Good Friday

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the religious observance. For the Northern Ireland peace deal, see Good Friday Agreement.
Good Friday
Wüger Kreuzigung.jpg
A Stabat Mater depiction, 1868
Type Christian, civic
Significance Commemorates the crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ
Celebrations No traditional celebrations
Observances Worship services, prayer and vigil services, fasting, almsgiving
Date the Friday immediately preceding Easter Sunday
2013 date

March 29 (Western)

May 3 (Eastern)
2014 date

April 18 (Western)

April 18 (Eastern)
2015 date

April 3 (Western)

April 10 (Eastern)
2016 date

March 25 (Western)

April 29 (Eastern)
Frequency annual

Good Friday is a religious holiday, observed primarily by Christians, commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary. The holiday is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, and may coincide with the Jewish observance of Passover. It is also known as Holy Friday, Great Friday, Black Friday,[1] or Easter Friday,[2][3][4] though the last term properly refers to the Friday in Easter week.

Based on the details of the canonical gospels, the Crucifixion of Jesus was most likely to have been on a Friday (the day before the Jewish Sabbath) (John 19:42).[5] The estimated year of the Crucifixion is AD 33, by two different groups, and originally as AD 34 by Isaac Newton via the differences between the Biblical and Julian calendars and the crescent of the moon.[6] A third method, using a completely different astronomical approach based on a lunar Crucifixion darkness and eclipse model (consistent with Apostle Peter's reference to a "moon of blood" in Acts 2:20), points to Friday, 3 April AD 33.[7]

Good Friday is a widely-instituted legal holiday in many national governments around the world, including in most Western countries as well as in 12 U.S. states. Some governments have laws prohibiting certain acts that are seen as contrasting the solemn nature of the day.[8][9]

Etymology[edit]

The etymology of the term "good" in the context of Good Friday is contested. Some sources claim it is from the senses pious, holy of the word "good",[10] while others contend that it is a corruption of "God Friday".[11] The Oxford English Dictionary supports the first etymology, giving "of a day or season observed as holy by the church" as an archaic sense of good (good, adj. 8c), and providing examples of good tide meaning "Christmas" or "Shrove Tuesday", and Good Wednesday meaning the Wednesday in Holy Week.[12]

Biblical accounts[edit]

The Judas Kiss by Gustave Doré, 1866
Part of a series on
Death and Resurrection of Jesus
Crucifixion of Jesus
Portals: P christianity.svg Christianity Bible.malmesbury.arp.jpg Bible

According to the accounts in the Gospels, the Temple Guards, guided by Jesus' disciple Judas Iscariot, arrested Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane. Judas received money (30 pieces of silver) (Matthew 26:14–16) for betraying Jesus and told the guards that whomever he kisses is the one they are to arrest. Following his arrest, Jesus was brought to the house of Annas, the father-in-law of the high priest, Caiaphas. There he was interrogated with little result and sent bound to Caiaphas the high priest where the Sanhedrin had assembled (John 18:1–24).

Conflicting testimony against Jesus was brought forth by many witnesses, to which Jesus answered nothing. Finally the high priest adjured Jesus to respond under solemn oath, saying "I adjure you, by the Living God, to tell us, are you the Anointed One, the Son of God?" Jesus testified ambiguously, "You have said it, and in time you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of the Almighty, coming on the clouds of Heaven." The high priest condemned Jesus for blasphemy, and the Sanhedrin concurred with a sentence of death (Matthew 26:57–66). Peter, waiting in the courtyard, also denied Jesus three times to bystanders while the interrogations were proceeding just as Jesus had predicted.

In the morning, the whole assembly brought Jesus to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate under charges of subverting the nation, opposing taxes to Caesar, and making himself a king (Luke 23:1–2). Pilate authorized the Jewish leaders to judge Jesus according to their own law and execute sentencing; however, the Jewish leaders replied that they were not allowed by the Romans to carry out a sentence of death (John 18:31).

Pilate questioned Jesus and told the assembly that there was no basis for sentencing. Upon learning that Jesus was from Galilee, Pilate referred the case to the ruler of Galilee, King Herod, who was in Jerusalem for the Passover Feast. Herod questioned Jesus but received no answer; Herod sent Jesus back to Pilate. Pilate told the assembly that neither he nor Herod found guilt in Jesus; Pilate resolved to have Jesus whipped and released (Luke 23:3–16). Under the guidance of the chief priests, the crowd asked for Barabbas, who had been imprisoned for committing murder during an insurrection. Pilate asked what they would have him do with Jesus, and they demanded, "Crucify him" (Mark 15:6–14). Pilate's wife had seen Jesus in a dream earlier that day, and she forewarned Pilate to "have nothing to do with this righteous man" (Matthew 27:19). Pilate had Jesus flogged and then brought him out to the crowd to release him. The chief priests informed Pilate of a new charge, demanding Jesus be sentenced to death "because he claimed to be God's son." This possibility filled Pilate with fear, and he brought Jesus back inside the palace and demanded to know from where he came (John 19:1–9).

