LTV A-7 Corsair II

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A-7 Corsair II
A-7E Corsair II.JPEG
U.S. Navy A-7E from Attack Squadron 46 (VA-46)
Role Attack aircraft
Manufacturer Ling-Temco-Vought
First flight 26 September 1965
Introduction February 1967
Retired 1991 (USAF, USN); 1993 (ANG)
1999 (Portuguese Air Force)
2014 (Hellenic Air Force)
Status Retired
Primary users United States Navy (historical)
United States Air Force (historical)
Portuguese Air Force (historical)
Hellenic Air Force (historical)
Produced 1965–1984
Number built 1,569
Unit cost
US$2.86 million
Developed from Vought F-8 Crusader
Variants Vought YA-7F

The Ling-Temco-Vought A-7 Corsair II was a carrier-capable subsonic light attack aircraft introduced to replace the Douglas A-4 Skyhawk. The A-7 airframe design was based on the successful supersonic Vought F-8 Crusader. It was one of the first combat aircraft to feature a head-up display (HUD), an inertial navigation system (INS), and a turbofan engine.

The Corsair II initially entered service with the United States Navy during the Vietnam War. It was later adopted by the United States Air Force, including the Air National Guard, to replace the Douglas A-1 Skyraider, North American F-100 Super Sabre and Republic F-105 Thunderchief.[citation needed] The aircraft was also exported to Greece in the 1970s, and Portugal in the late 1980s.

Design and development[edit]

In 1962, the United States Navy began preliminary work on VAX (Heavier-than-air, Attack, Experimental), a replacement for the A-4 Skyhawk with greater range and payload. Particular emphasis was placed on accurate delivery of weapons to reduce the cost per target. The requirements were finalized in 1963, announcing the VAL (Heavier-than-air, Attack, Light) competition.[1]

The first A-7 mock-up in 1964

To minimize costs, all proposals had to be based on existing designs. Vought, Douglas Aircraft, Grumman and North American Aviation responded. The Vought proposal was based on the successful Vought F-8 Crusader fighter, having a similar configuration, but shorter and more stubby, with a rounded nose. It was selected as the winner on 11 February 1964, and on 19 March the company received a contract for the initial batch of aircraft, designated A-7.[1] In 1965, the aircraft received the popular name Corsair II, after Vought's highly successful Vought F4U Corsair of World War II.[citation needed] (There was also a Vought O2U Corsair biplane scout and observation aircraft in the 1920s.)

Compared to the F-8 fighter, the A-7 had a shorter, broader fuselage. The wing had a longer span, and the unique, variable incidence feature of the F-8 wing was omitted. To achieve the required range, the A-7 was powered by a Pratt & Whitney TF30-P-6 turbofan producing 11,345 lbf (50.5 kN) of thrust,[1] the same innovative combat turbofan produced for the F-111 and early F-14 Tomcats, but without the afterburner needed for supersonic speeds.

VA-147 was the first operational U.S. Navy A-7 squadron, in 1967.

The aircraft was fitted with an AN/APQ-116 radar, later followed by the AN/APQ-126, which was integrated into the ILAAS digital navigation system. The radar also fed a digital weapons computer which made possible accurate delivery of bombs from a greater stand-off distance, greatly improving survivability compared with faster platforms such as the McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II. It was the first U.S. aircraft to have a modern head-up display, (made by Marconi-Elliott),[2] now a standard instrument which displayed information such as dive angle, airspeed, altitude, drift and aiming reticle. The integrated navigation system allowed for another innovation – the projected map display system (PMDS) which accurately showed aircraft position on two different map scales.[3]

The A-7 had a fast and smooth development. The YA-7A made its first flight on 27 September 1965,[4] and began to enter Navy squadron service late in 1966. The first Navy A-7 squadrons reached operational status on 1 February 1967, and began combat operations over Vietnam in December of that year.[5]

The A-7 offered a plethora of cutting-edge avionics compared to contemporary aircraft. This included data link capabilities that, among other features, provided fully "hands-off" carrier landing capability when used in conjunction with its approach power compensator (APC) or auto throttle. Other notable and highly advanced equipment was a projected map display located just below the radar scope. The map display was slaved to the inertial navigation system and provided a high-resolution map image of the aircraft's position superimposed over TPC/JNC charts. Moreover, when slaved to the all-axis auto pilot, the inertial navigation system could fly the aircraft "hands off" to up to nine individual waypoints. Typical inertial drift was minimal for newly manufactured models and the inertial measurement system accepted fly over, radar, and TACAN updates.[6]

Operational history[edit]

Initial operational basing/homeporting for U.S. Navy A-7 squadrons was at NAS Cecil Field, Florida for Atlantic Fleet units and NAS Lemoore, California for Pacific Fleet units. This was in keeping with the role of these bases in already hosting the A-4 Skyhawk attack squadrons that would eventually transition to the A-7.

