||This article's introduction section may not adequately summarize its contents. (November 2013)|
Alexander Calder, by Carl Van Vechten, 1947
July 22, 1898|
Lawnton, Pennsylvania, US
|Died||November 11, 1976
New York City
|Training||Stevens Institute of Technology, Art Students League of New York|
|Awards||Presidential Medal of Freedom|
Alexander Calder (July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) was an American sculptor best known as the originator of the mobile, a type of kinetic sculpture made with delicately balanced or suspended components which move in response to motor power or air currents. By contrast, Calder’s stationary sculptures are called stabiles. He also produced numerous wire figures, notably for a miniature circus.
- 1 Early life
- 2 Life and career
- 3 Artistic work
- 4 Exhibitions
- 5 Collections
- 6 Recognition
- 7 Art market
- 8 Legacy
- 9 Quotes
- 10 Gallery
- 11 Selected works
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 External links
Alexander "Sandy" Calder was born in Lawnton, Pennsylvania on July 22, 1898. His father, Stirling Calder, was a well-known sculptor who created many public installations, a majority of them in nearby Philadelphia.
Sandy Calder's grandfather, sculptor Alexander Milne Calder, was born in Scotland, immigrated to Philadelphia in 1868, and is best known for the colossal statue of William Penn on top of Philadelphia City Hall's tower. Sandy Calder's mother, Nanette (née Lederer), was a professional portrait artist, who had studied at the Académie Julian and the Sorbonne in Paris from around 1888 until 1893. She moved to Philadelphia where she met Stirling Calder while studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. Sandy Calder's parents married on February 22, 1895; his sister, Mrs. Margaret Calder Hayes, is considered instrumental in the development of the UC Berkeley Art Museum.
In 1902, Sandy Calder posed nude for his father’s sculpture The Man Cub, which is now located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. That same year he also completed his earliest sculpture, a clay elephant. Three years later, Stirling Calder contracted tuberculosis, and Calder's parents moved to a ranch in Oracle, Arizona, leaving the children in the care of family friends for a year. The children were reunited with their parents in late March 1906 and stayed at the ranch in Arizona until fall of the same year.
After Arizona, the Calder family moved to Pasadena, California. The windowed cellar of the family home became Calder's first studio and he received his first set of tools. He used scraps of copper wire that he found in the streets to make jewelry and beads for his sister's dolls. On January 1, 1907, Nanette Calder took her son to the Tournament of Roses Parade in Pasadena, where he observed a four-horse-chariot race. This style of event later became the finale of Calder's wire circus shows.
In the fall of 1909, the Calder family moved back to Philadelphia, where Sandy briefly attended Germantown Academy, then moved to Croton-on-Hudson, New York. That Christmas, he sculpted a dog and a duck out of sheet brass as gifts for his parents. The sculptures were three dimensional and the duck was kinetic because it rocked when gently tapped. In Croton, during his early high school years, Calder was befriended by painter Everett Shinn with whom he built a gravity powered system of mechanical trains. Calder described it, "We ran the train on wooden rails held by spikes; a chunk of iron racing down the incline speeded [sic] the cars. We even lit up some cars with candle lights". After Croton, the Calders moved to Spuyten Duyvil to be closer to the Tenth Street Studio Building in New York City, where Stirling Calder rented a studio. While living in Spuyten Duyvil, Sandy Calder attended high school in nearby Yonkers. In 1912, Stirling Calder was appointed acting chief of the Department of Sculpture of the Panama–Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco, California.
He began work on sculptures for the exposition that was held in 1915. During Sandy Calder's high school years (1912–1915), the family moved back and forth between New York and California. In each new location, Calder's parents reserved cellar space as a studio for their son. Toward the end of this period, Calder stayed with friends in California while his parents moved back to New York, so that he could graduate from Lowell High School in San Francisco. Calder graduated with the class of 1915.
Life and career
In 1915, Calder decided to study mechanical engineering, and enrolled at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, New Jersey. He was a member of the Delta Tau Delta fraternity and excelled in mathematics.
