Bay Village, Boston
|Neighborhood of Boston|
|Time zone||Eastern (UTC-5)|
|Area code(s)||617 / 857|
Bay Village is the second smallest and arguably least-known officially-recognized neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts. As of 2010, its population was approximately 1,312 residents living in 837 housing units, most of which are small brick rowhouses.
The Massachusetts Turnpike is the southern boundary of the neighborhood, which coincides with the right-of-way of the Boston and Worcester Railroad, laid down in the 1830s. Marginal Road and Cortes Street are the surface roads that parallel the "Pike". Across the Pike to the southwest lies the South End neighborhood; to the southeast of the Pike and Tremont Street is the southern edge of Chinatown. To the west of Berkeley Street and north of Columbus Street (west of Arlington Street) is the Back Bay neighborhood. To the north of Stuart Street is Park Square, and to the east of Charles Street is the Washington Street Theatre District.
The narrow one-way network and irregular grid arrangement of the streets make the interior urban spaces of Bay Village relatively quiet and pedestrian-friendly, due to sparse automobile traffic. Most of the sidewalks are paved with brick, and are lit by gas streetlamps at night. The exterior appearance of buildings is protected by a Historic District designation administered by the Bay Village Architectural Commission.
There are a few "vest-pocket" parks located within or nearby Bay Village, notably Eliot Norton Park, which although technically located in the Theatre District, is just across Charles Street from the eastern boundary of the neighborhood. The Boston Public Garden and Boston Common are located just two blocks away from the northern edge of Bay Village.
Traditionally middle to lower-middle class, the neighborhood has become relatively more expensive and upscale, beginning around the 1990s. The Bay Village Neighborhood Association (BVNA) is very active in controlling urban nuisances, such as traffic, litter, graffiti, and pet wastes (an approved dog walking area is located next to Eliot Norton Park). The BVNA is also known for organizing Spring and Fall Cleanup days, a book club, and the Bay Village Annual Neighborhood Block Party (which has sometimes featured restaurant tables and service literally in the middle of the narrow streets).
The western part of the neighborhood was originally part of the body of water known as the Back Bay, west of the Boston Neck isthmus. This area was once known as South Bay, as the original waterline was in the area of Arlington Street (formerly Ferdinand Street). In the 1820s, the neighborhood was landfilled by developer Ephraim Marsh, in partnership with Francis Cabot Lowell, before the more extensive landfills of the adjacent Back Bay and South End neighborhoods. Through its history, the neighborhood has been known at different times as the Church Street District, South Cove, and Kerry Village.
Architecturally, many Bay Village homes look like smaller versions of Beacon Hill townhouses. This is largely because many of the craftspeople who built the Beacon Hill residences settled in this area and built the local residences for their own use. Fayette Street, named for the American Revolutionary War soldier Marquis de Lafayette, has numerous houses dating from the Federal Period. Grander five-story townhouses in the Greek Revival style may be found on Melrose Street. After the area west of Arlington Street (formerly known as Ferdinand Street) was filled in, developers built luxury residential "hotels" in the Victorian style on Cortes and Isabella Streets.
During the mid-to-late 19th century, most streets in Bay Village were raised 12–18 feet (4–6 m) to prevent flooding as the adjacent South End and Back Bay neighborhoods were created by continued landfill. Newer structures were built to this raised elevation, but many older buildings were modified with new entrances into what had previously been the second floor. Visitors can see evidence of this today by noting the location of the basement windows in some of the buildings on Fayette Street, as well as arches opening to horsewalks that ran under the houses to stables in the rear. In addition, some private gardens were never raised, and remain near their original elevations.
The American writer Edgar Allan Poe was born at the edge of Bay Village; his parents were both actors in the Theatre District nearby. A commemorative plaque on Boylston Street is a couple of blocks away from the actual location of Poe's birth. The house which was his birthplace at 62 Carver Street no longer exists; also, the street has since been renamed "Charles Street South". A "square" at the intersection of Broadway, Fayette, and Carver Streets had once been named in his honor, but it disappeared when the streets were rearranged. In 2009, the intersection of Charles and Boylston Streets (two blocks north of his birthplace) was newly designated "Edgar Allan Poe Square". A residential condominium a few streets away within Bay Village is also named in his honor, but otherwise has no known connection to the author.
As of 2013[update], fundraising is proceeding to construct a permanent memorial sculpture at Edgar Allan Poe Square. The winning design depicts a life-sized Poe striding against the wind, accompanied by a flying raven, and trailed by papers falling from his open suitcase.