Antonio Ciseri's depiction of Ecce Homo with Jesus and Pontius Pilate, 19th century

Coming before the crowd one last time, Pilate declared Jesus innocent and washed his own hands in water to show he has no part in this condemnation. Nevertheless, Pilate handed Jesus over to be crucified in order to forestall a riot (Matthew 27:24–26) and ultimately to keep his job. The sentence written was "Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews." Jesus carried his cross to the site of execution (assisted by Simon of Cyrene), called the place of the Skull, or "Golgotha" in Hebrew and in Latin "Calvary". There he was crucified along with two criminals (John 19:17–22).

Jesus agonized on the cross for six hours. During his last 3 hours on the cross, from noon to 3 pm, darkness fell over the whole land.[13] Jesus spoke from the cross, saying "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" This has confused many lay-Christians, with many misbelieving that Jesus feared being abandoned or did not understand the purpose of his death. However, those Christians and Jews well versed in the Bible recognize this as a reference to Psalm 22, which the dying Jesus was not able to convey in its entirety, but managed to say the first line of. Jesus wished at the last to remind them of what the Psalm conveys, and to also reveal that while the Psalm had been written long before in King David's time, it was now coming true just as described.

With a loud cry, Jesus gave up his spirit. There was an earthquake, tombs broke open, and the curtain in the Temple was torn from top to bottom. This tear signified a removal of restriction of the common Jews from the Temple's "Holiest of Holies", and that God's people now could, themselves, communicate directly with their advocate before God, Jesus the Christ, rather than needing the Temple's High Priest as an intercessor. The centurion on guard at the site of crucifixion declared, "Truly this was God's Son!" (Matthew 27:45–54)

Joseph of Arimathea, a member of the Sanhedrin and secret follower of Jesus, who had not consented to his condemnation, goes to Pilate to request the body of Jesus (Luke 23:50–52). Another secret follower of Jesus and member of the Sanhedrin named Nicodemus brought about a hundred pound weight mixture of spices and helped wrap the body of Jesus (John 19:39–40). Pilate asks confirmation from the centurion whether Jesus is dead (Mark 15:44). A soldier pierced the side of Jesus with a lance causing blood and water to flow out (John 19:34), and the centurion informs Pilate that Jesus is dead (Mark 15:45).

Joseph of Arimathea took Jesus' body, wrapped it in a clean linen shroud, and placed it in his own new tomb that had been carved in the rock (Matthew 27:59–60) in a garden near the site of crucifixion. Nicodemus (John 3:1) also brought 75 pounds of myrrh and aloes, and placed them in the linen with the body, in keeping with Jewish burial customs (John 19:39–40). They rolled a large rock over the entrance of the tomb (Matthew 27:60). Then they returned home and rested, because Shabbat had begun at sunset (Luke 23:54–56). Matt. 28:1 "After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other Mary went to look at the tomb". i.e. "After the Sabbath, at dawn on the first day of the week,.......". "He is not here; he has risen, just as he said..........".(Matt. 28:6) On the third day, which is now known as Easter Sunday (or Pascha), Jesus rose from the dead.

In the Roman Catholic Church[edit]

Day of Fasting[edit]

Crucifix prepared for veneration

The Catholic Church treats Good Friday as a fast day, which in the Latin Church is understood as having only one full meal (but smaller than a regular meal) and two collations (a smaller repast, two of which together do not equal one full meal) and on which the faithful abstain from eating meat. This is why many places have the typical 'Fish Friday'. In countries where Good Friday is not a day of rest from work, the afternoon liturgical service is usually put off until a few hours after the recommended time of 3 pm.

Services on the day[edit]

The Roman Rite has no celebration of Mass between the Lord's Supper on Holy Thursday evening and the Easter Vigil unless a special exemption is granted for rare solemn or grave occasions by the Vatican or the local bishop. The only sacraments celebrated during this time are Baptism (for those in danger of death), Penance, and Anointing of the Sick.[14] While there is no celebration of the Eucharist, it is distributed to the faithful only in the Service of the Passion of the Lord, but can also be taken at any hour to the sick who are unable to attend this service.[15] During this period crosses, candlesticks, and altar cloths are removed from the altar which remains completely bare.[16] It is also customary to empty the holy water fonts in preparation of the blessing of the water at the Easter Vigil.[17] Traditionally, no bells are rung on Good Friday or Holy Saturday until the Easter Vigil.

The Celebration of the Passion of the Lord takes place in the afternoon, ideally at three o'clock, but for pastoral reasons a later hour may be chosen.[18] The vestments used are red (more commonly) or black (more traditionally).[19] Before 1970, vestments were black except for the Communion part of the rite when violet was used.[20] Before 1955 black was used throughout.[21] If a bishop or abbot celebrates, he wears a plain mitre (mitra simplex).[22]

Liturgy[edit]

Communion from the Blessed Sacrament on Good Friday (Our Lady of Lourdes, Philadelphia)

The liturgy consists of three parts: the Liturgy of the Word, the Veneration of the Cross, and Holy Communion.