In the summer of 1916, Calder spent five weeks training at the Plattsburg Civilian Military Training Camp. In 1918, he joined the Student’s Army Training Corps, Naval Section, at Stevens and was made guide of the battalion.
Calder received a degree from Stevens in 1919. For the next several years, he held a variety of engineering jobs, including working as a hydraulic engineer and a draughtsman for the New York Edison Company. In June 1922, Calder found work as a mechanic on the passenger ship H. F. Alexander. While the ship sailed from San Francisco to New York City, Calder worked on deck off the Guatemalan Coast and witnessed both the sun rising and the moon setting on opposite horizons. He described in his autobiography, "It was early one morning on a calm sea, off Guatemala, when over my couch—a coil of rope—I saw the beginning of a fiery red sunrise on one side and the moon looking like a silver coin on the other."
The H.F. Alexander docked in San Francisco and Calder traveled up to Aberdeen, Washington, where his sister lived with her husband, Kenneth Hayes. Calder took a job as a timekeeper at a logging camp. The mountain scenery inspired him to write home to request paints and brushes. Shortly after this, Calder decided to move back to New York to pursue a career as an artist.
Calder moved to New York and enrolled at the Art Students' League, studying briefly with Thomas Hart Benton, George Luks, Kenneth Hayes Miller, and John Sloan. While a student, he worked for the National Police Gazette where, in 1925, one of his assignments was sketching the Ringling Brothers and Barnum and Bailey Circus. Calder became fascinated with the circus, a theme that would reappear in his later work.
In 1926, Calder moved to Paris, visited the Académie de la Grande Chaumière and he established a studio at 22 rue Daguerre in the Montparnasse Quarter. In June 1929, while traveling by boat from Paris to New York, Calder met his future wife, Louisa James (1905-1996), grandniece of author Henry James and philosopher William James. They married in 1931. While in Paris, Calder met and became friends with a number of avant-garde artists, including Joan Miró, Jean Arp, and Marcel Duchamp. Calder and Louisa returned to America in 1933 to settle in a farmhouse they purchased in Roxbury, Connecticut, where they raised a family (first daughter, Sandra born 1935, second daughter, Mary, in 1939). In 1955 Alexander and Louisa Calder travelled around in India for three months, where Calder produced nine sculptures as well as some jewelry.
In 1962, Calder settled into his new workshop Carroi, which was of a futuristic design and overlooked the valley of the Lower Chevrière to Saché in Indre-et-Loire (France). He did not hesitate to offer his gouaches and small mobiles to his friends in the country, he even donated to the town a stabile trônant, which since 1974 is situated front of the church: an anti-sculpture free from gravity. Throughout his artistic career, Calder named many of his works in French, regardless of where they were destined for eventual display.
In 1966, Calder published his Autobiography with Pictures with the help of his son-in-law, Jean Davidson.
Calder died unexpectedly on November 11, 1976, shortly after opening a major retrospective show at the Whitney Museum in New York.
Cirque Calder and toys
In 1926, at the suggestion of a Serbian toy merchant in Paris, Calder began to make toys. At the urging of fellow sculptor Jose de Creeft, he submitted them to the Salon des Humoristes. Later that fall, Calder began to create his Cirque Calder, a miniature circus fashioned from wire, string, rubber, cloth, and other found objects. Designed to fit into suitcases (it eventually grew to fill five), the circus was portable, and allowed Calder to hold performances on both sides of the Atlantic. He gave improvised shows, recreating the performance of a real circus. Soon, his Cirque Calder (usually on view at the Whitney Museum of American Art at present) became popular with the Parisian avant-garde.
In 1927, Calder returned to the United States. He designed several kinetic wooden push and pull toys for children, which were mass-produced by the Gould Manufacturing Company, in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. His originals, as well as playable replicas, are on display in the Berkshire Museum in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Throughout the 1930s, Calder continued to give Cirque Calder performances, but he also worked with choreographer Martha Graham, designing stage sets for her ballets and created a moving stage construction to accompany Eric Satie's Socrate in 1936.
