Member of the European Parliament
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A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to the European Parliament. The name of MEPs differ in different languages, with terms such as "europarliamentarian" or "eurodeputy" being common in Romance language-speaking areas.
When the European Parliament was first established, MEPs were appointed by member states from members of their own national parliaments. Since 1979, however, MEPs have been elected by direct universal suffrage. Each member state establishes its own way of electing their MEPs, and in some states the electoral system has changed over time and across regions. All now use one or another form of proportional representation. For a list of the current members see Members of the European Parliament 2009–2014.
- 1 Election of MEPs
- 2 MEPs within the Parliament
- 3 The job of an MEP
- 4 Powers
- 5 Payment and privileges
- 6 Individual members
- 7 Election of non-nationals
- 8 Observers
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Election of MEPs
From 1 January 2007, when Romania and Bulgaria joined the EU, there were 785 MEPs, but their number fell back to 736 at the latest elections in 2009, though this will eventually rise to 751, with each member state having at least six and at most 96. Elections occur once every five years, on the basis of universal adult suffrage. There is no uniform voting system for the election of MEPs; rather, each member state is free to choose its own system, subject to three restrictions:
- The system must be a form of proportional representation, under either the party list or Single Transferable Vote system.
- The electoral area may be subdivided if this will not generally affect the proportional nature of the voting system.
- Any election threshold on the national level must not exceed five percent.
The allocation of seats to each member state is based on the principle of degressive proportionality, so that, while the size of the population of each nation is taken into account, smaller states elect more MEPs than would be strictly justified by their populations alone. As the number of MEPs granted to each member state has arisen from treaty negotiations, there is no precise formula for the apportionment of seats. No change in this configuration can occur without the unanimous consent of all national governments.
The most recent elections to the European Parliament were the European elections of 2009, held in June of that year. They were the largest simultaneous transnational elections ever held anywhere in the world, since nearly 500 million citizens were eligible to vote.
Length of service
The European Parliament has a high turnover of members compared to some national parliaments. For instance, after the 2004 elections, the majority of elected members had not been members in the prior parliamentary session, though that could largely be put down to the recent enlargement. Only one (Hans-Gert Pöttering) has served continuously since the first elections in 1979.
MEPs within the Parliament
All but 27 MEPs are members of cross-nationality political groups, organised according to political allegiance. For instance, the Irish Labour and French Socialist MEPs are members of the Socialists & Democrats while the Swedish Moderate and German CDU MEPs are members of the European People's Party.
MEPs in Parliament are organised into seven different parliamentary groups, including about thirty non-attached members known as non-inscrits. The two largest groups are the European People's Party (EPP) and the Socialists & Democrats (S&D). These two groups have dominated the Parliament for much of its life, continuously holding between 50 and 70 percent of the seats together. No single group has ever held a majority in Parliament. As a result of being broad alliances of national parties, European groups parties are very decentralised and hence have more in common with parties in federal states like Germany or the United States than unitary states like the majority of the EU states. Although, the European groups, between 2004 and 2009, were actually more cohesive than their US counterparts.
Aside from working through their Groups, individual members are also guaranteed a number of individual powers and rights within the Parliament:
- the right to table a motion for resolution;
- the right to put questions to the Council of the European Union, the Commission, and to the leaders of the Parliament;
- the right to table an amendment to any text in committee;
- the right to make explanations of vote;
- the right to raise points of order;
- the right to move the inadmissibility of a matter.
The job of an MEP
||This section possibly contains original research. (June 2009)|
Every month except August the Parliament meets in Strasbourg for a four-day plenary session, six times a year it meets for two days each in Brussels, where the Parliament's committees, political groups and other organs also mainly meet. The obligation to spend one week a month in Strasbourg was imposed on Parliament by the Member State governments at the Edinburgh summit in 1992.
In addition, an MEP may be part of an international delegation and have meetings with outside delegations coming to Brussels or Strasbourg or visiting committees or parliaments of external countries or regions. There are also a number of international parliaments that members participate in such as the ACP-EU Joint Parliamentary Assembly, the Euro-Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly, the Euro-Latin American Parliamentary Assembly and lately, the Euromed Parliamentary Assembly. This work entails full annual parliamentary meetings and more frequent multilateral committee meetings. Members also make up a portion of European Election Observation missions.