Lynn Garrison in a F4U-7 leads A-7 Corsair IIs of VA-147, over NAS Lemoore, CA on 7 July 1967 prior to the type's first deployment to Vietnam on USS Ranger. The A-7A "NE-300" is the aircraft of the Air Group Commander (CAG) of Attack Carrier Air Wing 2 (CVW-2).

From 1967 to 1971, a total of 27 Navy squadrons took delivery of four different A-7A/B/C/E models. The Vought plant in Dallas, TX employed up to 35,000 workers who turned out one aircraft a day for several years to support the Navy carrier-based needs for Vietnam and SE Asia and commitments to NATO in Europe. In 1974, when the USS Midway (CV-41) became the first Forward Deployed Naval Force (FDNF) aircraft carrier to be homeported in Yokosuka, Japan, two A-7B squadrons assigned to Carrier Air Wing FIVE (CVW-5) were concurrently homeported at NAF Atsugi, Japan. In 1978, these squadrons (VA-93 and VA-56) finally transitioned to the much more advanced A-7E model. Six Naval Reserve attack squadrons would also eventually transition to the A-7, operating from NAS Cecil Field, Florida; NAS Atlanta/Dobbins ARB, Georgia; NAS New Orleans, Louisiana; NAS Alameda, California and NAS Point Mugu, California. An additional active duty squadron stood up in the 1980s, Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron 34 (VAQ-34) at NAS Point Mugu, which would operate twin-seat TA-7C and EA-7L aircraft with both a pilot and a naval flight officer in an adversary electronic warfare role.[7]

Pilots of the early A-7s lauded the aircraft for general ease of flying (with the exceptions of poor stability on crosswind landings and miserable stopping performance on wet runways with an inoperative anti-skid braking system) and excellent forward visibility but noted a lack of engine thrust. This was addressed with A-7B and more thoroughly with A-7D/E. The turbofan engine provided a dramatic increase in fuel efficiency compared with earlier turbojets – the A-7D was said to have specific fuel consumption one sixth that of an F-100 Super Sabre at equivalent thrust. An A-7D carrying 12 x 500 lb (227 kg) bombs at 480 mph (775 km/h) at 33,000 ft (10,000 m) used only 3,350 lb (1,500 kg) of fuel per hour. Typical fuel consumption at mission retrograde during aircraft carrier recovery was approximately 30 pounds per minute compared to 100+ pounds per minute for the Phantom F-4J/N series.[8] The A-7 Corsair II was tagged with the nickname "SLUF" ("Short Little Ugly Fucker") by pilots.[9]

Southeast Asia carrier use[edit]

A-7Bs of CVW-16 on the USS Ticonderoga in 1968

In Vietnam, the hot, humid air robbed even the upgraded A-7D and A-7E of power. Takeoff rolls were lengthy, and fully armed aircraft struggled to reach 500 mph (800 km/h). For A-7A aircraft, high density altitude and maximum weight runway takeoffs often necessitated a "low transition", where the aircraft was intentionally held in "ground effect" a few feet off the runway during gear retraction, and as much as a 10-mile (16 km) departure at treetop altitude before reaching a safe flap retraction speed. (A-7A wing flap systems were either fully extended or fully retracted. The A-7A flap handle did not have the microswitch feature of later models that permitted the flaps to be slowly raised by several degrees per tap of the flap handle as airspeed slowly increased during max-weight takeoffs.)[10][11]

Carrier catapult launches at maximum weight under these performance-robbing conditions were not significantly better and were characterized by the aircraft decelerating by as much as 20 knots (37 km/h) immediately after launch. As a result, A-7A units operated their aircraft four thousand pounds below the max-rated takeoff weight for the A-7E.[12][13]

In a sortie against the Thanh Hoa bridge, four A-7Cs from VA-82 successfully delivered 8,000 lbs of high explosives with two planes carrying two 2,000 lb (910 kg) Walleyes, while two others also carried 2,000 lbs in Mk 84 GP bombs. In a simultaneous attack, the center piling on the bridge's west side was hit and broke the span in half. After this, the Thanh Hoa bridge was considered permanently destroyed and removed from the target list. A total of 98 USN A-7 Corsairs were lost during the war.[14]

United States Air Force A-7D[edit]

YA-7D-1-CV AF Serial No. 67-14582, the first USAF YA-7D, 2 May 1968. Note the Navy-style refueling probe and the modified Navy BuNo used as its USAF tail number.

