|Classification and external resources|
Diagram of discomfort caused by coronary artery disease. Pressure, fullness, squeezing or pain in the center of the chest. Can also feel discomfort in the neck, jaw, shoulder, back or arm
Angina pectoris – commonly known as angina – is chest pain due to ischemia of the heart muscle, due in general to obstruction or spasm of the coronary arteries. The main cause of Angina pectoris is improper contractivity of the heart muscle and coronary artery disease, due to atherosclerosis of the arteries feeding the heart. The term derives from the Latin angina ("infection of the throat") from the Greek ἀγχόνη ankhonē ("strangling"), and the Latin pectus ("chest"), and can, therefore, be translated as "a strangling feeling in the chest".
There is a weak relationship between severity of pain and degree of oxygen deprivation in the heart muscle (i.e., there can be severe pain with little or no risk of a Myocardial infarction (commonly known as a heart attack), and a heart attack can occur without pain). In some cases, angina can be extremely serious and has been known to cause death. People who suffer from average to severe cases of angina have an increased percentage of death before the age of 55, usually around 60%.[vague]
Worsening ("crescendo") angina attacks, sudden-onset angina at rest, and angina lasting more than 15 minutes are symptoms of unstable angina (usually grouped with similar conditions as the acute coronary syndrome). As these may herald myocardial infarction (a heart attack), they require urgent medical attention and are, in general, treated as a presumed heart attack.
- 1 Classification
- 2 Signs and symptoms
- 3 Cause
- 4 Pathophysiology
- 5 Diagnosis
- 6 Treatment
- 7 Epidemiology
- 8 History
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
Also known as effort angina, this refers to the more common understanding of angina related to myocardial ischemia. Typical presentations of stable angina is that of chest discomfort and associated symptoms precipitated by some activity (running, walking, etc.) with minimal or non-existent symptoms at rest or with administration of sublingual nitroglycerin. Symptoms typically abate several minutes following cessation of precipitating activities and recur when activity resumes. In this way, stable angina may be thought of as being similar to intermittent claudication symptoms.
It has at least one of these three features:
- it occurs at rest (or with minimal exertion), usually lasting >10 min
- it is severe and of new onset (i.e., within the prior 4–6 weeks)
- it occurs with a crescendo pattern (i.e., distinctly more severe, prolonged, or frequent than before).
UA may occur unpredictably at rest, which may be a serious indicator of an impending heart attack. What differentiates stable angina from unstable angina (other than symptoms) is the pathophysiology of the atherosclerosis. The pathophysiology of unstable angina is the reduction of coronary flow due to transient platelet aggregation on apparently normal endothelium, coronary artery spasms, or coronary thrombosis. The process starts with atherosclerosis, and when inflamed leads to an active plaque, which undergoes thrombosis and results in acute ischemia, which finally results in cell necrosis after calcium entry. Studies show that 64% of all unstable anginas occur between 10 PM and 8 AM when patients are at rest.
In stable angina, the developing atheroma is protected with a fibrous cap. This cap (atherosclerotic plaque) may rupture in unstable angina, allowing blood clots to precipitate and further decrease the lumen of the coronary vessel. This explains why an unstable angina appears to be independent of activity.
Microvascular Angina or Angina Syndrome X is characterized by angina-like chest pain, but the cause is different. The cause of Microvascular Angina is unknown, but it appears to be the result of spasm in the tiny blood vessels of the heart, arms, and legs. Since microvascular angina is not characterized by arterial blockages, it is harder to recognize and diagnose, but its prognosis is excellent.
Signs and symptoms
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
Angina pectoris can be quite painful, but many patients with angina complain of chest discomfort rather than actual pain: the discomfort is usually described as a pressure, heaviness, tightness, squeezing, burning, or choking sensation. Apart from chest discomfort, anginal pains may also be experienced in the epigastrium (upper central abdomen), back, neck area, jaw, or shoulders. This is explained by the concept of referred pain, and is due to the fact that the spinal level that receives visceral sensation from the heart simultaneously receives cutaneous sensation from parts of the skin specified by that spinal nerve's dermatome, without an ability to discriminate the two. Typical locations for referred pain are arms (often inner left arm), shoulders, and neck into the jaw. Angina is typically precipitated by exertion or emotional stress. It is exacerbated by having a full stomach and by cold temperatures. Pain may be accompanied by breathlessness, sweating, and nausea in some cases. In this case, the pulse rate and the blood pressure increases. Chest pain lasting only a few seconds is normally not angina (such as Precordial catch syndrome).
