

By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner
1861 Grey and Bell 20 June William King Death Harry Atkinson
1861 Suburbs of Nelson 20 June James Wemyss Resignation William Wells
1861 Napier 1 July Henry Stark Resignation William Colenso
1861 Wanganui 5 July Henry Harrison Resignation Henry Harrison
1862 (1st) City of Dunedin 17 March Thomas Dick Resignation Thomas Dick
1862 Town of New Plymouth 5 May William Richmond Resignation Isaac Watt
1862 (2nd) City of Dunedin 30 May Edward McGlashan[55][22] Resignation John Richardson
1862 Ellesmere 9 June Thomas Rowley Resignation James FitzGerald
1862 Avon 11 June Alfred Creyke Resignation William Thomson
1862 Heathcote 12 June George Hall Resignation William Moorhouse
1862 City of Auckland West 14 June Josiah Firth Resignation James Williamson
1862 (3rd) City of Dunedin 11 November John Richardson Resignation James Paterson
1862 Hampden 4 December Thomas Fraser Absence John Jones

Supplementary election, 1863[edit]

Dunedin and Suburbs North 28 March 1863[53] John Richardson
Dunedin and Suburbs South 6 April 1863[53] William Reynolds
Gold Fields 14 April 1863[56] William Baldwin
George Brodie
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

3rd Parliament (continued)[edit]

1863[57] Dunedin and Suburbs South 20 June James Paterson Resignation James Paterson
1863 Hampden 2 July John Jones Resignation Frederick Wayne
1863 Kaiapoi 2 September Isaac Cookson Resignation Robert Wilkin
1863 Dunedin and Suburbs North 3 September Thomas Dick Resignation Julius Vogel
1863 Town of New Plymouth 9 October Isaac Watt Resignation Henry Turton
1863 Heathcote 28 October William Moorhouse Resignation Alfred Cox
1863 Akaroa 30 October Augustus White Resignation Lancelot Walker
1864 Franklin 13 October Marmaduke Nixon Death (KIA) Theodore Haultain
1864 Town of New Plymouth 18 November Henry Turton Resignation Charles Brown
1864 Waimea 29 November Alfred Saunders Resignation John Miles
1865 (1st) Bruce 8 April Thomas Gillies Resignation Arthur Burns
1865 Raglan 19 April Charles Taylor Resignation William Buckland
1865 Parnell 20 April Reader Wood Resignation Robert Creighton
1865 Town of New Plymouth 19 May Charles Brown Resignation Henry Sewell
1865 Gold Fields 29 May William Baldwin Resignation Charles Haughton
1865 Rangitiki 10 July William Fox Resignation Robert Pharazyn
1865 Omata 18 July James Richmond Appointed to Legislative Council Francis Gledhill
1865 (2nd) Bruce 26 July Edward Cargill Resignation James Macandrew
1865 Wairarapa 29 July Charles Carter Resignation Henry Bunny

Existing electorates[edit]

Akaroa

White resigned in 1863 and was succeeded by Lancelot Walker.

Auckland West

Firth resigned on 30 April 1862. He was succeeded by James Williamson.[58]

Avon

Creyke resigned on 21 April 1862.[59] He was succeeded by William Thomson.[60]

Bruce

Kettle died on 5 June 1862.[16] Edward Cargill succeeded him in the 1862 by-election.[61] In 1865, Edward Cargill resigned. The resulting second by-election in 1865, held on 26 July, was contested by James Macandrew and John Cargill. Macandrew and J. Cargill received 207 and 34 votes, and Macandrew was declared elected.[62]

Gillies resigned and the subsequent first 1865 by-election was won on 8 April 1865 by Arthur John Burns.[63]

City of Dunedin

Edward McGlashan resigned in 1861. Successors were John Richardson (1862) and James Paterson (1862–63).
Dick resigned in 1863.[64]

The electorate was abolished in 1863 and replaced with the two Dunedin suburb electorates listed below.

Ellesmere

Rowley resigned in 1862 and was succeeded by James FitzGerald.

Franklin

Nixon was killed in action during the Invasion of Waikato on 27 May 1864.[4] He was succeeded by Theodore Haultain.

Grey and Bell

King was killed on 8 February 1861.[3] He was succeeded by Harry Atkinson.

Hampden

Fraser was vacated for absence in 1862. He was succeeded by John Richard Jones who resigned in 1863, and was replaced by Frederick Wayne.

Heathcote

G. Hall resigned in 1862. He was first succeeded by William Sefton Moorhouse (1862–63), then Alfred Cox (1863–65).

Kaiapoi

Cookson resigned in 1863. He was succeeded by Robert Wilkin.

Napier

Stark resigned in 1861. He was succeeded by William Colenso.

New Plymouth

William Richmond resigned in 1862. He was first succeeded by Isaac Newton Watt[65] (1862–63), then Henry Hanson Turton[66] (1863–64), and then Charles Brown (1864–65).

Parnell

Wood resigned in 1865. He was succeeded by Robert James Creighton.[67]

Raglan

Charles John Taylor resigned in 1865. He was succeeded by William Thorne Buckland.

Suburbs of Nelson

Wemyss resigned in 1861. He was succeeded by William Wells.

Waimea

Saunders resigned in 1864. He was succeeded by John George Miles.[68]

Wairarapa

Carter resigned in 1865. He was succeeded by Henry Bunny.