The United States Army has not been permitted to operate fixed-wing combat aircraft since the establishment of an independent United States Air Force in 1947. To meet its need for close air support of its troops in South Vietnam, the Army pressured the Air Force to procure a specialized subsonic close air support fixed-wing aircraft that would suit its needs better than the general-purpose supersonic aircraft that the USAF preferred.[15]

The Vought A-7 seemed to be a relatively quick and inexpensive way to satisfy this need. However, the USAF was initially reluctant to take on yet another Navy-designed aircraft, but Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara was insistent. On 5 November 1965, Secretary of the Air Force Harold Brown and USAF Chief of Staff General John P. McConnell announced that they had decided to order a version of the Corsair II, designated A-7D, for the Tactical Air Command.[15]

The A-7D differed from the Navy's Corsair II in several ways. For one, the Air Force insisted on significantly more power for its Corsair II version, and they selected the Allison TF41-A-1 turbofan engine, which was a license-built version of the Rolls-Royce Spey. It offered a thrust of 14,500 pounds, over 2000 pounds greater than that of the TF30 that powered the Navy's Corsair IIs. Other changes included a head-up display, a new avionics package, and an M61A1 rotary cannon in place of the two single-barreled 20-mm cannon. Also included was a computerized navigation/weapons delivery system with AN/APQ-126 radar and a head-up display.[15][16]

Ling-Temco-Vought A-7D-7-CV Corsair IIs 70-0976, 70-0989 and 70-0970 of the 354th Tactical Fighter Wing over the skies of Southeast Asia. 976 and 989 were retired to AMARC in 1992, 970 is on permanent display at the Museum of the United States Air Force, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.

Two YA-7D prototypes were completed with TF30-P-6 engines, and the first of these flew on 6 April 1968. The first Spey-powered A-7D (67-14854) flew for the first time on 26 September 1968. The seventeenth production aircraft introduced a provision for boom flight refueling in place of the Navy's probe/drogue system, with the boom receptacle being on the top of the fuselage behind the cockpit and offset to port.[15][16]

The A-7D first entered service with in 1970 with the 57th Fighter Weapons Wing at Luke AFB Arizona, and with the 354th Tactical Fighter Wing at Myrtle Beach AFB, South Carolina was equipped with four squadrons of A-7Ds by 1972; the 355th TFW at Davis-Monthan AFB was equipped with four squadrons in 1972, and in 1973, the 23d TFW at England AFB, Louisiana was fully equipped with A-7Ds.[15]

The 354th TFW first deployed two squadrons of A-7Ds to Korat Royal Thai AFB, Thailand in September 1972 as part of Operation Cornet Dancer, The A-7Ds were quickly assigned the "Sandy mission" of providing air cover for Combat Search and Rescue missions of downed pilots.[17]

Taking over for Douglas A-1 Skyraiders (and adopting their call sign of "Sandy"), the A-7's higher speed was somewhat detrimental for escorting the helicopters but the aircraft's high endurance and durability were an asset and it performed admirably.[15]

On 18 November 1972, Major Colin A. Clarke led a successful CSAR mission near Thanh Hoa to rescue a downed F-105 Wild Weasel crew. The mission lasted a total of 8.8 hours during which Clarke and his wingman took a number of hits from 0.51 cal (12.7 mm) anti-aircraft fire. For his actions in coordinating the rescue, Clarke was awarded the Air Force Cross, the USAF's second-highest decoration for valor, and his A-7D (AF Serial No. 70-0970) was eventually placed on display on 31 January 1992 at the National Museum of the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio.[17][18]

3d TFS A-7D-10-CV Corsair II 71-0309 Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base, 1973 Retired to AMARC as AE0206 15 September 1991.

With the end of US involvement in South Vietnam, the 354th TFW (Deployed) at Korat began flying combat sorties in Cambodia to support the Lon Nol government in support of Khmer National Armed Forces against the Khmer Rouge. Rotational deployments began to Korat from the 355th TFW and 23d TFW, with pilots and support personnel beginning six-months deployment cycles. In March 1973, the 354th transferred a squadron of A-7Ds to the 388th TFW, the host wing at Korat RTAFB at the time, which re-established the 3d Tactical Fighter Squadron and created a permanent USAF A-7D presence in Southeast Asia. A-7Ds from both wings stationed at Korat engaged in combat operations in Cambodia until 15 August 1973 when an A-7D of the deployed 353d TFS/354th TFW carried out the last air support mission. In March 1974, the 354th TFW transferred several more aircraft to the 3d TFS prior to its return to Myrtle Beach AFB.