Myocardial ischemia comes about when the myocardia (the heart muscles) receive insufficient blood and oxygen to function normally either because of increased oxygen demand by the myocardia or because of decreased supply to the myocardia. This inadequate perfusion of blood and the resulting reduced delivery of oxygen and nutrients are directly correlated to blocked or narrowed blood vessels.
A variant form of angina (Prinzmetal's angina) occurs in patients with normal coronary arteries or insignificant atherosclerosis. It is thought to be caused by spasms of the artery. It occurs more in younger women.
Major risk factors
- Age (≥ 55 years for men, ≥ 65 for women)
- Cigarette smoking
- Diabetes mellitus (DM)
- Family history of premature cardiovascular disease (men <55 years, female <65 years old)
- Hypertension (HTN)
- Kidney disease (microalbuminuria or GFR<60 mL/min)
- Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2)
- Physical inactivity
- prolonged psychosocial stress.
Routine counselling of adults to advise them to improve their diet and increase their physical activity has not been found to significantly alter behaviour, and thus is not recommended.
- Conditions that exacerbate or provoke angina
- Excessive thyroid replacement
- polycythemia which thickens the blood causing it to slow its flow through the heart muscle
One study found that smokers with coronary artery disease had a significantly increased level of sympathetic nerve activity when compared to those without. This is in addition to increases in blood pressure, heart rate, and peripheral vascular resistance associated with nicotine, which may lead to recurrent angina attacks. In addition, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports that the risk of CHD (Coronary heart disease), stroke, and PVD (Peripheral vascular disease) is reduced within 1–2 years of smoking cessation. In another study, it was found that, after one year, the prevalence of angina in smoking men under 60 after an initial attack was 40% less in those having quit smoking compared to those that continued. Studies have found that there are short-term and long-term benefits to smoking cessation.
Other medical problems
Other cardiac problems
Myocardial ischemia can result from:
- a reduction of blood flow to the heart that can be caused by stenosis, spasm, or acute occlusion (by an embolus) of the heart's arteries.
- resistance of the blood vessels. This can be caused by narrowing of the blood vessels; a decrease in radius. Blood flow is proportional to the radius of the artery to the fourth power 
- reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, due to several factors such as a decrease in oxygen tension and hemoglobin concentration. This decreases the ability to of hemoglobin to carry oxygen to myocardial tissue.
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels) of the heart's arteries and, hence, angina pectoris. Some people with chest pain have normal or minimal narrowing of heart arteries; in these patients, vasospasm is a more likely cause for the pain, sometimes in the context of Prinzmetal's angina and syndrome X.
Myocardial ischemia also can be the result of factors affecting blood composition, such as reduced oxygen-carrying capacity of blood, as seen with severe anemia (low number of red blood cells), or long-term smoking.
Angina results when there is an imbalance between the heart's oxygen demand and supply. This imbalance can result from an increase in demand (e.g., during exercise) without a proportional increase in supply (e.g., due to obstruction or atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries).
Angina should be suspected in people presenting with tight, dull, or heavy chest discomfort that is:
- Retrosternal or left-sided, radiating to the left arm, neck, jaw, or back.
- Associated with exertion or emotional stress and relieved within several minutes by rest.
- Precipitated by cold weather or a meal.
Some people present with atypical symptoms, including breathlessness, nausea, or epigastric discomfort or burping. These atypical symptoms are particularly likely in older people, women, and those with diabetes.
Anginal pain is not usually sharp or stabbing or influenced by respiration. Antacids and simple analgesia do not usually relieve the pain. If chest discomfort (of whatever site) is precipitated by exertion, relieved by rest, and relieved by glyceryl trinitrate, the likelihood of angina is increased.