The Cirque Calder can be seen as the start of Calder's interest in both wire sculpture and kinetic art. He maintained a sharp eye with respect to the engineering balance of the sculptures and utilized these to develop the kinetic sculptures Marcel Duchamp would ultimately dub as "mobiles", a French pun meaning both "mobile" and "motive." He designed some of the characters in the circus to perform suspended from a thread. For other sculptures, such as Policeman (1928), Calder transforms the graphic, all-black wire into an elegant series of loops and twists to create an animated figure.
In 1929, Calder had his first solo show of wire sculpture, in Paris at Galerie Billiet. The painter Jules Pascin, a friend of Calder's from the cafes of Montparnasse, wrote the preface to the catalog. A visit to Piet Mondrian's studio in 1930 "shocked" him into embracing abstract art.
It was the mixture of his experiments to develop purely abstract sculpture following his visit with Mondrian that led to his first truly kinetic sculptures, manipulated by means of cranks and pulleys, that would become his signature artworks. Calder’s kinetic sculptures are regarded as being amongst the earliest manifestations of an art that consciously departed from the traditional notion of the art work as a static object and integrated the ideas of motion and change as aesthetic factors.
By the end of 1931, he moved on to more delicate sculptures which derived their motion from the air currents in the room, using cutout shapes reminiscent of natural forms (birds, fish, falling leaves). Dating from 1932, Calder’s first hanging sculptures of discrete movable parts powered by the wind were christened “mobiles” by Marcel Duchamp. They were followed from 1934 by pieces which were set in motion by air currents. At the same time, Calder was also experimenting with self-supporting, static, abstract sculptures, dubbed "stabiles" by Jean Arp in 1932 to differentiate them from mobiles. In 1935-1936 he produced a number of works made largely of carved wood. At Exposition Internationale des Arts et Techniques dans la Vie Moderne (1937) the Spanish pavillion include Alexander Calder's sculpture Mercury Fountain.
During World War II, Calder attempted to join the Marines as a camofleur, but was rejected. Instead, he continued to sculpt, but a scarcity of metal led to him again producing work in carved wood. Calder set about creating new works such as Seven Horizontal Discs (1946), which he was able to dismantle and send by mail despite the stringent size restrictions imposed by the postal service at the time.
Once the war was over, Calder began to cut shapes from sheet metal into evocative forms and would hand-paint them in his characteristically pure hues of black, red, blue, and white. Calder created a small group of works from around this period with a hanging base-plate, for example Lily of Force (1945), Baby Flat Top (1946), and Red is Dominant (1947). Largely comprising a range of hanging and standing Mobiles, his 1946 show at the Galerie Louis Carré in Paris made a huge impact, as did the essays for the catalogue which was especially written, at the artist's invitation, by French philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre and curator James Johnson Sweeney. By the late 1950s, Calder produced mobiles almost exclusively for close friends and family.
In 1951, Calder devised a new kind of mobile/stabile combination, related structurally to his constellations. These "towers," affixed to the wall with a nail, consist of wire struts and beams that jut out from the wall, with moving objects suspended from their armatures. After 1965, an intermediate maquette, usually about one-fifth the final size, was often fabricated to test the wind resistance and to refine the structure.
In the 1930s, the Berkshire Museum in Pittsfield, Massachusetts gave Calder his first public commission, a pair of mobiles designed for the Museum's new theater. In the 1950s, Calder increasingly concentrated his efforts on producing monumental sculptures (his self-described period of "agrandissements"). Notable examples are .125 for JFK Airport in 1957, La Spirale for UNESCO in Paris 1958 and Man (L'Homme), commissioned for Expo 67 in Montreal, Canada. Calder's largest sculpture until that time, 20.5 meters high, was El Sol Rojo, constructed outside the Aztec Stadium for the 1968 Summer Olympics "Cultural Olympiad" events in Mexico City.