The USAF A-7D flew a total of 12,928 combat sorties during the war with only six losses[19] – the lowest of any U.S. fighter in the theater. The aircraft was second only to Boeing B-52 Stratofortress in the amount of ordnance dropped on Hanoi and dropped more bombs per sortie with greater accuracy than any other U.S. attack aircraft.[17]

A-7E Development[edit]

A VA-192 A-7E over Vietnam. This aircraft was lost on 2 November 1972

The Navy was sufficiently impressed with the increased power offered by the A-7D Spey engine used by the Air Force, and decided to use this engine for its own version of the Corsair II. The designation A-7E was assigned, and this version was to succeed the A-7B in production. However, there were delays in the deliveries of the TF41-A-2 engine specified for the A-7E, so the first 67 aircraft of the order were delivered with the TF30-P-5 engine. These aircraft had all of the other improvements planned for the A-7E, including the improved avionics and the M61 rotary cannon, and were re-designated A-7C after delivery.[20]

The first Spey-powered A-7E flew for the first time on 9 March 1969. The A-7E differed from the USAF A-7D in retaining the probe-and-drogue midair refueling system of the earlier A-7A/B. It entered service in Southeast Asia in May 1970 with VFA-146 and VA-147 deployed aboard the USS America. The A-7E participated in numerous close-air support missions over both North and South Vietnam, the A-7E's state-of-the-art bombing and navigation system being particularly reliable and accurate. Most air wings operating Douglas A-4 Skyhawks and early A-7s were re-equipped with A-7Es. The A-7E participated in the mining of Haiphong harbor in 1972, and played a vital role in the Linebacker I and Linebacker II operations that led up to the formal end of US involvement in the Vietnam war on 24 January 1973.[20]

On 15 May 1975, A-7E aircraft operating from the USS Coral Sea, in conjunction with A-7D aircraft assigned to the 3d TFS at Korat RTAFB, provided air cover in what is considered the last battle of the Vietnam war, the recovery of the SS Mayagüez after it was hijacked by Khmer Rouge gunboats. By the time Operation Mayaguez was over, three USAF Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopters had been shot down, two airmen, 11 Marines and two Navy Corpsmen had been killed in action and a further three Marines were missing in action.[21]

Post-Vietnam era[edit]

Air National Guard[edit]

A-7 Corsair II aircraft of the Iowa (IA) and South Dakota (SD) Air National Guard flying near RAF Waddington, UK. These aircraft were deployed to the United Kingdom from 21 August through 12 September 1979 for NATO operation CORNET Stallion

With the pullout of the USAF from its Thailand bases in late 1975, the A-7Ds stationed at Korat initially went to Clark AB, Philippines. The 3d TFS transitioned from its Corsairs to the McDonnell Douglas F-4E Phantom II and remained at Clark. The A-7Ds were returned to the United States where they were reassigned to several Air National Guard squadrons.

With the end of the Vietnam War, the Air Force began to transfer its active-duty A-7D aircraft to Air National Guard units beginning in 1974. The Corsairs had been in a sense, a forced acquisition by the Air Force in the late 1960s, and the inter-service rivalry of flying a Navy plane had led, beginning about 1970, to the development of its own Close Air Support aircraft.[22] In 1974, selection of the Republic Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II was made as the replacement of the A-7D. The first A-10As were received by the 354th TFW in 1977 at Myrtle Beach AFB; the 355th TFW at Davis-Monthan AFB began replacing their A-7Ds in 1978, and the 23d TFW at England AFB in 1979. As the A-10s were received from Republic, the A-7Ds were transferred from the USAF to the National Guard Bureau for subsequent re-allocation.[23] By 1981, when the 23d TFW sent their last A-7Ds to Tonopah Test Range Airport, Nevada for clandestine use in the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk development program, fifteen ANG squadrons were equipped with the A-7D Corsair II.

However, Congressional decisions added additional funding to the DOD FY 1975 and FY 1976 budgets for the procurement of additional A-7Ds, primarily to keep the LTV production line in Dallas open and the workers employed in the wake of post-Vietnam DOD procurement reductions. As a result of these unplanned acquisitions, the Air Force assigned these new 1975 and 1976 built aircraft, along with new twin seat A-7Ks trainers in 1979 directly to the Air National Guard.[15]

On 12 January 1981, in the 1981 Luis Muñoz Marín International Airport attack, 10 A-7Ds of the 198th Tactical Fighter Squadron, Puerto Rico Air National Guard were destroyed or damaged in a terrorist attack by the Boricua Popular Army at Muniz Air National Guard Base in the largest attack ever on American military station since the Vietnam War.[24] This terrorist attack was largely unreported due to the Iran hostage crisis at the time.

During the post-Vietnam era, Tactical Air Command gained Air National Guard frequently deployed their Corsairs on annual operational exercises. Frequent deployments were made to Howard AFB, Panama to provide CAS training with Army units in the Canal Zone as part of Operation Cornet Cove. Other Air National Guard deployments were made to NATO and USAFE bases in West Germany and Denmark as part of Cornet Cove exercises along with the USAREUR Reforger training exercises. In 1989, while deployed in Panama for a Coronet Cove deployment, Ohio Air National Guard 180th Tactical Fighter Group A-7Ds were employed during Operation Just Cause.

