|Industry||Manufacturing and engineering|
|Fate||Sold to BSA and discontinued|
|Key people||Jack Sangster, Edward Turner and Val Page|
Ariel Motorcycles was a British motorcycle manufacturer based in Bournbrook, Birmingham. It was one of the leading innovators in British motorcycling, and was part of the Ariel marque. The company was sold to BSA in 1951 but the Ariel brand survived until 1967. Influential Ariel designers included Edward Turner and Val Page. The last motorcycle-type vehicle to carry the Ariel name was a short-lived 3-wheel tilting moped launched in 1970.
The 'Ariel' name was reused in 1999 for the formation of Ariel Ltd, a sports car producer.
Bicycles and early motorised vehicles
The original company was established in 1870 by James Starley and William Hillman. They built wire-spoke wheels under the first British patent; this allowed them also to build a lighter-weight "penny farthing" bicycle which they named 'Ariel' (the spirit of the air). They put the name on the factory where they made penny-farthing bicycles and sewing machines. In 1885 James Starley's nephew, John Kemp Starley, invented the 'Rover Safety Bicycle' - a rear-wheel-drive, chain-driven bicycle with two similar-sized wheels, which is essentially the design still used on bicycles today.
Ariel merged with Westwood Manufacturing in 1896 and made a powered tricycle in 1898 with a 2.25 hp de Dion engine mounted at the rear. Hillman left soon afterwards to found Premier Motorcycles. More tricycles were produced and motorised quadricycles were added in 1901 as Ariel then moved into car production.
In 1902, Ariel produced its first motorcycle, which had a Kerry engine with an innovative magneto ignition and a float carburettor. That year, Ariel was taken over by Components Ltd., owned by Charles Sangster. Sangster built a three-speed, two-stroke motorcycle that was sold as the "Arielette", but he stopped production on the outbreak of the First World War.
In 1918, Sangster's son Jack began managing the Ariel division of Components Ltd. and developed a motorcycle with a 4 hp White and Poppe engine that proved successful. Jack increased the range of motorcycles to include 586 cc and 992 cc machines. A range of motorcycles was made with engines either bought in or assembled to other people's designs until 1926 when a new designer, Val Page, joined Ariel from JAP. That year Page created a pair of new engines which used many existing motorcycle parts, and then redesigned the motorcycle for 1927. These new Ariels are known as 'Black Ariels' (1926–1930) and were the basis on which all Ariel 4-stroke singles were based until their demise in 1959 (except the LH Colt of the mid-1950s). During the 'Black Ariel' period the Ariel horse logo came into being as did the slogan 'The Modern Motor Cycle'.
Components Ltd. suffered several financial crises including spells in receivership in 1911 and in the early 1930s. In 1932, Components Ltd went bankrupt, and Jack Sangster, Charles Sangster's son, bought the Ariel subsidiary from the receivers at a bargain price. The company was renamed Ariel Motors (J.S.) Ltd, and promptly resumed production. A new factory was set up at Selly Oak in Birmingham. One of their first bikes was the Ariel Square Four, designed by Edward Turner, followed by the Ariel Red Hunter. The Red Hunter was a success, and made Ariel able to purchase Triumph.
The Ariel Square Four with a 500 cc engine designed by Edward Turner first appeared for the 1931 season. Around this time the company went into receivership and then a new company was formed. The Square Four became a 600cc. The Square Fours had overheating problems with the rear cylinders which resulted in distorted heads throughout their history. A redesign in 1937 resulted in a 995 cc OHV version designated the 4G.
In 1939 Anstey-link plunger rear suspension was an option. It was still available when production restarted in 1946, with telescopic forks replacing the girder forks.
In 1949 the Mark 1 Square Four had cast aluminium barrels and heads instead of cast iron. With the lower weight the bike was a 90 mph plus machine.
In 1951 Jack Sangster sold Ariel and Triumph (bought in 1936) to the Birmingham Small Arms Company group (BSA), and joined their board. Ariel began making the 500 cc KH model and the 650 cc Huntmaster, with engines based on BSA parallel twins. Reliable and capable of 100 miles per hour (160 km/h), the Huntmaster proved popular with sidecar enthusiasts.
By 1956 Sangster was voted in as the new Chairman, defeating incumbent Sir Bernard Docker 6 to 3. Sangster promptly made Edward Turner head of the automotive division, which then included Ariel, Triumph, and BSA motorcycles, as well as Daimler and Carbodies (the manufacturer of London Taxicabs).
In 1953 the Mark 2 Square Four had a redesigned cylinder head, and was capable of 100 mph.
Two-strokes and demise
In 1959, Ariel dropped its four-stroke engines and produced the Ariel Leader, a fully enclosed 250 cc two-stroke with a fully faired body from the headlamp aft. The Leader aimed to combine the benefits of the motorcycle with the advantages of a scooter. Ariel also made the Arrow, a more open version of the Leader which kept the Leader's enclosed chain case and deep mudguards. Both models were an unsuccessful attempt to compete with new Japanese imports.