In angina patients momentarily not feeling any chest pain, an electrocardiogram (ECG) is typically normal, unless there have been other cardiac problems in the past. During periods of pain, depression, or elevation of the ST segment may be observed. To elicit these changes, an exercise ECG test ("treadmill test") may be performed, during which the patient exercises to his/her maximum ability before fatigue, breathlessness, or pain intervenes; if characteristic ECG changes are documented (typically more than 1 mm of flat or downsloping ST depression), the test is considered diagnostic for angina. Even constant monitoring of the blood pressure and the pulse rate can lead us to some conclusion regarding the angina. The exercise test is also useful in looking for other markers of myocardial ischaemia: blood pressure response (or lack thereof, in particular a drop in systolic pressure), dysrhythmia and chronotropic response. Other alternatives to a standard exercise test include a thallium scintigram or sestamibi scintigram (in patients unable to exercise enough for the purposes of the treadmill tests, e.g., due to asthma or arthritis or in whom the ECG is too abnormal at rest) or Stress Echocardiography.
In patients in whom such noninvasive testing is diagnostic, a coronary angiogram is typically performed to identify the nature of the coronary lesion, and whether this would be a candidate for angioplasty, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), treatment only with medication, or other treatments. There has been research that concludes that a frequency is attained when there is increase in the blood pressure and the pulse rate. This frequency varies normally but the range is 45–50 kHz for the cardiac arrest or for the heart failure.[clarification needed] In patients in hospital with unstable angina (or the newer term of "high-risk acute coronary syndromes"), those with resting ischaemic ECG changes or those with raised cardiac enzymes such as troponin may undergo coronary angiography directly.
The most specific medicine to treat angina is nitroglycerin. It is a potent vasodilator that makes more oxygen available to the heart muscle. Beta blockers and calcium channel blockers act to decrease the heart's workload, and thus its requirement for oxygen. Nitroglycerin should not be given if certain inhibitors such as Sildenafil (Viagra), Tadalafil (Cialis), or Vardenafil (Levitra) have been taken within the previous 12 hours as the combination of the two could cause a serious drop in blood pressure. Treatments for angina are balloon angioplasty, in which the balloon is inserted at the end of a catheter and inflated to widen the arterial lumen. Stents to maintain the arterial widening are often used at the same time. Coronary bypass surgery involves bypassing constricted arteries with venous grafts. This is much more invasive than angioplasty.
The main goals of treatment in angina pectoris are relief of symptoms, slowing progression of the disease, and reduction of future events, especially heart attacks and death. Beta blockers (e.g., carvedilol, propranolol, atenolol) have a large body of evidence in morbidity and mortality benefits (fewer symptoms, less disability and longer life) and short-acting nitroglycerin medications have been used since 1879 for symptomatic relief of angina. Calcium channel blockers (such as nifedipine (Adalat) and amlodipine), isosorbide mononitrate and nicorandil are vasodilators commonly used in chronic stable angina. A new therapeutic class, called If inhibitor, has recently been made available: Ivabradine provides pure heart rate reduction leading to major anti-ischemic and antianginal efficacy. ACE inhibitors are also vasodilators with both symptomatic and prognostic benefit. Statins are the most frequently used lipid/cholesterol modifiers, which probably also stabilize existing atheromatous plaque. Low-dose aspirin decreases the risk of heart attack in patients with chronic stable angina, and was is part of standard treatment. However, in patients without established cardiovascular disease, the increase in haemorrhagic stroke and gastrointestinal bleeding offsets any benefits and it is no longer advised unless the risk of myocardial infarction is very high.
Exercise is also a very good long-term treatment for the angina (but only particular regimens - gentle and sustained exercise rather than intense short bursts), probably working by complex mechanisms such as improving blood pressure and promoting coronary artery collateralisation.
Identifying and treating risk factors for further coronary heart disease is a priority in patients with angina. This means testing for elevated cholesterol and other fats in the blood, diabetes and hypertension (high blood pressure), and encouraging smoking cessation and weight optimisation.
The calcium channel blocker nifedipine prolongs cardiovascular event- and procedure-free survival in patients with coronary artery disease. New overt heart failures were reduced by 29% compared to placebo; however, the mortality rate difference between the two groups was statistically insignificant.