Grenada and Lebanon[edit]

A-7Es on the USS Independence (CV 62) in 1983
A-7E of VA-72 on USS America off Libya in April 1986.
A-7E from VA-72 flying over the Saudi desert during Operation Desert Shield

Navy A-7E squadrons VA-15 and VA-87, from the USS Independence, provided close air support during the Invasion of Grenada, codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, in October 1983.[25]

Navy A-7s also provided air support during the U.S. mission in Lebanon in 1983. An A-7 and an A-6 Intruder were shot down by Syrian surface-to-air missiles (SAM) on 4 December 1983.[25] The A-7 pilot, Commander Edward Andrews, managed to guide his failing Corsair over coastal waters before ejecting; he was rescued by a Lebanese fishing boat and safely returned to the U.S. Marines.[26]

Libya[edit]

On 24 March 1986, during the Gulf of Sidra dispute with Libya, Libyan air defense operators fired SA-5 missiles at two Fighter Squadron 102 (VF-102) F-14s from USS America that were orbiting in international air space on a Combat Air Patrol (CAP) station. A-7s operating from Saratoga responded by firing the first AGM-88 HARM missiles used in combat. On the next day, A-6s attacked Libyan warships approaching the U.S. Fleet, while A-7s again launched HARM missiles against Libyan SAM sites.[27]

In April 1986, Navy Sixth Fleet A-7Es from VA-72 and VA-46 aboard USS America (CV-66) also participated in Operation El Dorado Canyon, the retaliatory attack on Libya, using HARM and Shrike anti-radar missiles to protect the naval strike force from SAMs.[27]

Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm[edit]

While USAF A-7s stayed home in favor of A-10s, the U.S. Navy deployed two of their last A-7E squadrons to Operation Desert Shield in August 1990 aboard USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67), the only carrier of six deployed to Desert Storm to operate the A-7. VA-46 and VA-72 made the last combat sorties of the A-7 in Operation Desert Storm flying from the Red Sea to targets throughout Iraq. The A-7 was used both day and night to attack a wide range of heavily defended deep interdiction targets in Iraq as well as "kill boxes" (geographically defined kill zones) in Kuwait, employing a variety of weapons including precision-guided munitions (PGMs), such as the TV-guided Walleye glide bomb, unguided general purpose bombs, and High Speed Anti-Radiation missiles (HARM). The A-7 was also used as a tanker in numerous in-flight refueling missions.[citation needed]

Use in F-117 development[edit]

see also: 1987 Indianapolis Ramada Inn A-7D Corsair II Crash

The 4450th Tactical Group stationed at Nellis AFB, Nevada had the distinction of being the last active USAF unit to operate the A-7 Corsair II. The mission of the 4450th TG was the operational development of the Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk, and the unit needed a surrogate aircraft for pilot training and practice. A-7Ds and A-7Ks were obtained from various active duty and air national guard squadrons and were assigned initially to the "(P)" or "Provisional" unit of the 4450th Tactical Group, redesignated the 4451st Tactical Squadron in January 1983.[28]

The A-7s were used as a deception and training aircraft by the group between 1981 and 1989. It was selected because it demanded about the correct amount of pilot workload expected in the F-117A, was single seat, and many of the F-117A pilots had F-4 or F-111 backgrounds. A-7s were used for pilot training before any F-117As had been delivered to bring all pilots to a common flight training base line. Later, the A-7s were used to chase F-117A tests and other weapon tests at the Nellis Range.[28]

A-7D-5-CV AF Serial No. 69-6241 of the 4451st Test Squadron / 4450th Tactical Group at Nellis AFB, Nevada in 1984

A-7 flight operations began in June 1981 concurrent with the very first YF-117A flights. The A-7s wore a unique "LV" tailcode (for Las Vegas) and had a dark purple/black paint motif. The A-7s were based officially at Nellis Air Force Base and were maintained by the 4450th Maintenance Squadron.[28] In addition to providing an excuse for the 4450th's existence and activities, the A-7s were also used to maintain pilot currency, particularly in the early stages when very few production F-117As were available. The pilots learned to fly chase on F-117A test and training flights, perform practice covert deployments, and practice any other purpose that could not be accomplished using F-117As, given the tight restrictions imposed on all F-117A operations.[28]

Some A-7s operated from the Tonopah Test Range Airport, about 30 miles (48 km) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada where the F-117s were being operationally tested. As a deception operation, care was taken to ensure that F-117As were never left parked outside aircraft hangars during daylight hours. However, A-7s were deliberately and routinely left outside hangars for the benefit of any orbiting Soviet spy satellites. Soviet intelligence agencies examining spy satellite imagery of the base would undoubtedly notice the A-7s parked on the Tonopah flight line, and would not be particularly interested. The intention of this deception was to convince the Soviets that Tonopah operated nothing more exciting than some A-7 Corsairs.[28]

