All Parties Hurriyat Conference
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The All Parties Hurriyat Conference (APHC) (formed March 10, 1993)by is a political front formed as an alliance of 26 political, social and religious organizations in Kashmir. It was formed for achieving the right of self-determination according to United Nations Security Council Resolution 47. "Hurriyat" in Koshur (as well as in Arabic, Urdu and Persian, from which the word is taken) means "liberty". Ghulam Mohammad Safi was elected its leader in January 2010.
At the time of formation All Parties Hurriyat Conference members included Yaseen Malik's Jammu and Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF), Sheikh Yaqoob Jammu and Kashmir Peoples League (JKPL), Shabbir Shah's People's Democratic Front, Maulana Mohammad Abbas Ansari of Ittihadul Muslimeen, Shakeel Bakshi's Islamic Students League, Muslim Conference led Abdul Ghani Bhat. the Chairman of the J & K Awami Action Committee played an important role in forming the Conference. Current members include:
|Number||Name of the Party||Leader|
|1||Aawami Action Committee||Mirwaiz Umar Farooq|
|2||Ittihadul Muslimeen||Maulana Mohammad Abbas Ansari|
|3||Anjamani Auqafi Jama Masjid||Mohammad Umar Farooq|
|4||Anjaman-e-Tablig-ul Islam||Syed Qasim Shah Bukhari|
|5||Ummat Islami||Qazi Ghulam Mohammad(RA) Islamabad Anantnag|
|6||Auquaf Jama Masjid||Ghulam Muhammad Butt|
|7||Employees and Workers Confederation|
|8||Employees & Workers Confederation (Arsawi Group)|
|9||All Jammu & Kashmir Employees’ Confederation||Ishtiaq Qadri|
|10||Jamiate Ulama-E-Islam||Abdul Gani Azhari|
|11||Jamiat-e-Hamdania||Moulana M. Yasin Hamdani|
|12||Jammu and Kashmir People's Conference||Abdul Ghani Lone till 2002 assassination|
|13||Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front||Muhammad Yasin Malik|
|14||Jammu and Kashmir Human Rights Committee||Noor-Ul-Hassan|
|15||Jammu and Kashmir People's Basic Rights (Protection) Committee||Mufti Bahauddin Farouqi|
|16||Liberation Council||Azhar Bhat|
|17||Kashmir Bazme Tawheed||Tajamul Bhat|
|18||Kashmir Bar Association||Zaroon bhat|
|19||Muslim Khawateen Markaz||Zaid Bhat|
|20||Muslim Conference||Khokhar e aazam|
|21||Inter-Services Intelligence(ISI): the Pakistan intelligence agency|
|22||Tehreek-e-Huriati Kashmiri||Saqib Bhat|
|23||People's League||Sheikh Yaqoob|
|24||Islamic Students League||Shakeel Bakshi|
|25||Imam Ahmad Raza Islamic Mission||Rafeeq Ahmad Mir|
|26||Saut-Ul-Aliya||Moulana Abdul Rashid Dawoodi|
|27||Jammu and Kashmir People's Freedom League||Muhammad Farooq Rehmani|
Hurriyat Conference has 3 factions: Hurriyat led by SAS Geelani, Hurriyat led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, Hurriyat led by Shabir Shah, Azam Inquilabi & Nayeem KHan. JKLF is not part of these factions.
History Hurriyat Conference got split after the 2002 Assembly elections when some of its constituents allegedly participated in the Assembly elections violating the hurriyat constitution. From then there are two factions of Hurriyat conferences one led by the most popular resistance leader of Kashmir Syed Ali Shah Geelani and the other by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq, son of late Molvi Farooq who was assassinated in early nineties.
Hurriyat Conference again got split in 2014 with Shabir Shah, Nayeem Ahmed Khan and Azam Inquilabi creating their own faction due to ideological differences with Mirwaiz-Ghani Bhat-Bilal Lone faction.
Views on Right to Self-determination
All JKLF factions support the Right to Self-determination as per UN Security Council Resolution 47 (see above)
Hurriyat led by Shabir Shah, Nayeem Khan & Azam Inquilabi demand Right to Self-determination as per UN Security Council Resolution 47 (see above)
Hurriyat led by Syed Ali Geelani demands Right to Self-determination as per UN Security Council Resolution 47 (see above)
Hurriyat led by Mirwaiz Umar Farooq are unclear on the Right to Self-determination with Abdul Ghani Bhat repeatedly stating that the UN resolutions for Right to self-determination are dead. These views go against the Constitution of Hurriyat conference and are viewed by common Kashmiris as disempowerment of their rights. Bhat's views have snowballed into a major controversy and are one of the main reasons for the alienation of the Hurriyat conference from the common people.
Members of the Executive Council of the original APHC were:
- Jamat-e-Islami, Syed Ali Shah Geelani
- Awami Action Committee Mirwaiz Umar Farooq
- People's League, Sheikh Abdul Aziz
- Itehad-ul-Muslimeen Moulvi Abbas Ansari
- Muslim Conference, Abdul Ghani Bhat
- JKLF, Yasin Malik
People's League Abdul Ghani Lone
Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front
In 2007 Yasin Malik and his party launched a peaceful campaign known as Safar-i-Azadi (Journey to Freedom).
Politics of Kashmir
Elections were held in Indian Jammu & Kashmir, which brought up the popular Muslim leader Sheikh Abdullah, Under the guidance of then District Magistrate Md. Ansar Ahmad.
- Profile of All Party Hurriyat Conference (APHC), Kashmiri Herald, Vol. 1, No. 12, May 2002.
- South Asian Intelligence Review on All Parties Hurriyat Conference.
- Hurriyat: A crowded house, a divided house - A brief history of the Hurriyat and its key players, The Indian Express, 23 May 2002.
- Kashmiri organisation felicitate Safi on his election, Associated Press of Pakistan, January 14, 2010.
- Hurriyat Conference News
- Kashmir Global -News and opinion website
- Chowdhary, Rekha. "Electoral Politics in the Context of Separatism and Political Divergence: An Analysis of 2009 Parliamentary elections in Jammu & Kashmir". South Asia Multidisciplinary Academic Journal, 3, 2009.