The fatty acid oxidation inhibitor mildronate is a clinically used anti-ischemic drug for the treatment of angina and myocardial infarction. Mildronate shifts the myocardial energy metabolism from fatty acid oxidation to the more oxygen-sparing glucose oxidation under ischemic conditions, by inhibiting enzymes in the carnitine biosynthesis pathway including gamma-butyrobetaine dioxygenase. Mildronate also inhibits carnitine acetyltransferase and therefore acts as a myocardial energy metabolism regulator.
Microvascular angina in women
Aggressive risk factor modification is required for effective treatment of microvascular angina where exercise plays a major role. Several other treatment strategies including b-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, ranolazine, l-arginine, statin drugs and potentially estrogen replacement therapy have been shown to relieve anginal symptoms as well as improve vascular function. Nitrates may be effective for symptom relief. Further studies are required to determine whether specific treatments are associated with improved survival as well as decreased symptoms.
Hospital admission for people with the following symptoms, as they may have unstable angina: Pain at rest (which may occur at night), pain on minimal exertion, angina that seems to be progressing rapidly despite increasing medical treatment. Refer urgently all people with suspected angina to a chest pain evaluation service, for confirmation of the diagnosis and assessment of the severity of coronary heart disease.
In the United States, 10.2 million are estimated to experience angina with approximately 500,000 new cases occurring each year. Angina is more often the presenting symptom of coronary artery disease in women than in men. The prevalence of angina rises with increasing age, with a mean age of onset of 62.3 years. After five years post-onset, 4.8% of individuals with angina subsequently died from coronary heart disease. Men with angina were found to have an increased risk of subsequent acute myocardial infarction and coronary heart disease related death than women. Similar figures apply in the remainder of the Western world. All forms of coronary heart disease are much less-common in the Third World, as its risk factors are much more common in Western and Westernized countries; it could, therefore, be termed a disease of affluence. The adoption of a rich, Westernized diet and subsequent increase of smoking, obesity, and other risk factors has led to an increase in angina and related diseases in countries such as China.
The concept of Hritshoola—literally heart pain—was known to Sushruta (6th century BCE). Dwivedi & Dwivedi (2007)—on the condition described by Sushruta—hold that: 'It embodies all the essential components of present day definition, i.e. site, nature, aggravating and relieving factors and referral. According to him angina is chest pain which is precordial, temporary, exertional, emotional, burning like and relieved by rest. He also linked this kind of pain to obesity (medoroga).'
- "MerckMedicus: Dorland's Medical Dictionary". Retrieved 2009-01-09.
- Tobin, Kenneth J. (2010). "Stable Angina Pectoris: What Does the Current Clinical Evidence Tell Us?". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association 110 (7): 364–70. PMID 20693568.
- Hombach, V.; Höher, M.; Kochs, M.; Eggeling, T.; Schmidt, A.; Höpp, H. W.; Hilger, H. H. (1988). "Pathophysiology of unstable angina pectoris—correlations with coronary angioscopic imaging". European Heart Journal 9: 40–5. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/9.suppl_N.40. PMID 3246255.
- Simons, Michael (March 8, 2000). "Pathophysiology of unstable angina". Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- "What Is Angina?". National Heart Lung and Blood Institute. Retrieved April 28, 2010.
- Guyton, Arthur. "Textbook of Medical Physiology" 11th edition. Philadelphia; Elsevier, 2006.[page needed]
- "Cardiac Syndrome X". HeartHealthyWomen.org.[unreliable medical source?]
- "Heart Attack and Angina Statistics." americanheart.org. 2008. American Heart Association. 29 April. http://web.archive.org/web/20100413012434/http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4591[not in citation given].
- "Angina". Texas Heart Institute. October 2012.
- Sun, Hongtao; Mohri, Masahiro; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Usui, Makoto; Urakami, Lemmy; Takeshita, Akira (28 February 2002). "Coronary microvascular spasm causes myocardial ischemia in patients with vasospastic angina". Journal of the American College of Cardiology 39 (5): 847–851. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(02)01690-X. PMID 11869851.
