Bataan Day

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Bataan Day
Date April 9
Next time 9 April 2015 (2015-04-09)
Frequency annual

Araw ng Kagitingan (Filipino for "Day of Valor"), also known as Bataan Day or Bataan and Corregidor Day, is a national observance in the Philippines which commemorates the fall of Bataan during World War II. It falls on April 9, although in 2009 it would have coincided with Maundy Thursday and was moved to April 6.[1][2]

Official name[edit]

Official instruments designating of this holiday have specified several different names.

On 1961, Congress passed Republic Act 3022 declaring April 9 of every year as Bataan Day. On 1987, Executive Order 203 revised all national holidays in the Philippines, renaming the April 9 holiday into "Araw ng Kagitingan (Bataan and Corregidor Day)". Less than a month later, another executive order (No. 292), revised the holidays anew but it didn't affect the naming of the April 9 holiday. On 2007, Congress passed Republic Act No. 9492 putting into law the "Holiday Economics" policy of President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo: this puts the observance of holidays except New Years Day and Christmas to the Monday nearest it. During the administration of President Benigno Aquino III, all celebrations the holiday has been observed on April 9 and not on the Monday nearest it, and that the holiday has been called simply as "Araw ng Kagitingan".

Official names and observance dates for this holiday
Date Instrument Name Observance date Notes
April 6, 1961 Republic Act No. 3022[3] Bataan Day April 9
June 30, 1987 Executive Order No. 203[4] Araw ng Kagitingan (Bataan and Corregidor Day) April 9
July 25, 1987 Executive Order No. 292[5] Araw ng Kagitingan (Bataan - April 9 and Corregidor Day) April 9 EO292 established the Administrative Code of the Philippines. Chapter 7 of that code specified regular holidays and special days to be observed in the Philippines.
July 25, 2007 Republic Act No. 9492[6] Araw ng Kagitingan (Bataan and Corregidor Day) The Monday nearest April 9
December 2010 Presidential Proclamation No. 84[7] Araw ng Kagitingan April 9
  • PP84 limited its application to the year 2011.
  • PP84 was effective under authority provided by section 26 of RA9492, which provided that the list of Regular Holidays and Nationwide Special Days specified therein could be modified by law, and or proclamation.[6]
November 24, 2011 Presidential Proclamation No. 295[8] Araw ng Kagitingan April 9
  • PP295 limited its application to the year 2012.
  • PP295 was effective under authority provided by section 26 of RA9492, which provided that the list of Regular Holidays and Nationwide Special Days specified therein could be modified by law, and or proclamation.[6]
August 14, 2012 Presidential Proclamation No. 459[9] Araw ng Kagitingan April 9
  • PP459 limited its application to the year 2013.
  • PP459 was effective under authority provided by section 26 of RA9492, which provided that the list of Regular Holidays and Nationwide Special Days specified therein could be modified by law, and or proclamation.[6]

History[edit]

At dawn on 9 April 1942, against the orders of Generals Douglas MacArthur and Jonathan Wainwright, the commander of the Luzon Force, Bataan, Major General Edward P. King, Jr. surrendered more than 76,000 starving and disease-ridden soldiers (67,000 Filipinos, 1,000 Chinese Filipinos, and 11,796 Americans) to Japanese troops .

The majority of these prisoners of war had their belongings confiscated before being forced to endure the infamous 140 kilometre (90 mile) Bataan Death March to Camp O'Donnell in Capas, Tarlac. En route, thousands died from dehydration, heat prostration, untreated wounds, and wanton execution while walking in deep dust over vehicle-broken Macadam roads, and crammed into rail cars for transport to captivity.[10]

The few who were lucky enough to travel by truck to San Fernando, Pampanga would still have to endure more than 25 additional miles of marching. Prisoners were beaten randomly and often denied promised food and water. Those who fell behind were usually executed or left to die, the sides of the roads becoming littered with dead bodies and those moaning for help.

Only some 54,000 of the 76,000 prisoners reached their destination; the exact death toll is difficult to assess because thousands of captives were able to escape from their guards. Approximately 5,000-10,000 Filipino and 600-650 American prisoners-of-war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell.

United States[edit]

In Maywood, Illinois the second Sunday in September is remembered as Bataan Day.[11][12] Maywood provided Illinois National Guard soldiers of the 192nd Tank Battalion who served on Bataan.

2012 observance[edit]

Fall of Bataan historical marker, Bataan Capitolio

2012 marked the 70th anniversary of the Fall of Bataan, which was commemorated at Mount Samat Shrine in Pilár, Bataan by some of the over 18,000 still-living Filipino veterans.

Incumbent President Benigno S. Aquino III and former President Fidel V. Ramos attended this 2012 rites. Japanese Ambassador to the Philippines Toshina Urabe expressed "deep apology and a deep sense of remorse to the tragedy", while United States Deputy of Mission Leslie Bassett (representing American Ambassador Harry K. Thomas Jr.) said their Embassy has provided a total of US$220 million (over 9 billion) to Filipino war veterans.[citation needed]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Proclamation No. 295: Declaring 2012 National Holidays, December 12, 2011, Official Gazette of the Philippines
  2. ^ "DOLE reminds employers on pay guidelines for Holy Week holidays". GMA News and Public Affairs. April 4, 2009. 
  3. ^ "REPUBLIC ACT NO. 3022 - AN ACT PROCLAIMING THE NINTH DAY OF APRIL AS BATAAN DAY AND DECLARING IT AS A LEGAL HOLIDAY". Chan Robles Law Library. April 6, 1961. 
  4. ^ "EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 203 : PROVIDING A LIST OF REGULAR HOLIDAYS AND SPECIAL DAYS TO BE OBSERVED THROUGHOUT THE PHILIPPINES AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES". Chan Robles Publishing Company. June 30, 1987. 
  5. ^ "Administrative Code of 1987". Chan Robles Law Library. July 25, 1987. 
  6. ^ a b c d "AN ACT RATIONALIZING THE CELEBRATION OF NATIONAL HOLIDAYS AMENDING FOR THE PURPOSE SECTION 26, CHAPTER 7, BOOK 1 OF EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 292, AS AMENDED, OTHERWISE KNOWN AS THE ADMINISTRATIVE CODE OF 1987". Official Gazette Library. July 24, 2007. 
  7. ^ "PROCLAMATION NO. 84 : DECLARING THE REGULAR HOLIDAYS, SPECIAL (NON-WORKING) DAYS, AND SPECIAL HOLIDAY (FOR ALL SCHOOLS) FOR THE YEAR 2012". Official Gazette of the Office of the President of the Philippines. December 2010. 
  8. ^ "PROCLAMATION NO. 295 : DECLARING THE REGULAR HOLIDAYS, SPECIAL (NON-WORKING) DAYS, AND SPECIAL HOLIDAY (FOR ALL SCHOOLS) FOR THE YEAR 2012". Official Gazette of the Office of the President of the Philippines. November 24, 2011. 
  9. ^ / "PROCLAMATION NO. 459 : DECLARING THE REGULAR HOLIDAYS, SPECIAL (NON-WORKING) DAYS, AND SPECIAL HOLIDAY (FOR ALL SCHOOLS) FOR THE YEAR 2013". Official Gazette of the Office of the President of the Philippines. August 14, 2012. 
  10. ^ I Was There When It Happened. Xlibris Corporation. 2010. p. 200. ISBN 978-1-4535-4459-4. 
  11. ^ http://mbdo.org/70th-maywood-bataan-day/
  12. ^ p. 117 Bodnar, John The "Good War" in American Memory JHU Press, 01/12/2010