In 1934, Calder made his first outdoor works in his Roxbury, Connecticut studio, using the same techniques and materials as his smaller works. Exhibited outside, Calder's initial standing mobiles moved elegantly in the breeze, bobbing and swirling in natural, spontaneous rhythms. In fact, the first few outdoor works were too delicate for strong winds, which forced Calder to rethink his fabrication process.
In 1936, he responded to the problem, changing his working methods. He began to create smaller scale maquettes that he then enlarged to monumental size. The small metal maquette, the first step in the production of a monumental sculpture, was already for Calder a sculpture in its own right. The larger works were made under his direction, using the classic enlargement techniques used in different ways by traditional sculptors, including his father and grandfather. Calder began to draw his designs on brown craft paper, which he enlarged using a grid. His large-scale works were created according to his exact specifications, while also allowing him the liberty to adjust or correct a shape or line if necessary.
He made most of his monumental stabiles and mobiles during this time[when?] at Etablissements Biémont in Tours, France. Calder would create a model of his work, the research department (headed by M. Porcheron, with Alain Roy, François Lopez, Michel Juigner ...) would scale it up to final size, and then experienced boilermakers would complete the actual metalwork — all under Calder's watchful eye. Stabiles were made in carbon steel sheet metal, then painted in black or in primary colors. Some lightweight mobiles were made of aluminum or duralumin alloy. An exception was Man (L'homme), stainless steel 24 meters tall, which was commissioned by International Nickel Company of Canada (Inco).
In 1958, Calder collaborated with Jean Prouvé to construct the steel base of La Spirale, a monumental mobile for the UNESCO site in Paris. (Calder later gave Prouvé two mobiles—as well as a gouache with a dedication.) In June 1969, Calder attended the dedication of his monumental stabile La Grande Vitesse in Grand Rapids, Michigan. This sculpture is notable for being the first civic sculpture in the United States to be receive funding from the National Endowment for the Arts.
Calder created a sculpture called WTC Stabile (also known as Bent Propeller), which in 1971 was installed at the entrance of the World Trade Center's North Tower in New York City. When Battery Park City opened, the sculpture was moved to Vesey and Church Streets. The sculpture stood in front of 7 World Trade Center until it was destroyed on September 11, 2001.
In 1974 Calder unveiled to the public two sculptures, Flamingo at Federal Plaza and Universe at Sears Tower, in Chicago, Illinois. The exhibition Alexander Calder: A Retrospective Exhibition at the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, opened simultaneously with the unveiling of the sculptures. Originally meant to be constructed in 1979 for the Hart Senate Office Building, Mountains and Clouds was not built until 1985 due to government budget cuts. The massive project, constructed of sheet steel and weighing 35 tons, spans the entire nine-story height of the building's atrium in Washington D.C. Calder designed the maquette in the last year of his life for the U.S. Senate, and designated his assistant Carmen Segretario to construct the massive stabile.
Painting and printmaking
In addition to sculptures, Calder painted throughout his career, beginning in the early 1920s. He picked up his study of printmaking after moving to Paris in 1926, and continued to produce illustrations for books and journals. His many projects from this period include pen-and-ink line drawings of animals for a 1931 publication of Aesop’s fables. As Calder’s sculpture moved into the realm of pure abstraction in the mid-1930s, so did his prints. The thin lines used to define figures in the earlier prints and drawings began delineating groups of geometric shapes, often in motion. Calder also used prints for advocacy, as in poster prints from 1967 and 1969 protesting the Vietnam War.
As Calder’s professional reputation expanded in the late 1940s and 1950s, so did his production of prints. Masses of lithographs based on his gouache paintings hit the market, and deluxe editions of plays, poems, and short stories illustrated with fine art prints by Calder became available for sale.
In 1973, Braniff International Airways commissioned him to paint a full-size DC-8-62 as a "flying canvas." In 1975, Calder completed a second airplane, this time a Boeing 727–291, as a tribute to the US Bicentennial. Mr. Calder was working on a third Boeing 727 design for Braniff when he died in November, 1976. The design was painted on several models for Braniff to select from, and a dedication ceremony was conducted in 1977 for a "Flying Colors of Mexico" aircraft that included his wife Louisa in attendance. The design was never applied to a Braniff aircraft for some unknown reason.