- Chobanian, A. V.; Bakris, GL; Black, HR; Cushman, WC; Green, LA; Izzo Jr, JL; Jones, DW; Materson, BJ; Oparil, S; Wright Jr, J. T.; Roccella, E. J. (2003). "Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure". Hypertension 42 (6): 1206–52. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000107251.49515.c2. PMID 14656957.
- Linden, Wolfgang; Stossel, Carmen; Maurice, Jeffrey (1996). "Psychosocial Interventions for Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: A Meta-analysis". Archives of Internal Medicine 156 (7): 745–52. doi:10.1001/archinte.1996.00440070065008. PMID 8615707.
- Moyer, Virginia A.; U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (2012). "Behavioral Counseling Interventions to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Adults: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine 157 (5): 367–71. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-157-5-201209040-00486. PMID 22733153.
- Wells, Barbara; DiPiro, Joseph; Schwinghammer, Terry; DiPiro, Cecily (2008). Pharmacotherapy Handbook (7th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-07-148501-2.
- "Health Benefits of Cessation". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. January 3, 2013.
- Daly, L E; Graham, I M; Hickey, N; Mulcahy, R (1985). "Does stopping smoking delay onset of angina after infarction?". BMJ 291 (6500): 935–7. doi:10.1136/bmj.291.6500.935. PMC 1417185. PMID 3929970.
- Daly, L E; Mulcahy, R; Graham, I M; Hickey, N (1983). "Long term effect on mortality of stopping smoking after unstable angina and myocardial infarction". BMJ 287 (6388): 324–6. doi:10.1136/bmj.287.6388.324. PMC 1548591. PMID 6409291.
- Shinozaki, Norihiko; Yuasa, Toyoshi; Takata, Shigeo (2008). "Cigarette Smoking Augments Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease". International Heart Journal 49 (3): 261–72. doi:10.1536/ihj.49.261. PMID 18612184.
- Gibbons, Raymond J; Abrams, Jonathan; Chatterjee, Kanu; Daley, Jennifer; Deedwania, Prakash C; Douglas, John S; Ferguson Jr, T.Bruce; Fihn, Stephan D; Fraker Jr, Theodore D; Gardin, Julius M; O'Rourke, Robert A; Pasternak, Richard C; Williams, Sankey V; American College Of, Raymond J; Alpert, Joseph S; Antman, Elliott M; Hiratzka, Loren F; Fuster, Valentin; Faxon, David P; Gregoratos, Gabriel; Jacobs, Alice K; Smith, Sidney C (2003). "ACC/AHA 2002 guideline update for the management of patients with chronic stable angina—summary article". Journal of the American College of Cardiology 41 (1): 159–68. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(02)02848-6. PMID 12570960.
- Fraker, Theodore D.; Fihn, Stephan D.; 2002 Chronic Stable Angina Writing Committee; American College Of, Cardiology; American Heart, Association; Gibbons, RJ; Abrams, J; Chatterjee, K; Daley, J; Deedwania, PC; Douglas, JS; Ferguson Jr, TB; Gardin; O'Rourke, RA; Williams, SV; Smith Jr, SC; Jacobs, AK; Adams, CD; Anderson, JL; Buller, CE; Creager, MA; Ettinger, SM; Halperin; Hunt, SA; Krumholz, HM; Kushner, FG; Lytle, BW; Nishimura, R; Page, RL; Riegel, B (2007). "2007 Chronic Angina Focused Update of the ACC/AHA 2002 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Chronic Stable Angina". Journal of the American College of Cardiology 50 (23): 2264–74. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.08.002. PMID 18061078.
- Kusumoto, Fred M. "Cardiovascular Disorders: Heart Disease". In McPhee, SJ; Hammer, GD. Pathophysiology of Disease: An Introduction to Clinical Medicine (6th ed.). ISBN 978-0-07-162167-0.[page needed]
- Thomas, Michel. "Treatment of Myocardial Ischemia". In Brunton, Laurence L.; Lazo, John S.; Parker, Keith L. Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutic (11th ed.).[page needed]
- Podrid, Philip J (November 28, 2012). "Pathophysiology and clinical presentation of ischemic chest pain". UpToDate. Wolters Kluwer.(registration required)
- The Crucial Role of Iron in the Body
- Vaccarino, V. (16 February 2010). "Ischemic Heart Disease in Women: Many Questions, Few Facts". Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 3 (2): 111–115. doi:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.109.925313. PMC 3012351. PMID 20160161.