Also, there is the need to keep in touch with constituents in the home state. Most MEPs return to their constituencies on a Thursday evening to spend the Friday and often weekends dealing with individual constituents, local organisations, local and national politicians, businesses, trade unions, local councils and so on. Four weeks without parliamentary meetings set aside during the year and the parliamentary recess (four weeks in summer, two at Christmas/New Year) can also be used for constituency duties.
MEPs may employ staff to help them, typically three or four split between their constituency office and office in Parliament.
Because MEPs sit in a parliament with powers over fewer high profile subjects than national parliaments (few or no powers over health, education, housing, law & order or defence, but significant powers over environmental standards, consumer protection, trade, employment law) their public profile in their home state is typically lower than that of national parliamentarians, at least those of the latter who are ministers or opposition spokesmen.
Some MEPs choose to make their family home in or near Brussels rather than in their home state.
Since the ratification and entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty the adoption of nearly all EU legislation requires the approval of both the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union. Under the co-decision procedure, they each have up to three readings of legislative proposals put forward by the European Commission in which they can each amend the proposal, but must ultimately approve a text in identical terms for it to be passed. This amounts to bicameralism.
MEPs also elect the President of the Commission, on the basis of a proposal by the European Council and, following public hearings of the candidates, approve the appointment of the Commission as a whole. The Parliament may also dismiss the Commission in a vote of no-confidence (for instance, in 1999, the Commission presided by Jacques Santer resigned when faced with the certain adoption of such a vote of no confidence). MEPs may table parliamentary questions for Question time or for a written answer.
International agreements entered into by the European Union (e.g. WTO, trade agreements, etc.) must be approved by the European Parliament, as must the accession of new Member States to the Union.
The EU's annual budget is adopted jointly by Parliament and the Council of the European Union, within overall limit on EU spending decided on by unanimous agreement of all Member States and a multilateral Financial Framework laid down by Council with Parliament's consent.
The Parliament may also block certain Commission decisions where there has been a delegation of powers to the Commission and may repeal such delegation of powers.
The Parliament also elects the European Ombudsman and holds hearings with candidates for the President and Board members of European Central Bank, the Court of Auditors and various EU agencies.
Payment and privileges
On the one hand, the European Parliament is expensive, not least because of the costs of translating documents and interpreting debates into 21 languages. Thus, the 2009 budget of the parliament accounts a yearly total cost of more than 1 Mio Eur per member of parliament.[need quotation to verify] and the total cost of the parliament adds up to approximately 1.5 billion euros per year.[need quotation to verify] On the other hand, as this cost is shared by over 500 million citizens of 27 countries, the cost per taxpayer is less than that of national parliaments.
Until 2009, MEPs were paid (by their own Member State) exactly the same salary as a member of the lower House of their own national parliament. As a result, there was a wide range of salaries in the European Parliament. In 2002, Italian MEPs earned €130,000, while Spanish MEPs earned less than a quarter of that at €32,000.
However, in July 2005, the Council agreed to a single statute for all MEPs, following a proposal by the Parliament. Thus, since the 2009 elections, all MEPs receive a basic yearly salary of 38.5% of a European Court judge's salary – being around €84,000. This represents a pay-cut for MEPs from some member states (e.g. Italy, Germany, and Austria), a rise for others (particularly the low-paid eastern European Members) and status quo for those from the United Kingdom (depending on the euro-pound exchange rate). The much-criticised expenses arrangements were also partially reformed.
Members declare their financial interests, which are published annually in a register and are available on the Internet.
Under the protocol on the privileges and immunities of the European Union, MEPs in their home state receive the same immunities as their own national parliamentarians. In other member states, MEPs are immune from detention and from legal proceedings, except when caught in the act of committing an offence. This immunity may be waived by application to the European Parliament by the authorities of the member state in question.
Around a third of MEPs have previously held national parliamentary mandates, and over 10% have ministerial experience at a national level. There are usually a number of former prime ministers and former members of the European Commission. Many other MEPs have held office at a regional or local level in their home states.
Current MEPs also include former judges, trade union leaders, media personalities, actors, soldiers, singers, athletes, and political activists.
Many outgoing MEPs move into other political office. Several presidents, prime ministers or deputy prime ministers of member states are former MEPs, including former President of France Nicolas Sarkozy, British Deputy PM Nick Clegg, the recent Prime Minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi, Danish Prime Minister Helle Thorning-Schmidt, Belgian PM Elio Di Rupo.