  • The Liturgy of the Word, consists of the clergy and assisting ministers entering in complete silence, without any singing. They then silently make a full prostration, "[signifying] both the abasement of 'earthly man,'[23] and also the grief and sorrow of the Church."[24] Then follows the Collect prayer, and the reading or chanting of Isaiah 52:13–53:12, Hebrews 4:14–16, 5:7–9, and the Passion account from the Gospel of John, traditionally divided between three deacons,[25] yet usually divided between the celebrant, one or two singers or readers, and the congregation which speaks the part of the "crowd". This part of the liturgy concludes with the orationes sollemnes, a series of prayers for the Church, the Pope, the clergy and laity of the Church, those preparing for baptism, the unity of Christians, the Jewish people, those who do not believe in Christ, those who do not believe in God, those in public office, those in special need.[26] After each prayer intention, the deacon calls the faithful to kneel for a short period of private prayer; the celebrant then sums up the prayer intention with a Collect-style prayer.
    The Adoration of the Cross, has a crucifix, not necessarily the one that is normally on or near the altar at other times of the year, solemnly unveiled and displayed to the congregation, and then venerated by them, individually if possible and usually by kissing the wood of the cross, while hymns and the Improperia ("Reproaches") with the Trisagion hymn are chanted.[27]
    Holy Communion is done according to a rite based on that of the final part of Mass, beginning with the Our Father, but omitting the ceremony of "Breaking of the Bread" and its related chant, the "Agnus Dei". The Eucharist, consecrated at the Evening Mass of the Lord's Supper on Holy Thursday is distributed at this service.[28] Before the reform of Pope Pius XII, only the priest received Communion in the framework of what was called the "Mass of the Presanctified", which included the usual Offertory prayers, with the placing of wine in the chalice, but which omitted the Canon of the Mass.[21] The priest and people then depart in silence, and the altar cloth is removed, leaving the altar bare except for the crucifix and two or four candlesticks.[29]

Stations of the Cross[edit]

The Way of the Cross, celebrated at the Colosseum in Rome on Good Friday
Rome: canopy erected at the "Temple of Venus and Rome" during the "Way of the Cross" ceremony

In addition to the prescribed liturgical service, the Stations of the Cross are often prayed either in the church or outside, and a prayer service may be held from midday to 3.00 pm, known as the Three Hours' Agony. In countries such as Malta, Italy, Philippines, Puerto Rico and Spain, processions with statues representing the Passion of Christ are held.

In Rome, since the papacy of Blessed John Paul II, the heights of the Temple of Venus and Roma and their position opposite the main entrance to the Colosseum have been used to good effect as a public address platform. This may be seen in the photograph below where a red canopy has been erected to shelter the Pope as well as an illuminated cross, on the occasion of the Way of the Cross ceremony. The Pope, either personally or through a representative, leads the faithful through meditations on the stations of the cross while a cross is carried from there to the Colosseum.

In Polish churches, a tableau of Christ's Tomb is unveiled in the sanctuary. Many of the faithful spend long hours into the night grieving at the Tomb, where it is customary to kiss the wounds on the Lord's body. A life-size figure of Jesus lying in his tomb is widely visited by the faithful, especially on Holy Saturday. The tableaux may include flowers, candles, figures of angels standing watch, and the three crosses atop Mt Calvary, and much more. Each parish strives to come up with the most artistically and religiously evocative arrangement in which the Blessed Sacrament, draped in a filmy veil, is prominently displayed.

Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ[edit]

El Greco's Jesus Carrying the Cross, 1580

The Roman Catholic tradition includes specific prayers and devotions as acts of reparation for the sufferings and insults that Jesus suffered during his Passion on Good Friday. These Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ do not involve a petition for a living or deceased beneficiary, but aim to repair the sins against Jesus. Some such prayers are provided in the Raccolta Catholic prayer book (approved by a Decree of 1854, and published by the Holy See in 1898) which also includes prayers as Acts of Reparation to the Virgin Mary.[30][31][32][33]

In his encyclical Miserentissimus Redemptor on reparations, Pope Pius XI called Acts of Reparation to Jesus Christ a duty for Catholics and referred to them as "some sort of compensation to be rendered for the injury" with respect to the sufferings of Jesus.[34]

Pope John Paul II referred to Acts of Reparation as the "unceasing effort to stand beside the endless crosses on which the Son of God continues to be crucified".[35]

Malta[edit]

The Holy Week commemorations reach their peak on Good Friday as the Roman Catholic Church celebrates the passion of Jesus. Solemn celebrations take place in all churches together with processions in different villages around Malta and Gozo. During the celebration, the narrative of the passion is read in some localities. The Adoration of the Cross follows. Good Friday processions take place in Birgu, Bormla, Għaxaq, Luqa, Mosta, Naxxar, Paola, Qormi, Rabat, Senglea, Valletta, Żebbuġ (Città Rohan) and Żejtun. Processions in Gozo will be in Nadur, Victoria (St. George and Cathedral), Xagħra and Żebbuġ, Gozo.