There were approximately 20 A-7D aircraft used in developing the F-117, including several two-seat A-7K trainers. In January 1989, just three months after the USAF admitted the F-117A existed, the A-7s were retired to AMARC and were replaced by AT-38B Talons as training aircraft and the 4451st TS was deactivated.[28]

Training and retirement[edit]

Prototype YA-7Ds 67-14582 and 67-14584, along with 69-6191 and 69-6217 making last flyover retirement formation over Edwards AFB, California, heading to AMARC, August 1992

Pilots quipped that the Corsair "is not very fast, but it sure is slow."[29] For dissimilar air combat training (DACT), and aerial demonstrations by the Blue Angels, the Navy would choose the more nimble Douglas A-4 Skyhawk as a subsonic maneuvering platform, as some considered the A-7 to be inadequate in air combat, even though it was highly maneuverable. While some questioned its air combat capability it was widely regarded as a highly successful attack aircraft, partly by virtue of being a stable bombing platform. Despite this, the Marine Corps also rejected the Corsair, opting instead for the V/STOL vertical landing AV-8 Harrier as their light attack aircraft to replace their A-4F/M Skyhawks.[citation needed]

The Hellenic Air Force ordered 60 new A-7H aircraft in 1974 and three TA-7Hs in 1980 and received 62 surplus A-7E/TA-7C from the USN after the Gulf War, 42 of which are still in use. The last squadron that uses the aircraft is the 336th. The A-7 is programmed to be retired in 2014.[30]

The sale of A-7s to Pakistan was not approved due to U.S. opposition to its nuclear program.[31]

F-16s began replacing the Air National Guard Corsairs beginning in the late 1980s and the last were retired in 1993 by the ANG units at Rickenbacker ANGB, Ohio; Des Moines International Airport/ANGB, Iowa; Tulsa International Airport/ANGB, Oklahoma; and Springfield-Beckley Municipal Airport/ANGB, Ohio.

U.S. Navy A-7 Corsairs began being phased out of the fleet during the mid-1980s with the arrival of the McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet. The last Navy A-7s were retired by the last fleet operational squadrons (VA-46 and VA-72) in May 1991 shortly after their return from Operation Desert Storm.

Some of these surplus aircraft were passed to Greece, Thailand and Portugal; however, by the end of 1998, with the exception of some airframes used as static displays, all U.S. A-7s were disposed of by the AMARC at Davis-Monthan AFB, Arizona.

Variants[edit]

A-7A of VA-203 "Blue Dolphins" at NAS Jacksonville Florida in 1976
TA-7C of VA-174 in 1988
EA-7L of VAQ-34 in 1987
Greek Air Force LTV TA-7C Corsair II departs the Royal International Air Tattoo, England (2014)
A-7P of the Portuguese Air Force
A-7A
First production version. Early USN Corsair IIs had two 20 mm Colt Mk 12 cannons with 250 rounds per gun. Maximum ordnance, carried primarily on the wing pylons, was theoretically 15,000 lb (6,804 kg), but was limited by maximum takeoff weight, so the full weapon load could only be carried with greatly reduced internal fuel; Equipped with AN/APN-153 navigational radar, AN/APQ-115 terrain following radar, and a separate AN/APQ-99 attack radar; 199 built.
A-7B
Uprated TF30-P-8 engine with 12,190 lbf (54.2 kN) of thrust. In 1971, surviving A-7Bs were further upgraded to TF30-P-408 with 13,390 lbf (59.6 kN) of thrust; AN/APQ-115 terrain following radar in earlier A-7A is replaced by AN/APQ-116 terrain following radar; 196 built.
A-7C
First 67 production A-7E with TF30-P-408 engines.
TA-7C
Two-seat trainer version for U.S. Navy, 24 converted from A-7B, 36 from A-7C. In 1984, 49 airframes, including the 8 EA-7Ls, were re-engined with the TF41-A-402 and upgraded to A-7E standard.
A-7D
Version built for the USAF, with one Allison TF41-A-1 turbofan, and a single M61 Vulcan 20 mm rotary cannon; AN/APN-153 navigational radar in earlier models is replaced by AN/APN-185 navigational radar, AN/APQ-116 terrain following radar in earlier A-7B/C is replaced by AN/APQ-126 terrain following radar; 459 built.
A-7E
Naval carrier-capable equivalent of the A-7D; AN/APN-185 navigational radar in earlier A-7D is replaced by AN/APN-190 navigational radar, AN/APQ-126 terrain following radar in earlier A-7D is replaced by AN/APQ-128 terrain following radar; 529 built.
YA-7F Strikefighter (A-7D Plus)
Stretched, supersonic version of A-7 powered by an F100, optimized for interdiction role, but cancelled after two prototypes were built.
A-7G
Proposed version for Switzerland, none built.[32]
A-7H
Modified A-7E for Greece without air-refuelling capability, 60 built.
TA-7H
Two-seat trainer version for Greece.
EA-7L
8 TA-7C modified into electronic aggressor aircraft used by VAQ-34, upgraded to A-7E standard while retaining twin seats in 1984.
A-7K
Two-seat trainer version for Air National Guard, 30 built.
A-7P
Ex-U.S. Navy A-7A rebuilt for Portugal, 44 refurbished with TF30-P-408 engines and an avionics fit similar to the A-7E.
TA-7P
Two-seat trainer version for Portugal; six converted from ex-U.S. Navy A-7A.
YA-7E/YA-7H
Two-seat prototypes built by Ling-Temco-Vought as a private venture.