Calder created 1,800 pieces of jewelry over the course of his career, many of them as gifts for friends and relatives. Several pieces reflect Calder's fascination with art from Africa and other continents. They were mostly made of brass and steel, with bits of ceramic, wood and glass. Calder rarely used solder; when he needed to join strips of metal, he linked them with loops, bound them with snippets of wire or fashioned rivets. Calder created his first pieces in 1906 at the age of eight for his sister's dolls using scraps of metal he found in the street.
For his lifelong friend Joan Miró, he set a shard of a broken porcelain vessel in a brass ring. Peggy Guggenheim received enormous silver mobile earrings and later commissioned a hammered silver headboard that shimmered with dangling fish. In 1942, Guggenheim wore one Calder earring and one by Yves Tanguy to the opening of her New York gallery, The Art of This Century, to demonstrate her equal loyalty to Surrealist and abstract art, examples of which she displayed in separate galleries. Others who were presented with Calder's pieces were the artist's close friend, Georgia O'Keeffe; Alexina Duchamp, wife of Marcel Duchamp; Jeanne Rucar, wife of the filmmaker Luis Buñuel; and Bella Rosenfeld, wife of Marc Chagall.
After being given a Masaya hammock in 1972, Calder commissioned 100 Nicaraguan weavers to make a host of new ones following eight of his own designs, along with a range of wall hangings. A collection of 14 further hand-woven wool tapestries in limited editions then followed.
Calder's first solo exhibition came in 1927, at the Gallery of Jacques Seligmann in Paris. In 1928, his first solo show in a US commercial gallery was at the Weyhe Gallery in New York City. In 1933, he exhibited with the Abstraction-Création group in Paris.
In 1935, he had his first solo museum exhibition in the United States at The Renaissance Society at the University of Chicago. In New York, he was championed from the early 1930s by the Museum of Modern Art, and was one of three Americans to be included in Alfred H. Barr Jr.'s 1936 exhibition Cubism and Abstract Art.
Calder's first retrospective was held in 1938 at George Walter Vincent Smith Gallery in Springfield, Massachusetts. In 1943, the Museum of Modern Art hosted a well-received Calder retrospective, curated by James Johnson Sweeney and Marcel Duchamp; the show had to be extended due to the sheer number of visitors. Calder was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the 3rd Sculpture International held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the summer of 1949. His mobile, International Mobile was the centerpiece of the exhibition. Calder also participated in documentas I (1955), II (1959), III (1964).
Since Calder's death, his work has now been the subject of numerous museum exhibitions, including Alexander Calder, Louisiana Museum of Modern Art, Humlebaek, Denmark, 1995 (traveled to: Moderna Museet, Stockholm; Musée d'art moderne, Paris, in 1996); Alexander Calder: 1898-1976, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1998 (traveled to the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art); Calder: Gravity and Grace, Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, 2003 (traveled to Reina Sofia, Madrid); The Surreal Calder, Menil Collection, Houston, 2005-2006 (traveled to San Francisco Museum of Modern Art; Minneapolis Institute of Arts); Calder Jewelry, Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, 2008 (traveled to Philadelphia Museum of Art; Metropolitan Museum, New York; Irish Museum of Modern Art; San Diego Museum of Art; Grand Rapids Art Museum); Alexander Calder: The Paris Years, 1926-1933, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, 2008 (traveled to the Centre Pompidou, Paris; Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto); Calder, Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome, 2009–2010; and Alexander Calder: A Balancing Act, Seattle Art Museum, 2009–2010. From February 11 through May 28, 2012 the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague has an exhibition about Calder, including his relationship with Piet Mondrian.
Calder's work is in many permanent collections across the world. The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, has the largest body of work by Alexander Calder in any museum. Other important museum collections include the Museum of Modern Art, New York; the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris; the Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía, Madrid; and the National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.