The Philippines[edit]

In predominantly Roman Catholic Philippines, the day is commemorated with street processions, the Way of the Cross, the chanting of the Pasyon, and performances of the Senakulo, a Passion play. Church bells are not rung and Masses are not celebrated. Some devotees engage in self-flagellation and even have themselves crucified as expressions of penance despite health issues and strong disapproval from the Church.[36]

After three o'clock in the afternoon (the time at which Jesus is traditionally believed to have died), the faithful venerate the cross in the local church and follow the procession of the Burial of Jesus. The image of the dead Christ is then laid in state to be venerated, and sometimes treated in accordance with local burial customs.

In Cebu and other Visayan Islands, people usually eat binignit and biko as a form of fasting.

In Eastern Christianity[edit]

Icon of the Crucifixion, 16th century, by Theophanes the Cretan (Stavronikita Monastery, Mount Athos)

Byzantine Christians (Eastern Christians who follow the Rite of Constantinople: Orthodox Christians and Greek-Catholics) call this day "Great and Holy Friday", or simply "Great Friday".

Because the sacrifice of Jesus through his crucifixion is commemorated on this day, the Divine Liturgy (the sacrifice of bread and wine) is never celebrated on Great Friday, except when this day coincides with the Great Feast of the Annunciation, which falls on the fixed date of 25 March (for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar, 25 March currently falls on 7 April of the modern Gregorian Calendar). Also on Great Friday, the clergy no longer wear the purple or red that is customary throughout Great Lent,[37] but instead don black vestments. There is no "stripping of the altar" on Holy and Great Thursday as in the West; instead, all of the church hangings are changed to black, and will remain so until the Divine Liturgy on Great Saturday.

The faithful revisit the events of the day through public reading of specific Psalms and the Gospels, and singing hymns about Christ's death. Rich visual imagery and symbolism as well as stirring hymnody are remarkable elements of these observances. In the Orthodox understanding, the events of Holy Week are not simply an annual commemoration of past events, but the faithful actually participate in the death and resurrection of Jesus.

Each hour of this day is the new suffering and the new effort of the expiatory suffering of the Savior. And the echo of this suffering is already heard in every word of our worship service – unique and incomparable both in the power of tenderness and feeling and in the depth of the boundless compassion for the suffering of the Savior. The Holy Church opens before the eyes of believers a full picture of the redeeming suffering of the Lord beginning with the bloody sweat in the Garden of Gethsemane up to the crucifixion on Golgotha. Taking us back through the past centuries in thought, the Holy Church brings us to the foot of the cross of Christ erected on Golgotha, and makes us present among the quivering spectators of all the torture of the Savior.[38]

Great and Holy Friday is observed as a strict fast, and adult Byzantine Christians are expected to abstain from all food and drink the entire day to the extent that their health permits. "On this Holy day neither a meal is offered nor do we eat on this day of the crucifixion. If someone is unable or has become very old [or is] unable to fast, he may be given bread and water after sunset. In this way we come to the holy commandment of the Holy Apostles not to eat on Great Friday."[38]

Matins of Holy and Great Friday[edit]

The Byzantine Christian observance of Holy and Great Friday, which is formally known as The Order of Holy and Saving Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ, begins on Thursday night with the Matins of the Twelve Passion Gospels. Scattered throughout this Matins service are twelve readings from all four of the Gospels which recount the events of the Passion from the Last Supper through the Crucifixion and burial of Jesus. Some churches have a candelabrum with twelve candles on it, and after each Gospel reading one of the candles is extinguished.

Good Friday cross from the Catholicon at Holy Trinity Monastery, Meteora, Greece

The first of these twelve readings John 13:31–18:1 is the longest Gospel reading of the liturgical year, and is a concatenation from all four Gospels. Just before the sixth Gospel reading, which recounts Jesus being nailed to the cross, a large cross is carried out of the sanctuary by the priest, accompanied by incense and candles, and is placed in the center of the nave (where the congregation gathers), with a two-dimensional painted icon of the body of Christ (Greek: soma) affixed to it. As the cross is being carried, the priest or a chanter chants a special antiphon, Sēmeron Kremātai Epí Xýlou:

Today He who hung the earth upon the waters is hung upon the Cross (three times).
He who is King of the angels is arrayed in a crown of thorns.
He who wraps the Heavens in clouds is wrapped in the purple of mockery.
He who in Jordan set Adam free receives blows upon His face.
The Bridegroom of the Church is transfixed with nails.
The Son of the Virgin is pierced with a spear.
We venerate Thy Passion, O Christ (three times).
Show us also Thy glorious Resurrection.[39][40]

During the service, all come forward to kiss the feet of Christ on the cross. After the Canon, a brief, moving hymn, The Wise Thief is chanted by singers who stand at the foot of the cross in the center of the nave. The service does not end with the First Hour, as usual, but with a special dismissal by the priest:

May Christ our true God, Who for the salvation of the world endured spitting, and scourging, and buffeting, and the Cross, and death, through the intercessions of His most pure Mother, of our holy and God-bearing fathers, and of all the saints, have mercy on us and save us, for He is good and the Lover of mankind.

Vigil during the Service of the Royal Hours.