In 1965, Ariel produced its last motorcycle, the Arrow 200 with capacity reduced to 200 cc introduced earlier during 1964 to qualify for lower UK rider insurance. Ariel motorcycles ceased production in 1967.
Later use of the Ariel name
In 1970, BSA produced the Ariel 3, a 49 cc automatic trike with a coupling between the front and rear frame sections allowing banking when cornering. The front half was hinged to the rear and could tilt into corners whilst keeping all three wheels on the ground. The design was licensed from G.L.Wallis & Son, who had patented it in 1966 (following the failure of the Ariel 3 the design was licensed to Honda who produced it as the Honda Gyro).
In 1999 a new company was formed using the old 'Ariel' name. At the present time this company makes only one model, the Atom, a minimalistic 2-seat road-legal sports car.
- Models A - G
- Cyclone (model owned by Buddy Holly)
- Trials HT5
- Trials HT3
- Scrambles HS (Mk1,11,111)
Cars were produced over two periods: from 1902 to 1915, and again from 1922 to 1925. The first proper Ariel car was a 10 hp (7.5 kW) twin-cylinder car produced in 1902. In 1903, their first four-cylinder was a 15/19 model.[note 1] Both these vehicles had a leather cone clutch that was entirely separate from the flywheel. In early 1904, Ariel began production of a six-cylinder model built on a seemingly inadequate tube-frame chassis.
An entirely new range was announced at the end of 1905; called the 'Ariel-Simplex', these cars were Mercedes-inspired four-cylinder designs of 15 hp and 25/30 hp and a six of 35/40 hp. In 1907–1908 the company began production of their 50/60 hp six, which offered a 15.9 litre engine for a chassis price of £950. In 1907 Ariel sold its Birmingham factory to the French Lorraine-Dietrich company, who wanted to enter the British market; Ariel cars were thereafter assembled at the Coventry Ordnance Works, a branch of Cammell Laird. The arrangement with Lorraine-Dietrich was cancelled in 1910. Production of a 1.3-litre light car ended with the outbreak of World War I.
Ariel did not return to motor car manufacture until 1922,  when the Ariel Nine was launched. The car featured a flat-twin, water-cooled engine of 996 cc and was capable of 55 mph; about 700 were made. It was designed by Jack Sangster, the son of the owner, who had designed the similar, but air-cooled, twin-cylinder Rover 8 when he worked for Rover. The Nine was replaced in 1924 by a 10-hp (RAC) car[note 2] with a 1097 cc four-cylinder engine and a gearbox combined with the rear axle. The car was advertised at £180 for the chassis, and about 250 were made. In 1925 Ariel abandoned the car market to concentrate on motorcycles.
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- Title: Thoroughbred & Classic Cars - May 1999, Article: Daimler's Queen of Excess, Author: Martin Buckley, Publisher: EMAP Automotive Ltd, Lynchwood, Peterborough, 1996-, pp103-106. ISSN 0143-7267.
- Bonhams Lot 387 c.1965 Ariel 49cc Pixie Engine no. P886
- Motor Cycle, 19 November 1964. 'Earls Court Show Guide'. p.850. Ariel models for 1965 season. "..the relatively new Arrow 200...Reduced insurance premiums, for only slightly less performance; that's the Arrow 200 claim." Accessed 2013-08-20
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- Kimberley, Damien (2012). Coventry's Motorcar Heritage. Brimscombe Port Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: The History Press. ISBN 978-0-7524-9041-0. Retrieved 2013-04-14.
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- Culshaw, David; Horrobin, Peter (2013) . "Ariel: Ariel-Simplex". The Complete Catalogue of British Cars 1895 - 1975 (e-book ed.). Poundbury, Dorchester, UK: Veloce Publishing. pp. 44–46. ISBN 978-1-845845-83-4.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ariel motorcycles.|
- The Ariel Owners Motor Cycle Club (includes a brief history of Ariel by Mick Small)
- Ariel Motorcycles Owners Club
- Jeremy Mortimore's site on Ariel Cycles
- The Ariel Motorcycle Club of North America (also includes a series of sections on the history of Ariel motorcycles)
- Full list of Ariel models
- Outline history of Ariel Motorcycles on Ian Chadwick's British Motorcycle Manufactures web pages
- A short history of Ariel Motorcycles up to 1910 on Leon Mitchell’s website
- 1926 Ariel Model D
- 1930 Ariel Model G
- 1937 Ariel Red Hunter - Model NH1
- Photo of 1924 Ariel Nine Four Seat Tourer
- 1923 Ariel Nine Four Seat Tourer advertisement