The Philadelphia Museum of Art offers a view of works by three generations of Alexander Calders. From the second floor window on the east side of the Great Stair Hall (on the opposite side from the armor collection) there is behind the viewer the Ghost mobile from the 3rd generation (DOB 1898), ahead on the street is the Swann Memorial Fountain by the 2nd generation (DOB 1870), and beyond that the statue of William Penn atop City Hall from the 1st generation (DOB 1846).
In the late 1930s and early 1940s, even as Calder’s international acclaim was growing, his works were still not highly sought after, and when they sold, it was often for relatively little money. A copy of a Pierre Matisse sales ledger in the foundation’s files shows that only a few pieces in the 1941 show found buyers, one of whom, Solomon R. Guggenheim, paid all of $233.34 — or about $3,500 in today’s money — for a work. (The Museum of Modern Art had bought its first Calder in 1934 for $60, after talking Calder down from $100.) In 2010, his metal mobile Untitled (Autumn Leaves), sold at Sotheby's New York for $3.7 million. Another mobile, titled Red Curlicue (1973), brought $6.35 million at Christie's later that year. Also at Christie's, a standing mobile called Lily of Force (1945), which was estimated to sell for $8 million to $12 million, was bought for $18.5 million in 2012.
Galerie Maeght in Paris became Calder's exclusive Parisian dealer in 1950. His association with Galerie Maeght lasted twenty-six years, until his death. After his New York dealer Curt Valentin died unexpectedly in 1954, Calder selected the Perls Gallery in New York as his new American dealer, and this alliance also lasted until the end of his life.
From 1966 through the present, winners of the National Magazine Awards are awarded an "Ellie", a copper-colored stabile resembling an elephant, which was designed by Calder. Two months after his death, the artist was posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the United States' highest civilian honor, by President Gerald Ford. However, representatives of the Calder family boycotted the January 10, 1977 ceremony "to make a statement favoring amnesty for Vietnam War draft resisters."
In 1998, the U.S. Postal Service issued a 32 cent stamp honoring Calder.
In 1987, the Calder Foundation was established by Calder's family. The foundation "is dedicated to collecting, exhibiting, preserving, and interpreting the art and archives of Alexander Calder and is charged with an unmatched collection of his works." The foundation has large holdings, with some works owned by family members and others by foundation supporters. The art includes more than 600 sculptures (including mobiles, stabiles, standing mobiles, and wire sculptures), and 22 monumental outdoor works, as well as thousands of oil paintings, works on paper, toys, pieces of jewelry, and household objects. The US copyright representative for the Calder Foundation is the Artists Rights Society.
In 2012, the foundation decided to forgo a catalogue raisonné in favor of an online guide to Calder’s development and history, featuring 4,000 to 6,000 works, roughly one-quarter of the artist’s total output. After having worked mainly on cataloging Calder’s works, the Calder Foundation is now focusing on organizing global exhibitions for the artist.
The Calder Foundation does not authenticate artworks; rather, owners can submit their works for registration in the Foundation's archive and for examination. The committee that performs examinations includes dealers, scholars, museum curators and members of the Calder family. The Calder Foundation's website provides details on the current policies and guidelines governing examination procedures.
In 1993, the owners of Rio Nero (1959), a sheet-metal and steel-wire mobile ostensibly by Calder, went to the United States District Court for the District of Columbia claiming that it was not by Alexander Calder, as the dealer they had bought it from had said. That same year, a federal judge ruled that Rio Nero was authentic, and had just been assembled incorrectly. Despite the decision, the owners of the mobile could not sell it because the recognized expert, Klaus Perls, had declared it a copy. The judge recognized the problem at the time, noting that Perls’ pronouncement would make Rio Nero unsellable. In 1994, the Calder Foundation declined to include the mobile in the catalogue raisonné on the artist.