Royal Hours[edit]

Main article: Royal Hours

The next day, in the forenoon on Friday, all gather again to pray the Royal Hours, a special expanded celebration of the Little Hours (including the First Hour, Third Hour, Sixth Hour, Ninth Hour and Typica) with the addition of scripture readings (Old Testament, Epistle and Gospel) and hymns about the Crucifixion at each of the Hours (some of the material from the previous night is repeated). This is somewhat more festive in character, and derives its name of "Royal" from both the fact that the Hours are served with more solemnity than normal, commemorating Christ the King who humbled himself for the salvation of mankind, and also from the fact that this service was in the past attended by the Emperor and his court.

Vespers of Holy and Great Friday[edit]

The crucified Christ, just before the Deposition from the Cross and the placing of the Epitaphios in the Sepulcher.

In the afternoon, around 3 pm, all gather for the Vespers of the Taking-Down from the Cross, commemorating the Deposition from the Cross. The Gospel reading is a concatenation taken from all four of the Gospels. During the service, the body of Christ (the soma) is removed from the cross, as the words in the Gospel reading mention Joseph of Arimathea, wrapped in a linen shroud, and taken to the altar in the sanctuary.

The epitaphios ("winding sheet"), depicting the preparation of the body of Jesus for burial

Near the end of the service an epitaphios or "winding sheet" (a cloth embroidered with the image of Christ prepared for burial) is carried in procession to a low table in the nave which represents the Tomb of Christ; it is often decorated with an abundance of flowers. The epitaphios itself represents the body of Jesus wrapped in a burial shroud, and is a roughly full-size cloth icon of the body of Christ. Then the priest may deliver a homily and everyone comes forward to venerate the epitaphios. In the Slavic practice, at the end of Vespers, Compline is immediately served, featuring a special Canon of the Crucifixion of our Lord and the Lamentation of the Most Holy Theotokos by Symeon the Logothete.

Matins of Holy and Great Saturday[edit]

The Epitaphios being carried in procession in a church in Greece.

On Friday night, the Matins of Holy and Great Saturday, a unique service known as The Lamentation at the Tomb (Epitáphios Thrēnos) is celebrated. This service is also sometimes called Jerusalem Matins. Much of the service takes place around the tomb of Christ in the center of the nave.

A unique feature of the service is the chanting of the Lamentations or Praises (Enkōmia), which consist of verses chanted by the clergy interspersed between the verses of Psalm 119 (which is, by far, the longest psalm in the Bible). The Enkōmia are the best-loved hymns of Byzantine hymnography, both their poetry and their music being uniquely suited to each other and to the spirit of the day. They consist of 185 tercet antiphons arranged in three parts (stáseis or "stops"), which are interjected with the verses of Psalm 119, and nine short doxastiká ("Gloriae") and Theotókia (invocations to the Virgin Mary). The three stáseis are each set to its own music, and are commonly known by their initial antiphons: Ἡ ζωὴ ἐν τάφῳ, "Life in a grave", Ἄξιον ἐστί, "Worthy it is", and Αἱ γενεαὶ πᾶσαι, "All the generations". Musically they can be classified as strophic, with 75, 62, and 48 tercet stanzas each, respectively. The climax of the Enkōmia comes during the third stásis, with the antiphon "Ō glyký mou Éar", a lamentation of the Virgin for her dead Child ("O, my sweet spring, my sweetest child, where has your beauty gone?"). The author(s) and date of the Enkōmia are unknown. Their High Attic linguistic style suggests a dating around the 6th century, possibly before the time of St. Romanos the Melodist.

The Epitaphios mounted upon return of procession, at an Orthodox Church in Adelaide, Australia.

At the end of the Great Doxology, while the Trisagion is sung, the epitaphios is taken in procession around the outside the church, and is then returned to the tomb. Some churches observe the practice of holding the epitaphios at the door, above waist level, so the faithful most bow down under it as they come back into the church, symbolizing their entering into the death and resurrection of Christ. The epitaphios will lay in the tomb until the Paschal Service early Sunday morning. In some churches, the epitaphios is never left alone, but is accompanied 24 hours a day by a reader chanting from the Psalter.[citation needed]

The Troparion (hymn of the day) of Good Friday is:

The noble Joseph, when he had taken down Thy most pure Body from the tree, wrapped it in fine linen, and anointed it with spices, and placed it in a new tomb.
Glory to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit, both now and ever, and unto ages of ages. Amen.
The angel came to the myrrh-bearing women at the tomb and said:
Myrrh is fitting for the dead, but Christ has shown Himself a stranger to corruption.

Anglican Communion[edit]

The 1662 Book of Common Prayer did not specify a particular rite to be observed on Good Friday but local custom came to mandate an assortment of services, including the Seven Last Words from the Cross and a three-hour service consisting of Matins, Ante-communion (using the Reserved Sacrament in high church parishes) and Evensong. In recent times revised editions of the Prayer Book and Common Worship have re-introduced pre-Reformation forms of observance of Good Friday corresponding to those in today's Roman Catholic Church, with special nods to the rites that had been observed in the Church of England prior to the Henrican, Edwardian and Elizabethan reforms, including Creeping to the Cross.