The so-called "dual mandate"—in which an individual is a member of both his or her national parliament and the European Parliament, was officially discouraged by a growing number of political parties and Member States, and is prohibited as of 2009. In the 2004–2009 Parliament, a small number of members still held a dual mandate. Notably, Ian Paisley and John Hume once held "triple mandates" as MEP, MP in the House of Commons, and MLA in the Northern Ireland Assembly simultaneously.
The proportion of MEPs elected in 2009 who were female was about 34 percent (in 2004 it was 30 percent and back in 1979 it was just 16.5 percent), a higher percentage than most national parliaments. This figure varies considerably among the various national delegations, however. Of UK members, for instance, approaching half of the Labour MEPs are female. The figure for the Parliament elected in 2009 is 35 percent.
The oldest member is Giovanni Berlinguer, born in 1924; the former communist was present at the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957. The youngest is Amelia Andersdotter, born in 1987, who joined the parliament in 2009.
There are invariably numerous figures in the Parliament who are already well known for a wide variety of other reasons. For example, in the 2004–2009 Parliament:
- Vladimír Remek, the first person in space not from the United States or the Soviet Union.
- Umberto Guidoni, first European astronaut on board the International Space Station.
- Jean-Marie Le Pen, far-right French politician, came second in the 2002 French presidential election.
- Michel Rocard, former Prime Minister of France (1988–1991).
- Alessandra Mussolini, granddaughter of Italian fascist World War II dictator Benito Mussolini.
- Michael Cashman, former British actor (EastEnders) and gay rights campaigner.
- Peter Šťastný, Slovak professional ice hockey player.
- Giovanni Rivera, a former Italian football player and European Footballer of the Year in 1969.
- László Tőkés, an ethnic Hungarian pastor in Romania who played an important role in the Romanian Revolution of 1989
- Theodor Stolojan, former Prime Minister of Romania
- Daniel Cohn-Bendit, 1968 French student leader
- Krzysztof Hołowczyc, Polish Rally driver
- Jean-Luc Dehaene, former Prime Minister of Belgium
- Vytautas Landsbergis, former leader of the independence movement and President of Lithuania
- Poul Nyrup Rasmussen, former Prime Minister of Denmark
- Jerzy Buzek, former Prime Minister of Poland
- Guntars Krasts, former Prime Minister of Latvia
- Alojz Peterle, former Prime Minister of Slovenia
- Anneli Jäätteenmäki, former Prime Minister of Finland
- Philippe Morillon, former Commander of UNPROFOR peace keeping force in Bosnia
Notable former members:
- Maurice Duverger, French political scientist
- Otto von Habsburg, former head of the Habsburg dynasty
- Reinhold Messner, a renowned Italian mountaineer and explorer from South Tyrol
- Ian Paisley, leading politician of Northern Ireland, a member from 1979 to 2004 with a "triple mandate" as MEP, MP, and MLA
- John Hume, another leading Northern Irish politician and Nobel Peace Prize laureate, similarly having held a "triple mandate"
- Winnie Ewing, past President of the Scottish National Party, and that party's first MEP.
- Jacques Delors, later President of the Commission
- Massimo D'Alema, former Prime Minister of Italy
- Dana Rosemary Scallon, 1970 Eurovision Song Contest winner
- Lilli Gruber, high-profile Italian television journalist
- Willy Brandt, former German Chancellor
- John Prescott, later Deputy Prime Minister of the UK
- Geoff Hoon, later Transport Secretary (and former Defence Secretary during Iraq war) of the UK
- Gijs de Vries, former European Anti-Terrorism Coordinator
- Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, former President of France
- Jacques Chirac, later President of France
- François Mitterrand, later President of France
- Giulio Andreotti, former Prime Minister of Italy
- Silvio Berlusconi, later Prime Minister of Italy
- Giorgio Napolitano, later President of Italy
- Mário Soares, former Prime Minister and President of Portugal
- Wilfried Martens and Leo Tindemans, former Prime Ministers of Belgium
- Emilio Colombo, former Prime Minister of Italy
- Laurent Fabius, former Prime Minister of France
- Toomas Hendrik Ilves, later President of Estonia
- Ana Palacio, later Foreign Minister of Spain
- Nick Clegg, later leader of the UK Liberal Democrats and Deputy Prime Minister of the UK
- Joseph Muscat, later leader of the Malta Labour Party
- Ari Vatanen, Champion Rally driver, elected to second term by a French constituency, rather than his native Finland. In 2009 elections was again candidate in Finland, but did not win a seat.