Operators[edit]

Aircraft on display[edit]

Retired A-7 Corsair II in front of the Veterans' Museum in Halls, Tennessee
A-7D "Speedwell" at Wings Museum

Poland[edit]

A-7P

United States[edit]

A-7A
A-7B
TA-7C
A-7D
YA-7D
A-7E

Specifications (A-7E)[edit]

Two USANG A-7K Corsairs, 1988

Data from Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83[89]Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft,[90]International Directory of Military Aircraft,[91] Combat Aircraft since 1945[92]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 46 ft 2 in (14.06 m)
  • Wingspan: 38 ft 9 in (11.8 m)
  • Width: 23 ft 9 in (7.24 m) wings folded
  • Height: 16 ft 1 in (4.9 m)
  • Wing area: 374.9 sq ft (34.83 m2)
  • Airfoil: NACA 65A007 root and tip
  • Empty weight: 19,127 lb (8,676 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 41,998 lb (19,050 kg) overload condition.
  • Fuel capacity: 1,338 US gal (5,060 l; 1,114 imp gal) (10,200 lb (4,600 kg)) internal
  • Powerplant: 1 × Allison TF41-A-2 non-afterburning turbofan engine, 15,000 lbf (66.7 kN) thrust

Performance

  • Maximum speed: 600 kn (690 mph; 1,111 km/h) at Sea level
562 kn (1,041 km/h; 647 mph) at 5,000 ft (1,524.0 m) with 12x Mk82 bombs
595 kn (1,102 km/h; 685 mph) at 5,000 ft (1,524.0 m) after dropping bombs
  • Range: 1,070 nmi; 1,231 mi (1,981 km) maximum internal fuel
  • Ferry range: 1,342 nmi; 1,544 mi (2,485 km) with maximum internal and external fuel
  • Service ceiling: 42,000 ft (13,000 m) http://www.aerospaceweb.org/aircraft/attack/a7/
  • Wing loading: 77.4 lb/sq ft (378 kg/m2)
  • Thrust/weight: 0.50
  • Sustained manoeuvring performance: 5,300 ft (1,615.4 m) turning radius at 4.3g and 500 kn (930 km/h; 580 mph) at an All Up Weight (AUW) of 28,765 lb (13,048 kg)
  • Take-off run: 1,705 ft (519.7 m) at 42,000 lb (19,000 kg)

Armament

Avionics

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists
Other

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ on pylon stations 1,3,6 & 8 which are wet plumbed. Used for ferry flight/extended range/increased loitering time. Often carried a hose and drogue type Buddy Store in addition to drop tanks for use as a tanker aircraft.