Lutheran Church[edit]

In Lutheran tradition from the 16th to the 20th century, Good Friday was the most important religious holiday, and abstention from all worldly works was expected. During that time, Lutheranism had no restrictions on the celebration of the Eucharist on Good Friday; on the contrary, it was a prime day on which to receive the Eucharist, and services were often accentuated by special music such as the St Matthew Passion by Johann Sebastian Bach.

More recently, Lutheran liturgical practice has recaptured Good Friday as part of the larger sweep of the great Three Days: Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and the Vigil of Easter. The Three Days remain one liturgy which celebrates the death and resurrection of Jesus. As part of the liturgy of the Three Days, Lutherans generally fast from the Eucharist on Good Friday. Rather, it is celebrated in remembrance of the Last Supper on Maundy Thursday and at the Vigil of Easter. One practice among Lutheran churches is to celebrate a tenebrae service on Good Friday, typically conducted in candlelight and consisting of a collection of passion accounts from the four gospels. While being called "Tenebrae" it holds little resemblance to the now-suppressed Catholic monastic rite of the same name.[41] The Good Friday liturgy appointed in Evangelical Lutheran Worship, the worship book of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, specifies a liturgy similar to the revised Roman Catholic liturgy. A rite for adoration of the crucified Christ includes the optional singing of the Solemn Reproaches in an updated and revised translation which eliminates some of the anti-Jewish overtones in previous versions. Influenced by the ecumenical liturgical renewal movement and in an attempt to recover patterns of worship from the early church, many Lutheran congregations are moving away from long preaching services centered on a dramatic and sentimentalized remembrance of the "Seven Last Words," sayings of Jesus assembled from the four gospels, toward a more devotional practice that places an emphasis on the triumph of the cross, and a singular biblical account of the Passion narrative from the Gospel of John.

Other Protestant traditions[edit]

Many other Protestant communities hold special services on this day as well. Moravians hold a Lovefeast on Good Friday as they receive Holy Communion on Maundy Thursday. The Methodist Church commemorates Good Friday with a service of worship, often based on the Seven Last Words from the Cross.[42][43] It is not uncommon for some communities to hold interdenominational services on Good Friday.

Some Baptist,[44] Pentecostal, many Sabbatarian[45] and non-denominational churches oppose the observance of Good Friday, regarding it as a papist tradition, and instead observe the Crucifixion on Wednesday to coincide with the Jewish sacrifice of the Passover Lamb (which Christians believe is an Old Testament pointer to Jesus Christ). A Wednesday Crucifixion of Jesus allows for him to be in the tomb ("heart of the earth") for three days and three nights as he told the Pharisees he would be (Matthew 12:40), rather than two nights and a day if he had died on a Friday.[46][47] Preparation Day (14 Nisan on the Hebrew calendar) – which is the day before Passover (15 Nisan), instead of the Friday morning found in the Synoptic Gospels.

Associated customs[edit]

Good Friday service in Ireland

In many countries with a strong Christian tradition such as Australia, Bermuda, Brazil, Canada, the countries of the Caribbean, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Finland, Germany, Malta, Mexico, New Zealand,[48][49][50] Peru, the Philippines, Singapore, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and Venezuela, the day is observed as a public or federal holiday. In the United States, 12 states observe Good Friday as state holiday: Connecticut, Texas, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Tennessee, Florida, Kentucky, Louisiana, New Jersey, North Carolina and North Dakota.

Cuba[edit]

The Catholic News Agency (CNA), in an online news story article posted by Alejandro Bermudez on Saturday, 31 March 2012, stated that, in response to a specific request made personally to Cuban President Raul Castro by Pope Benedict XVI, during his Apostolic Visitation of Leon, Mexico and the island in March 2012, following the pattern of small advances in Church-Cuban relations, it was decreed by the Communist Party and Castro and his advisers that in 2012, Good Friday would be made a holiday, with a possibility that the move could perhaps be made permanent (following the move of the late Pope John Paul II, who got Fidel Castro to declare Christmas Day a holiday—which is still the case—due to a personal request during his landmark trip in 1998).[51]

Ireland[edit]

In the Republic of Ireland, it is illegal to sell alcoholic drinks on Good Friday.[citation needed] Pubs and Off-licences must close for the day and other places such as shops or supermarkets that sell alcohol must block off or cover over the alcohol section of the shop.

Spain[edit]

Nazarenos wearing capirotes, in Málaga, Spain

United Kingdom[edit]

Hot cross buns are traditionally toasted and eaten on Good Friday in Britain and Australia[52]

In England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland Good Friday is an official public holiday[53] (a.k.a. Bank Holiday). All schools are closed and most businesses treat it as a holiday for staff; however, many retail stores now remain open. Government services in Northern Ireland operate as normal on Good Friday substituting the holiday for Easter Tuesday.