Referring to the Rio Nero case, the Appellate Division of the New York Supreme Court in 2009 rejected the appeal of an art collector who wished to sell a couple of stage sets that Calder had designed but did not live to see completed, which he had unsuccessfully tried to get the Calder Foundation to authenticate. The court found that it did not have the power to declare the purported Calder work authentic nor to order the Calder Foundation to include it in the catalogue raisonné.
Plans for a Calder Museum
After similar ideas were developed for New York in 1998, plans for a museum devoted to Calder in Philadelphia were announced in 2000. The proposed 35,000-square-foot Calder museum, designed by Japanese architect Tadao Ando, was to be located on a two-acre lot. The facility, which was slated for a 2008 opening, would have cost an estimated $70 million. In 2005, the plans were abandoned amid stalled negotiations with the late sculptor's heirs over the terms of lending his works.
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"How can art be realized?
Out of volumes, motion, spaces bounded by the great space, the universe.
Out of different masses, tight, heavy, middling—indicated by variations of size or color—directional line—vectors which represent speeds, velocities, accelerations, forces, etc. . . .—these directions making between them meaningful angles, and senses, together defining one big conclusion or many.
Spaces, volumes, suggested by the smallest means in contrast to their mass, or even including them, juxtaposed, pierced by vectors, crossed by speeds.
Nothing at all of this is fixed.
Each element able to move, to stir, to oscillate, to come and go in its relationships with the other elements in its universe.
It must not be just a fleeting moment but a physical bond between the varying events in life.
Abstractions that are like nothing in life except in their manner of reacting."
- – From Abstraction-Création, Art Non Figuratif, no. 1, 1932.
The Four Elements (1961), Moderna Museet, installation in front of the museum entrance
Le tamanoir (The Anteater) (1963),
De tre vingarna (The Three Wings) (1967), Blå Stället, Angered, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Le hallebardier (The Halberdier) (1971), Sprengel Museum, Hannover, Germany
Crinkly avec disque rouge (Crinkly with Red Disk) (1973), Schlossplatz in Stuttgart, Germany
Feuille d'arbre (Tree leaf) (1974),
Tel Aviv, Israel
- Dog (1909), folded brass sheet; this was made as a present for Calder's parents
- The Flying Trapeze (1925), oil on canvas, 36 x 42 in.
- Elephant (c. 1928), wire and wood, 11½ x 5¾ x 29.2 in.
- Two Acrobats (ca. 1928), Brass wire, painted wood base, Honolulu Museum of Art
- Aztec Josephine Baker (c. 1929), wire, 53" x 10" x 9". A representation of Josephine Baker, the exuberant lead dancer from La revue nègre at the Folies Bergère.
- Untitled (1931), wire, wood and motor; one of the first kinetic mobiles.
- Feathers (1931), wire, wood and paint; first true mobile, although designed to stand on a desktop
- Cône d'ébène (1933), ebony, metal bar and wire; early suspended mobile (first was made in 1932).
- Form Against Yellow (1936), sheet metal, wire, plywood, string and paint; wall-supported mobile.
- Object with Yellow Background (1936), Painted wood, metal, string, Honolulu Museum of Art
- Mercury Fountain (1937), sheet metal and liquid mercury (element) metal
- Devil Fish (1937), sheet metal, bolts and paint; first piece made from a model.