New electorates[edit]

Dunedin and Suburbs South

Dunedin and Suburbs South was established in 1862 as a two-member electorate. It was represented by two MPs: William Hunter Reynolds (from 4 Dec 1862) and James Paterson (from 29 Apr 1863) until the end of the term.

Dunedin and Suburbs North

Dunedin and Suburbs North was established in 1863 as a two-member electorate. It was represented by John Richardson (from 20 Apr 1863) and Julius Vogel (from 29 Sep 1863) until the end of the term.

Goldfields

The Goldfields electorate was established in 1862, during the term of the third Parliament. This was a reaction to the large influx of people to Otago during the Otago Gold Rush, and because the franchise had been extended to males aged 21 years and over who had held a miner's right continuously for at least three (or six) months. No electoral rolls were established for these districts, and to vote a miner just presented his miner's licence to the election official. Outside Otago where no special Goldfields electorate existed, miners could register as electors in the ordinary electoral district where they lived.

William Baldwin and George Brodie were elected in the 1863 Goldfields by-election. Baldwin resigned on 27 April 1865.[69] Charles Edward Haughton won the resulting 1865 by-election held on 29 May contested by three candidates.[70]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "THE SOUTHERN CROSS. Tuesday, May 14, 1861". Daily Southern Cross XVII (1400). 14 May 1861. p. 2. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g King, Michael (2003). The Penguin History of New Zealand (20 ed.). Auckland: Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-301867-1. 
  3. ^ a b Cyclopedia Company Limited (1908). "Former Members of the House of Representatives". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Taranaki, Hawke's Bay & Wellington Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  4. ^ a b Barber, Laurie. "Nixon, Marmaduke George". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 22 June 2007. 
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 68.
  6. ^ "Opening of the General Assembly". Bruce Herald III (70). 10 August 1865. p. 8. Retrieved 10 July 2010. 
  7. ^ "Parliament of New Zealand". Daily Southern Cross XXI (2600). 17 November 1865. p. 5. Retrieved 10 July 2010. 
  8. ^ a b "REPRESENTATION ACT, 1860". Nelson Examiner and New Zealand Chronicle XX (28). 30 March 1861. p. 4. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 147.
  10. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 137.
  11. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 106.
  12. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 148.
  13. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 102.
  14. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 99.
  15. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 108.
  16. ^ a b Patterson, Brad (22 June 2007). "Kettle, Charles Henry 1821 - 1862". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  17. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 118.
  18. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 130.
  19. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  20. ^ a b c d Scholefield 1950, p. 136.
  21. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 103.
  22. ^ a b Cyclopedia Company Limited (1905). "Ex-Members". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Otago & Southland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  23. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 122.
  24. ^ Johnson, R. D.; Lochhead, Shapcott, Shaw-Brown. "The Architectural Heritage of Christchurch". Christchurch City Council : Town Planning Division. p. 5. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  25. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 109.
  26. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 129.
  27. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 107.
  28. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1903). "Mr. George Williamson Hall". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Canterbury Provincial District. Christchurch. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  29. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 110.
  30. ^ Percy, Shirley Kevin. "The Renalls of Petone and the Wairarapa". Percy Family. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  31. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 134.
  32. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 101.
  33. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 146.
  34. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 128.
  35. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 98.
  36. ^ Savage, J. F. H. (September 1978). "Potted Biographies". Nelson Historical Society Journal 3 (4). Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  37. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 140.
  38. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 104.
  39. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members Of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  40. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1902). "Mr. George Graham". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand: Auckland Provincial District. Christchurch. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  41. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 113.
  42. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 149.
  43. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 125.
  44. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 127.
  45. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 97.
  46. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 143.
  47. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 117.
  48. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 100.
  49. ^ a b Scholefield 1950, p. 105.
  50. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 95.
  51. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Ex-Members". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  52. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 112.
  53. ^ a b c Scholefield 1950, p. 135.
  54. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Mr. William Waring Taylor". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  55. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 215.
  56. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 94, 97.
  57. ^ "Dunedin and Suburbs South Election". Otago Daily Times (463). 15 June 1863. p. 5. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  58. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 259.
  59. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 191.
  60. ^ "GENERAL ASSEMBLY.". Otago Witness (560). 23 August 1862. p. 2. Retrieved 6 June 2010. 
  61. ^ Wilson 1985, p. ?.
  62. ^ "Bruce Election". Otago Witness (714). 5 August 1865. p. 11. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  63. ^ "Bruce Election". Otago Witness (698). 15 April 1865. p. 11. Retrieved 14 July 2010. 
  64. ^ Wilson 1985, p. 261.
  65. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1908). "Former Members of the House of Representatives". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Taranaki, Hawke's Bay & Wellington Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  66. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1908). "Former Members of the House of Representatives". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Taranaki, Hawke's Bay & Wellington Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  67. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1902). "Mr. Robert James Creighton". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Auckland Provincial District. Christchurch. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  68. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1906). "Present And Past Members of Parliament". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Nelson, Marlborough & Westland Provincial Districts. Christchurch. Retrieved 20 June 2010. 
  69. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 94.
  70. ^ "The Election for the Gold Fields". Otago Witness (706). 10 June 1865. p. 11. Retrieved 12 July 2010. 

References[edit]

  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.