There has traditionally been no horse racing on Good Friday in the UK. However, in 2008, betting shops and stores opened for the first time on this day[54] and in 2014 Lingfield Park and Musselburgh staged the UK's first Good Friday race meetings.[55][56] The BBC has for many years introduced its 7 am News broadcast on Radio 4 on Good Friday with a verse from Isaac Watts' hymn "When I Survey the Wondrous Cross".

United States[edit]

In the United States, Good Friday is not a government holiday at the federal level; however, individual states, counties and municipalities may observe the holiday. Good Friday is a state holiday in Connecticut,[57] Delaware,[58] Florida,[59] Hawaii,[60] Indiana,[61] Kentucky,[62] Louisiana,[63] New Jersey,[64] North Carolina,[65] North Dakota,[66] Tennessee[67] and Texas.[68] State and local government offices and courts are closed, as well as some banks and postal offices in these states, and in those counties and municipalities where Good Friday is observed as holiday. Good Friday is also a holiday in the U.S. territories of Guam,[69] U.S. Virgin Islands[70] and Puerto Rico.[71]

The financial market and stock market are closed on Good Friday.[72] Most retail stores remain open, while some of them may close early. Public schools and universities are often closed on Good Friday, either as a holiday of its own, or part of spring break. The postal service operates, and banks regulated by the federal government do not close for Good Friday.[73] In some governmental contexts Good Friday has been referred to by a generic name, particularly "spring holiday",[74][75][76] presumably to avoid accusations of violating the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

Calculating the date[edit]

See also: Date of Easter

Good Friday is the Friday before Easter, which is calculated differently in Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity (see Computus for details). Easter falls on the first Sunday following the Paschal Full Moon, the full moon on or after 21 March, taken to be the date of the vernal equinox. The Western calculation uses the Gregorian calendar, while the Eastern calculation uses the Julian calendar, whose 21 March now corresponds to the Gregorian calendar's 3 April. The calculations for identifying the date of the full moon also differ. See Computus.

In Eastern Christianity, Easter can fall between 22 March and 25 April on Julian Calendar (thus between 4 April and 8 May in terms of the Gregorian calendar, during the period 1900 and 2099), so Good Friday can fall between 20 March and 23 April, inclusive (or between 2 April and 6 May in terms of the Gregorian calendar).

Cultural references[edit]

Good Friday assumes a particular importance in the plot of Richard Wagner's music drama Parsifal, which contains an orchestral interlude known as the "Good Friday Music".

On Good Friday April 14, 1865, American President Abraham Lincoln was fatally shot by actor John Wilkes Booth.