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p. 292.
  2. ^ "Avionics: HUDAVAC." flightglobal.com.' Retrieved: 13 October 2010.
  3. ^ http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1973/1973%20-%202885.html
  4. ^ Dorr 1987, p. 61.
  5. ^ Swanborough and Bowers 1976, p. 293.
  6. ^ NAVAIR 01-45AAE-1, pp. 8-48 to 8-148.
  7. ^ "Establishment Ceremony: 0900 March 01 1983." VAG 34. Retrieved: 2 October 2012.
  8. ^ NAVAIR 01-45AAE-1, pp. 11-1–11-93.
  9. ^ Brown 1997.
  10. ^ NAVAIR 01-45AAA-1, pp. 1–68.
  11. ^ NAVAIR 01-45AAE-1, pp. 1–66.
  12. ^ NAVAIR 01-45AAA-1, pp. 1–233.
  13. ^ NAVAIR 01-45AAE-1, pp. 1–177.
  14. ^ Hobson 2001, pp. 268–269.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Munzenmaier 2009.
  16. ^ a b Wagner 1982.
  17. ^ a b c "A-7D Factsheet." National Museum of the United States Air Force.
  18. ^ "A-7D 70-970 Factsheet." National Museum of the United States Air Force.
  19. ^ Hobson 2001, pp. 268, 269.
  20. ^ a b Swanborough and Bowers 1990.
  21. ^ Wetterhahn, Ralph. The Last Battle: The Mayaguez Incident and the End of the Vietnam War. New York: Plume, 2002. ISBN 0-452-28333-7.
  22. ^ The A-10 Warthog, The Best Deal the Air Force Never Wanted
  23. ^ AFHRA Wings and Groups 354th TFW, 355th TFW and 23d TFW organizational records
  24. ^ "Around the Nation: 8 Military Jets Destroyed At Air Base in Puerto Rico." The New York Times, 12 January 1981. Retrieved: 13 October 2010.
  25. ^ a b Dorr 1987, p. 63.
  26. ^ Rausa 1987, p. 34.
  27. ^ a b Mersky 2003, p. 150.
  28. ^ a b c d e f Holder and Wallace 2000
  29. ^ Higham and Williams 1978
  30. ^ http://www.janes.com/article/36920/greece-to-retire-corsair-iis-by-end-of-the-year
  31. ^ Gunston 1984.
  32. ^ Schürmann 2009
  33. ^ http://www.airforce.gr/cms/index.php/hellenicairforceunits/250-a-7retirement
  34. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/5502." pbondaryk.dotster.com. Retrieved: 7 May 2013.
  35. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/152658." Patuxent River Naval Air Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  36. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/152668." Museum of Science and Industry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  37. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/152681." Prairie Aviation Museum]. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  38. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/153135." Valiant Air Command Warbird Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  39. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/154345." Hickory Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  40. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/154550." Air Victory Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  41. ^ http://vmap.wikispaces.com/A-7B+Corsair+II
  42. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/154370." USS Midway Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  43. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/154420." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  44. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/154502." Frontiers of Flight Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  45. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/154548." USS Lexington Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  46. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/156739." Estrella Warbirds Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  47. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/156763." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  48. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/156782." New Century Air Center. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  49. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/68-8220." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  50. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/69-6188." March Field Air Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  51. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/69-6190." Octave Chanute Airospace Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  52. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/69-6191." Joebaugher.com. Retrieved: 24 May 2013.
  53. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/69-6193." airliners.net. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  54. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/69-6197." Glenn L. Martin Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  55. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/69-6200." Wings of Eagles Discovery Center. Retrieved: 03 November 2013.
  56. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/69-6201." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  57. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/69-6237." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  58. ^ Purchased at Auction from the Merle Maine Estate Ontario Oregon
  59. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/70-0966." Virginia Air Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  60. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/70-0970." National Museum of the United States Air Force. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  61. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/70-0973." Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  62. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/70-0998." McClellan AFB Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  63. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/70-1019." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  64. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/71-0334." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  65. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/72-0178." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  66. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/72-0230." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  67. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/72-0261." Selfridge Military Air Museum and Air Park. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  68. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/74-1739." South Dakota Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  69. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/74-1756." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  70. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/75-0400." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  71. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/75-0403." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  72. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/75-0408." Quonset Air Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  73. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/67-14583." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  74. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/158657." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  75. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/156804." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  76. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/157452." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  77. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/157506." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  78. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/158026." Heritage in Flight Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  79. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/159261." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  80. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/159268." MAPS Air Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  81. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/159278." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  82. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/159291." Patriots Point Naval & Maritime Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  83. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/159301." Oakland Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  84. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/159971." Carolinas Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  85. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/160613." Empire State Aerosciences Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  86. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/160713." Pima Air & Space Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  87. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/160714." National Naval Aviation Museum. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  88. ^ "A-7 Corsair II/160715." Warbird Registry. Retrieved: 22 March 2013.
  89. ^ Taylor, John W. R.. (1983). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1982-83. London: Jane's Publishing Company. ISBN 0-7106-0748-2. 
  90. ^ Donald 1997, p. 899.
  91. ^ Frawley 2002.
  92. ^ Wilson 2000, p. 141.

Bibliography[edit]

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  • "A Corsair by any other name: Sandy, SLUF and the Little Hummers: Part Two". Air International, Vol. 22, No. 4, April 1982, pp. 169–176, 202–203.
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  • Munzenmaier, Walter. "'LTV A-7D/K Corsair II: The 'SLUF' in USAF and USANG Service 1968-1993," Famous Aircraft of the USAF and USAG, Volume 1. Erlangen, Germany: Double Ugly Books/ / AirDOC, 2009. ISBN 978-3-93568-712-6.
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  • NAVAIR 01-45AAE-1, A-7C/E Flight Manual. Washington, D.C., USA: US Navy, 1 March 1973.
  • Rausa, Rosario (ed.)."Air Warfare; Chapter III: Power Projection, First Hornet Squadron, Greneda and Lebanon." Pistons to Jets. Washington DC: Department of the Navy – Naval Historical Center, 1987.
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External links[edit]