- Robert Kilroy-Silk, former chat show host maverick who was fired from the BBC.
Allegations of improper conduct
Allegations have been made of some individual members accepting money in exchange for promoting lobbyists' interests. In 2011, Ernst Strasser resigned following such allegations, though he denied wrongdoing.
As the Act of 20 September 1976 concerning the election of the Members of the European Parliament by direct universal suffrage doesn't regulate the matter, today there are a number of Members of the European Parliaments who were convicted, some for serious crimes like corruption charges, illegal financial practices or discrimination. MEPs with criminal records are for example: Vito Bonsignore and Aldo Patriciello (European people's party, EPP) and Mario Borghezio (EFD).
Election of non-nationals
European citizens are eligible for election in the member state where they reside (subject to the residence requirements of that state); they do not have to be a national of that state. The following citizens have been elected in a state other than their native country;
|Bárbara Dührkop Dührkop||1987||German||Spain||Socialist|
|Nirj Deva||1999||Sri Lankan||UK||ECR|
|Miguel Mayol i Raynal||2001||French||Spain||Green|
|Bairbre de Brún||2004||Irish||UK||GUE|
|Daniel Stroz||2004||German||Czech Republic||GUE|
|Derk Jan Eppink||2009||Dutch||Belgium||ECR|
- 2009 figures incomplete
It is conventional for countries acceding to the European Union to send a number of observers to Parliament in advance. The number of observers and their method of appointment (usually by national parliaments) is laid down in the joining countries' Treaties of Accession.
Observers may attend debates and take part by invitation, but they may not vote or exercise other official duties. When the countries then become full member states, these observers become full MEPs for the interim period between accession and the next European elections. From 26 September 2005 to 31 December 2006, Bulgaria had 18 observers in Parliament and Romania 35. These were selected from government and opposition parties as agreed by the countries' national parliaments. Following accession on 1 January 2007, the observers became MEPs (with some personnel changes).
- Category:Members of the European Parliament
- The European Parliament (eighth edition, 2011, John Harper publishing), by Richard Corbett, Francis Jacobs and Michael Shackleton.
- "Rule 1 in Rules of Procedure of the European Parliament". Europarl.europa.eu. 20 September 1976. Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- Kreppel, Amie (2002). "The European Parliament and Supranational Party System" (PDF). Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 12 June 2007.
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- "Cohesion rates". Vote Watch. 2010. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
- European Parliament – Work in Session Retrieved 20 May 2010
- Indeed, Brussels is de facto the main base of the Parliament, as well as of the Commission and the Council. European Parliament in brief. Retrieved 20 May 2010.
- A Protocol on the seats of the institutions will be annexed to the various Treaties, confirming the agreement reached at the Edinburgh European Council (December 1992) and stating that the European Parliament is to have its seat "in Strasbourg where the twelve periods of monthly plenary sessions, including the budget session, shall be held". Any additional plenary sessions are to be held in Brussels, as are the meetings of the various Parliamentary committees. "The General Secretariat of the European Parliament and its departments shall remain in Luxembourg."http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/institutional_affairs/treaties/amsterdam_treaty/a21000_en.htm
- "SECTION VOL2 – SECTION I – PARLIAMENT, TITLE 1 – PERSONS WORKING WITH THE INSTITUTION" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- "DRAFT, General budget of the European Union for the financial year 2011, VOLUME 1, SECTION I, PARLIAMENT" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-11-28.
- "Germany blocks MEP pay rises". BBC News. 26 January 2004. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- Fresh start with new Members' Statute: The salary – a judgmental question. European Parliament Press Release. 7 January 2009.
- "EP adopts a single statute for MEPs.".
- "Brisante Versteckte-Kamera-Videos" [Explosive Hidden-Camera Videos] (in German). ORF. 20 March 2011. Retrieved = 2011-03-20.
- "Italian aims to ban ex-criminals from EU parliament". Irish Times. 29 July 2010.
- 1984 to 2004 from: Corbett, R. et al (2007) The European Parliament (7th ed) London, John Harper Publushing. p.21
- Official Register of MEPs
- The election of the Members of the European Parliament European Navigator
- The European Parliament