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^
  2. ^ Bainger, Fleur (1 April 2010). "Fish frenzy for Easter Friday". ABC Online. Retrieved 22 April 2011. 
  3. ^ Hamilton-Irvine, Gary (30 March 2013). "Relax Easter trading laws for Rotorua, say retailers". Rotorua Daily Post. Retrieved 30 March 2013. 
  4. ^ "Easter Friday" by Simone Richardson, 2006. Published by Emu Music.
  5. ^ "John 19". Wesley's Notes for the Bible. Biblecommenter.com. Retrieved 2010-04-02. "19:42 Because of the preparation – That is, they chose the rather to lay him in that sepulchre which was nigh, because it was the day before the Sabbath, which also was drawing to an end, so that they had no time to carry him far." 
  6. ^
  7. ^
    • Humphreys, Colin J., and W. G. Waddington, "Dating the Crucifixion", Nature 306 ( 22/29 December 1983), pp. 743–46. Dating the Crucifixion Nature.com
    • Colin J. Humphreys and W. G. Waddington, The Date of the Crucifixion Journal of the American Scientific Affiliation 37 (March 1985) The Date of the Crucifixion ASA3.org
  8. ^ Petre, Jonathan (March 21, 2008). "Good Friday gambling angers churches". The Telegraph. 
  9. ^ Stevens, Laura (March 29, 2013). "In Germany, Some Want to Boogie Every Day of the Year". The Wall Street Journal. 
  10. ^ "Good Friday - Definition of Good Friday". Yourdictionary.com. 2014-04-04. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  11. ^ "Catholic Encyclopedia: Good Friday". Newadvent.org. 1909-09-01. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  12. ^ "Home : Oxford English Dictionary". Oed.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  13. ^ Matthew 27:45; Mark 15:13; Luke 23:44
  14. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 1.
  15. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 2.
  16. ^ Roman Missal, Good Friday, 3.
  17. ^ Removing Holy Water During Lent Letter of the Congregation for Divine Worship, 14 March 2003
  18. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 4.
  19. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 5.
  20. ^ 1962 edition of the Roman Missal.
  21. ^ a b 1920 typical edition of the Roman Missal.
  22. ^ Caeremoniale Episcoporum, 315.
  23. ^ Roman Missal, "Good Friday", Celebration of the Lord's Passion, n. 5.
  24. ^ Circular Letter Concerning the Preparation and Celebration of the Easter Feasts, V. Good Friday, 16 January 1988, Sacred Congregation for Divine Worship.
  25. ^ Congregation of Divine Worship and Discipline of the Sacraments, Paschale Solemnitatis, III, n.66 (cf. n. 33)
  26. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 7–13.
  27. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 14–21.
  28. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 22–31.
  29. ^ Roman Missal: Good Friday, 32–33.
  30. ^ Reparation NewAdvent.org
  31. ^ Raccolta NewAdvent.org
  32. ^ Joseph P. Christopher et al, 2003 The Raccolta St Athanasius Press ISBN 978-0-9706526-6-9.
  33. ^ Ann Ball, 2003 Encyclopedia of Catholic Devotions and Practices ISBN 0-87973-910-X
  34. ^ Miserentissimus Redemptor Encyclical of Pope Pius XI Vatican.va
  35. ^ Vatican archives.
  36. ^ Marks, Kathy (22 March 2008). "Dozens ignore warnings to re-enact crucifixion". The Independent (London). Retrieved 23 March 2008. 
  37. ^ There is a wide variety of uses regarding the liturgical colors worn during Great Lent and Holy Week in the Rite of Constantinople.
  38. ^ a b Bulgakov, Sergei V. (1900). "Great Friday" (PDF). "Handbook for Church Servers, 2nd ed.". Kharkov: Tr. Archpriest Eugene D. Tarris. p. 543. Retrieved 25 October 2007. [dead link]
  39. ^ Archimandrite Kallistos (Ware) and Mother Mary (2002). "Service of the Twelve Gospels". "The Lenten Triodion". South Cannan, Pennsylvania: St. Tikhon's Seminary Press. p. 587. 
  40. ^ Today He who hung the earth upon the waters Chanted by the Byzantine Choir of Athens
  41. ^ "A Word About Tenebrae |". Historiclectionary.com. 2010-03-22. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  42. ^ "Christians mark Good Friday". The Daily Reflector. Retrieved 21 March 2007. [dead link]
  43. ^ "Good Friday". United Methodist Church. Retrieved 21 March 2007. 
  44. ^ Ashley Web Design, Summerville, SC Kevin@ashleywebdesign.com (1998-06-08). "Proof for a Wednesday Crucifixion". Kjbbc.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  45. ^ The Resurrection Was Not on Sunday TheTrumpet.com
  46. ^ "The Cradle & the Cross (original)". thebereancall.org. 1992-12-01. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  47. ^ FACTnet: Cult, Cults, Abuse by Religions, Abuse Recovery Discussion & Resources, Peer-Support, Legal support[dead link]
  48. ^ Holidays Act 2003 (New Zealand), Section 17 Days that are public holidays
  49. ^ Shop Trading Hours Act Repeal Act 1990 (New Zealand), Section 3 Shops to be closed on Anzac Day morning, Good Friday, Easter Sunday, and Christmas Day
  50. ^ Broadcasting Act 1989 (New Zealand), Section 79A Hours during which election programmes prohibited, Section 81 Advertising hours
  51. ^ "Cuban authorities declare Good Friday 2012 a holiday". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  52. ^ BBC – How did hot cross buns become two a penny? Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  53. ^ "Bank holidays and British Summer Time". Directgov. Retrieved 19 April 2011. 
  54. ^ Good Friday gambling angers churches – The Telegraph. telegraph.co.uk. Published 21 March 2008. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  55. ^ BBC – Lingfield: £1m Good Friday fixture to be held at Surrey racecourse Published 9 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  56. ^ The Scotsman – Musselburgh to host historic Good Friday racing Published 11 October 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  57. ^ Department of Information Technology. "About Connecticut". CT.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  58. ^ "Delaware - Office of Management and Budget - State of Delaware Holidays". Delawarepersonnel.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  59. ^ http://law2.onecle.com/florida/commercial-relations/683.01.html
  60. ^ "Hawaii State Holidays for 2014". Miraclesalad.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  61. ^ "Secretary of State: 2011 Indiana State Holidays". In.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  62. ^ "Holidays". Personnel.ky.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  63. ^ Sandra G. Gillen, CPPB. "2014 State Holidays Calendar Observed by OSP". Doa.louisiana.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  64. ^ "The Official Web Site for The State of New Jersey | State Holidays". Nj.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  65. ^ "N.C. State Government Holiday Schedule for 2013 and 2014". Ic.nc.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  66. ^ "North Dakota State Holidays 2014". The Holiday Schedule. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  67. ^ "Official State Holidays". TN.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  68. ^ "Texas State Holidays 2014". The Holiday Schedule. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  69. ^ "Guam Public Holidays 2012 (Oceania)". Qppstudio.net. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  70. ^ "US Virgin Islands Public Holidays 2012 (Americas/Caribbean)". Qppstudio.net. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  71. ^ "Puerto Rican Holidays". Topuertorico.org. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  72. ^ "Stock Market Holidays". Money-zine.com. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  73. ^ "Federal Holidays". Opm.gov. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  74. ^ http://www.co.rock.wi.us/current-news/1195-spring-holiday-office-closing-friday-april-18
  75. ^ "Iowa Town Renames Good Friday - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. 2010-03-29. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  76. ^ Villarreal, Abe (2014-04-17). "Spring Holiday - Western New Mexico University". Wnmu.edu. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 

External links[edit]