4th Dimension roller coaster
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|4th Dimension roller coaster|
'X²' (formerly 'X') was the first 4th Dimension roller coaster in the world.
|No. of installations||8|
|Manufacturers||Arrow Dynamics (Discontinued), S&S Worldwide, and Intamin|
|Riders per row||4|
A 4th Dimension roller coaster is a type of steel roller coaster whereby riders are rotated independently of the orientation of the track, generally about a horizontal axis that is perpendicular to the track. The cars do not necessarily need to be fixed to an angle.
John F. Mares, a corporate attorney, invented the 4th Dimension roller coaster concept in 1995 and holds six US patents related to the technology of their spinning seat systems: US Patent #'s 5,791,254, 6,098,549, 6,227,121, 6,386,115, 6,477,961 & 6,606,953. The first 4th Dimension roller coaster to be built, X2, which opened at Six Flags Magic Mountain, United States in 2002, was designed and patented by Alan Schilke. In 2007, Intamin launched a variation of the 4th Dimension roller coaster under the name ZacSpin.
- On July 7, 2014, a teenager was killed after his harness sprung open during his ride on Inferno, a ZacSpin coaster at Terra Mítica in Benidorm, Spain. All other ZacSpin's across the world had ceased operations after the incident and has since reopened.
Arrow Dynamics and S&S Worldwide
Arrow Dynamics was the first company to produce a 4th dimension roller coaster, lending its name to the ride style. The trains feature seats capable of rotating forward or backward, 360 degrees in a controlled spin. This is achieved by having four rails on the track; two acting as per normal, and two to control the spin of the seats. The two rails that control the spin of the seats, known as "X Rails", vary in height relative to the track, and spin the train using a rack and pinion gear mechanism.
The first installation, X², was a prototype and cost Arrow Dynamics and Six Flags itself a lot of money due to technical difficulties and design flaws. In 2002, the park sued Arrow Dynamics, which went into bankruptcy. Since then Arrow was bought out by S&S Worldwide and became the company's steel coaster division, S&S Arrow. In 2006, a second installation opened at Fuji-Q Highland in Fujiyoshida, Yamanashi Japan under the name Eejanaika. A third installation opened in 2012 at China Dinosaurs Park in China under the name Dinoconda.
In late 2012, S&S Worldwide unveiled a new concept in 2012 which features a similar ride experience without the additional rail. A system of magnets would control the individual seat inversions.
The Intamin ZacSpin was developed in response to the Arrow Dynamics 4th dimension roller coaster. Some of the main differences between the Intamin and Arrow Dynamics/S&S Worldwide versions are the uncontrolled rotation of the seats, which produces a different ride each time, and single cars. Another notable difference is the absence of any lateral movements, causing some enthusiasts to not consider the rides 4th dimension roller coasters due to the fact that all movement is restricted to a 2 dimensional plane.
Kirnu at Linnanmäki in Helsinki, Finland, opened for the 2007 season and was the first of its kind. Later that year Inferno opened at Terra Mitica in Spain with an identical compact layout. In 2009, Insane opened at Gröna Lund with a different track layout. In 2011, the first ZacSpin in the United States opened at Six Flags Magic Mountain as Green Lantern: First Flight, and is themed to the DC Comics superhero of the same name. It features the same layout as Insane.
There is considerable debate within the roller coaster community as to whether or not the spinning of these coasters qualifies as an inversion for the purpose of records. Guinness World Records gave Eejanaika the record with 14 inversions. However, other more coaster-specific record bodies such as the Roller Coaster Database do not recognize this claim and instead count only track inversions, which gives the record of 14 to The Smiler.
|Dinoconda||China Dinosaur Park||2012||S&S Worldwide||Operating|||
|Eejanaika||Fuji-Q Highland||2006||S&S Arrow||Operating|||
|Green Lantern: First Flight||Six Flags Magic Mountain||2011||Intamin||Operating|||
|Six Flags Magic Mountain||2002||Arrow Dynamics||Operating|||
- Wing Coaster - a type of ride by Bolliger & Mabillard which features similar trains to the S&S/Arrow design
- Marden, Duane. "Glossary – 4th Dimension". RCDB. Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster Search Results – 4th Dimension". Database. RCDB. Retrieved 20 October 2010.
- Marden, Duane. "X2 (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- Couzens, Gerard (7 July 2014). "Teenager killed after being thrown from roller-coaster called Hell at Benidorm theme park". Mirror.com. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- "Green Lantern Closed As Precaution After Tragedy In Spain". The Coaster Guy. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 9 July 2014.
- "Gröna Lund stänger Insane efter dödsfall i Spanien". yle.fi. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- "Linnanmäki Park closes ride after death in Spain". yle.fi. 8 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
- Marden, Duane. "Eejanaika (Fuji-Q Highland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- "4D Roller Coaster". Retrieved 24 January 2012.
- Alvey, Robb; Rowher, Kevin (13 November 2012). "IAAPA 2012 Trade Show Coverage Part 1 - S&S Silver Dollar City Rocky Mountain Construction". Theme Park Review. YouTube. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- Marden, Duane. "Record Holders (Inversions)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 17 May 2013.
- Marden, Duane. "Dinoconda (China Dinosaur Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- Marden, Duane. "Green Lantern (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- Marden, Duane. "Insane (Gröna Lund)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- Marden, Duane. "Kirnu (Linnanmäki)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- "Photos: New rides at Steel Pier in Atlantic City, N.J.". Los Angeles Times. 10 April 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 4th dimension roller coasters.|
- A list of 4th Dimension roller coasters at the Roller Coaster DataBase
- Intamin official website
- S&S Worldwide official website