- Shaw, LJ; Merz, CN; Pepine, CJ; Reis, SE; Bittner, V; Kip, KE; Kelsey, SF; Olson, M; Johnson, BD; Mankad, S; Sharaf, BL; Rogers, WJ; Pohost, GM; Sopko, G; Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE), Investigators (Aug 29, 2006). "The economic burden of angina in women with suspected ischemic heart disease: results from the National Institutes of Health--National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute--sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation". Circulation 114 (9): 894–904. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.609990. PMID 16923752.
- Banks, Kamakki; Lo, Monica; Khera, Amit (1 February 2010). "Angina in Women without Obstructive Coronary Artery Disease". Current Cardiology Reviews 6 (1): 71–81. doi:10.2174/157340310790231608. PMC 2845797. PMID 21286281.
- NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries (2009) Angina - stable.  Date site accessed: 04/01/2009
- Sneader, Walter (2005). Drug discovery: a history. ISBN 978-0-471-89980-8.[page needed]
- Sulfi, S.; Timmis, A. D. (2006). "Ivabradine - the first selective sinus node if channel inhibitor in the treatment of stable angina". International Journal of Clinical Practice 60 (2): 222–8. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2006.00817.x. PMC 1448693. PMID 16451297.
- Barnett, H.; Burrill, P.; Iheanacho, I. (2010). "Don't use aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease". BMJ 340: c1805. doi:10.1136/bmj.c1805. PMID 20410163.
- Ades, P. A.; Waldmann, M. L.; Poehlman, E. T.; Gray, P.; Horton, E. D.; Horton, E. S.; Lewinter, M. M. (1993). "Exercise conditioning in older coronary patients. Submaximal lactate response and endurance capacity". Circulation 88 (2): 572–7. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.88.2.572. PMID 8339420.
- Poole-Wilson, Philip A; Lubsen, Jacobus; Kirwan, Bridget-Anne; Van Dalen, Fred J; Wagener, Gilbert; Danchin, Nicolas; Just, Hanjörg; Fox, Keith AA; Pocock, Stuart J; Clayton, Tim C; Motro, Michael; Parker, John D; Bourassa, Martial G; Dart, Anthony M; Hildebrandt, Per; Hjalmarson, Åke; Kragten, Johannes A; Molhoek, G Peter; Otterstad, Jan-Erik; Seabra-Gomes, Ricardo; Soler-Soler, Jordi; Weber, Simon; Coronary disease Trial Investigating Outcome with Nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system investigators (2004). "Effect of long-acting nifedipine on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with stable angina requiring treatment (ACTION trial): Randomised controlled trial". The Lancet 364 (9437): 849–57. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16980-8. PMID 15351192.
- "Clinical trial on Mildronate® is successfully finished" (Press release). Grindeks. March 2, 2010. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
- Dambrova, M; Liepinsh, E; Kalvinsh, I (2002). "Mildronate Cardioprotective Action through Carnitine-Lowering Effect". Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine 12 (6): 275–9. doi:10.1016/S1050-1738(02)00175-5. PMID 12242052.
- Sesti, Casilde; Simkhovich, Boris Z.; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Kloner, Robert A. (2006). "Mildronate, a Novel Fatty Acid Oxidation Inhibitor and Antianginal Agent, Reduces Myocardial Infarct Size Without Affecting Hemodynamics". Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 47 (3): 493–9. doi:10.1097/01.fjc.0000211732.76668.d2 (inactive February 7, 2013). PMID 16633095.
- Liepinsh, Edgars; Vilskersts, Reinis; Loca, Dagnija; Kirjanova, Olga; Pugovichs, Osvalds; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija (2006). "Mildronate, an Inhibitor of Carnitine Biosynthesis, Induces an Increase in Gamma-Butyrobetaine Contents and Cardioprotection in Isolated Rat Heart Infarction". Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 48 (6): 314–9. doi:10.1097/01.fjc.0000250077.07702.23. PMID 17204911.