- 1939 New York World's Fair (maquette) (1938), sheet metal, wire, wood, string and paint
- Necklace (c. 1938), brass wire, glass and mirror
- Sphere Pierced by Cylinders (1939), wire and paint; the first of many floor standing, life size stabiles (predating Anthony Caro's plinthless sculptures by two decades)
- Lobster Trap and Fish Tail (1939), sheet metal, wire and paint (suspended mobile); design for the stairwell of the Museum of Modern Art, New York
- Black Beast (1940), sheet metal, bolts and paint (freestanding plinthless stabile)
- S-Shaped Vine (1946), sheet metal, wire and paint (suspended mobile)
- Sword Plant (1947) sheet metal, wire and paint (standing mobile)
- Snow Flurry (1948), sheet metal, wire and paint (suspended mobile)
- Stillman House Mural (1952), (pool mural) http://www.aaa.si.edu/collections/images/detail/stillman-house-i-881
- .125 (1957), steel plate, rods and paint
- La spirale (1958), steel plate, rod and paint, 360" high; public monumental mobile for Maison de l'U.N.E.S.C.O., Paris
- Guillotine pour huit (1962), at the LaM, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
- Teodelapio (1962), steel plate and paint, monumental stabile, Spoleto, Italy
- La Grande Voile (The Big Sail) (1966), a 33-ton metal sculpture composed of five intersecting forms, four planes, and one curve. It stands 40 feet tall, on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- Man (1967) stainless steel plate, bolts and paint, 65' x 83' x 53', monumental stabile, Montreal Canada
- Gwenfritz (1968) National Museum of American History
- La grande vitesse (1969), steel plate, bolts and paint, 43' x 55' x 25', Grand Rapids, Michigan
- Peau Rouge Indiana (1970), steel plate, bolts and paint, 40' x 32' x 33', Bloomington, Indiana
- Reims, Croix du Sud (1970), at the LaM, Villeneuve d'Ascq, France
- Eagle (1971), steel plate, bolts and paint, 38'9" x 32'8" x 32'8", Olympic Sculpture Park, Seattle, Washington
- White and Red Boomerang (1971), Painted metal, wire, Honolulu Museum of Art
- Stegosaurus (1973), steel plate, bolts and paint, 50' tall, Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut
- Cheval Rouge (Red Horse)(1974), red painted sheet metal, at the National Gallery, Washington, D.C.
- Flamingo (1974), red painted steel, at the Federal Plaza, Chicago, Illinois
- The Red Feather (1975), black and red painted steel, 11' x 6'3" x 11'2", The Kentucky Center
- Untitled (1976), aluminum honeycomb, tubing and paint, 358½ x 912", National Gallery of Art Washington, D.C.
- L'Araignée Rouge (The Red Spider) (1976), 15m tall, monumental sculpture, Paris La Défense France
- Mountains and Clouds (1976), painted aluminum and steel, 612 inches x 900 inches, Hart Senate Office Building
- Award won by Alexander Calder http://m.thelmagazine.com/TheMeasure/archives/2011/02/15/jasper-johns-gets-his-presidential-medal-of-freedom-tonight
- Hayes, Margaret Calder. Three Alexander Calders: A Family Memoir. Middlebury, VT: Paul S. Eriksson, 1977.
- Calder 1966, p. 13.
- Calder 1966, p. 15.
- "Calder Foundation". Calder.org. Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved July 21, 2011.
- Calder 1966, pp. 21–22.
- Calder 1966, pp. 28–29.
- Hayes, Margaret Calder, Three Alexander Calders: A Family Memoir. Middlebury, VT: Paul S. Eriksson, 1977, p. 41.
- Calder 1966, p. 31
- "Panama Pacific International Exposition". calder.org.
- Petroski, Henry (September–October 2012). "Portrait of the Artist as a Young Engineer". In Schoonmaker, David. American Scientist (New Haven, Connecticut: Sigma Xi) 100 (5): 368–373. ISSN 0003-0996. OCLC 645082957.
- Calder 1966, p. 47.
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- Alexander Calder, Untitled (1958) Christie's Post-War & Contemporary Art Evening Sale, 14 November 2012, New York.
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- Alexander Calder, Red Curlicue (1973) Christie's Post-War and Contemporary Evening Sale, 10 November 2010, New York.
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- Calder Hayes, Margaret. Three Alexander Calders: A Family Memoir. Paul S. Eriksson, 1977, ISBN 0-8397-8017-6.
- Guerrero, Pedro E. Calder at Home. The Joyous Environment of Alexander Calder. Stewart, Tabori & Chang, New York, 1998, ISBN 978-1-55670-655-4
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- Thalacker, Donald W. "The Place of Art in the World of Architecture." Chelsea House Publishers, New York, 1980.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alexander Calder.|
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