Bay Village was the site of the November 1942 fire at the Cocoanut Grove nightclub, in which 492 people lost their lives. Its terrible aftermath led to the creation and enforcement of stringent fire codes across the US, in the hope of preventing other such tragedies. Marking the 50th anniversary of the incident, the Bay Village Neighborhood Association placed a memorial plaque in the brick sidewalk near the club’s former site on Piedmont Street, now occupied by the Revere Hotel (formerly the Radisson Hotel).
As of 2013[update], Walk Score rates Bay Village as the most walkable neighborhood in the City of Boston, which itself is rated the third most walkable city in the US, and has a high Transit Score as well. Bay Village has been assigned a Walk Score of 98, and a Transit Score of 100.
Several MBTA rapid transit stations are located just beyond the boundaries of Bay Village, which is also served by several local bus routes. Commuter rail and Amtrak long-haul trains stop at Back Bay Station and South Station, within walking distance to the west and east of Bay Village, respectively. Inter-city bus services depart from the regional bus terminal at South Station.
Nearby MBTA stations include:
On-street parking is very scarce within Bay Village, and is mostly reserved for holders of Residential Parking stickers. Commercial parking is available in numerous surface lots and parking garages located near or in the neighborhood. Entrance ramps to the Massachusetts Turnpike (I-90) and the Central Artery (I-93) are a minute's drive away.
In addition to the larger metropolitan Boston publications, at least three local weekly newspapers are distributed free in Bay Village. The neighborhood is so small that it is often included in the South End or Back Bay neighborhoods. The Boston Courant covers the Back Bay, Beacon Hill, Downtown, Fenway, South End, and the Waterfront neighborhoods of Boston. The Beacon Hill Times has some coverage of Bay Village, and is of interest because of the close proximity and historical connections to the Beacon Hill neighborhood. Boston Homes: The Complete Guide has dedicated real estate listings for South End / Bay Village, and also has events calendar listings for the area.
In addition, the Bay Village Neighborhood Association distributes its free quarterly newsletter in the area, and back issues can be downloaded from its website.
Adjacent neighborhoods and districts:
- Back Bay, Boston, Massachusetts
- Chinatown, Boston, Massachusetts
- Park Square (Boston)
- South Bay, Boston, Massachusetts
- South End, Boston, Massachusetts
- Washington Street Theatre District
- Boston 2010 Census BRA neighborhood comparison 
- Boundaries of the neighborhood as defined by the Bay Village Neighborhood Association: see map[dead link]
- "Bay Village Historic District (map)". CityofBoston.gov. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
- "Bay Village". CityofBoston.gov. City of Boston. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-03.
- "Calendar of Events". Bay Village Neighborhood Association. Retrieved 2011-07-26.
- "Ephraim Marsh". Massachusetts Historical Markers on Waymarking.com. Groundspeak, Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- Hughes, Carolyn (1998). "Beacon Hill & Bay Village". Exploring Boston's Neighborhoods. Boston Landmarks Commission. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-07-25.
- "Bay Village History". Bay Village Neighborhood Association. Bay Village Neighborhood Association. Retrieved 2011-07-03.
- "Architecture of the Area". Massachusetts Historical Markers on Waymarking.com. Groundspeak, Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "Raising the Village". Massachusetts Historical Markers on Waymarking.com. Groundspeak, Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "Edgar Allan Poe Birth Place". Massachusetts Historical Markers on Waymarking.com. Groundspeak, Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "An Interactive Map of Literary Boston: 1794–1862" (Exhibition). Forgotten Chapters of Boston's Literary History. The Trustees of Boston College. March 28–July 30, 2012. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- Glenn, Joshua (April 9, 2007). "The house of Poe -- mystery solved!". boston.com. The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2012-05-22.
- "Edgar Allan Poe Square". The City Record, and Boston News-letter. Retrieved 2011-05-11.
- "Edgar Allan Poe Square". Massachusetts Historical Markers on Waymarking.com. Groundspeak, Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "[homepage]". Edgar Allan Poe Foundation of Boston. Edgar Allan Poe Foundation of Boston, Inc. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- Fox, Jeremy C. (February 1, 2013). "Vision for an Edgar Allan Poe memorial in Boston comes closer to reality". boston.com (Boston Globe). Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- Kaiser, Johanna (April 23, 2012). "Boston chooses life-size Edgar Allan Poe statue to commemorate writer's ties to city". boston.com (Boston Globe). Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "About the project". Edgar Allan Poe Square Public Art Project. Edgar Allan Poe Foundation of Boston, Inc. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
- "Cocoanut Grove Fire Site". Massachusetts Historical Markers on Waymarking.com. Groundspeak, Inc. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- Walk Score. "About Boston". Walk Score. Walk Score. Retrieved 2013-08-11.
- Walk Score. "Bay Village, Boston". Walk Score. Walk Score. Retrieved 2013-08-11.