- Hayashi, Yukio; Kirimoto, Tsukasa; Asaka, Naomasa; Nakano, Motoko; Tajima, Kiyotaka; Miyake, Hidekazu; Matsuura, Naosuke (2000). "Beneficial effects of MET-88, a γ-butyrobetaine hydroxylase inhibitor in rats with heart failure following myocardial infarction". European Journal of Pharmacology 395 (3): 217–24. doi:10.1016/S0014-2999(00)00098-4. PMID 10812052.
- Vaz, Frédéric M.; Wanders, Ronald J.A. (2002). "Carnitine biosynthesis in mammals". Biochemical Journal 361 (3): 417–29. doi:10.1042/0264-6021:3610417. PMC 1222323. PMID 11802770.
- Leung, Ivanhoe K.H.; Krojer, Tobias J.; Kochan, Grazyna T.; Henry, Luc; Von Delft, Frank; Claridge, Timothy D.W.; Oppermann, Udo; McDonough, Michael A.; Schofield, Christopher J. (2010). "Structural and Mechanistic Studies on γ-Butyrobetaine Hydroxylase". Chemistry & Biology 17 (12): 1316–24. doi:10.1016/j.chembiol.2010.09.016. PMID 21168767.
- Tars, Kaspars; Rumnieks, Janis; Zeltins, Andris; Kazaks, Andris; Kotelovica, Svetlana; Leonciks, Ainars; Sharipo, Jelena; Viksna, Arturs; Kuka, Janis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Dambrova, Maija (2010). "Crystal structure of human gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 398 (4): 634–9. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2010.06.121. PMID 20599753.
- Jaudzems, Kristaps; Kuka, Janis; Gutsaits, Aleksandrs; Zinovjevs, Kirils; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Liepinsh, Edgars; Liepinsh, Edvards; Dambrova, Maija (2009). "Inhibition of carnitine acetyltransferase by mildronate, a regulator of energy metabolism". Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry 24 (6): 1269–75. doi:10.3109/14756360902829527. PMID 19912061.
- Duvernoy, Claire S (1 November 2012). "Evolving strategies for the treatment of microvascular angina in women". Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy 10 (11): 1413–1419. doi:10.1586/erc.12.55. PMID 23244362.
- NHS Clinical Knowledge Summaries (2009) Angina - stable: suspected angina Suspected angina Date site accessed: 04/01/2009
- Vos, T; Flaxman, AD; Naghavi, M; Lozano, R; Michaud, C; Ezzati, M; Shibuya, K; Salomon, JA et al. (Dec 15, 2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet 380 (9859): 2163–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2. PMID 23245607.
- Rosamond, W.; Flegal, K.; Furie, K.; Go, A.; Greenlund, K.; Haase, N.; Hailpern, S. M.; Ho, M.; Howard, V.; Kissela, B.; Kittner, S.; Lloyd-Jones, D.; McDermott, M.; Meigs, J.; Moy, C.; Nichol, G.; O'Donnell, C.; Roger, V.; Sorlie, P.; Steinberger, J.; Thom, T.; Wilson, M.; Hong, Y. (17 December 2007). "Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics--2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee". Circulation 117 (4): e25–e146. doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.187998. PMID 18086926.
- Buckley, B. S; Simpson, C. R; McLernon, D. J; Murphy, A. W; Hannaford, P. C (2009). "Five year prognosis in patients with angina identified in primary care: Incident cohort study". BMJ 339: b3058. doi:10.1136/bmj.b3058. PMC 2722695. PMID 19661139.
- Dwivedi, Girish; Dwivedi, Shridhar (2007). "Sushruta – the Clinician – Teacher par Excellence". The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases and Allied Sciences 49: 243–4.
- Information on ACTION - A Coronary Disease Trial Investigating Outcome with Nifedipine GITS in Patients with chronic stable angina pectoris
- Treatment of stable angina recommendations for patients in layman terms
- British Heart Foundation - Angina
- Angina Pectoris Animation Video 3D
- Guidelines on the management of stable angina pectoris - European Society of Cardiology
- Heart Attack and Angina Statistics by American Heart Association : Final 2006 statistics for the United States