Greater Boston

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Boston Combined Statistical Area
Boston–Worcester–Providence
Metropolitan region
Boston
Boston
Location of Boston Combined Statistical Area
Country  United States
State(s)
Principal cities
Population (2012)
 • Total 4,684,299(msa) or 8,041,303(csa)
 • Rank

Ranked 10th in the US for Metropolitan Statistical Areas

Ranked 6th in the US for Combined Statistical Areas
Time zone EST
Area code(s) 617, 781, 857 339, 978, 508, 603, 401,

Greater Boston is the area of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts surrounding the city of Boston, consisting most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast, Cape Cod & The Islands. The area can be characterized as the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) or the combined statistical area (CSA), the latter which includes the metro areas of Manchester, New Hampshire; Providence, Rhode Island and Worcester, Massachusetts.

By contrast, Metro Boston is usually reserved to signify the "inner core" surrounding the City of Boston, while "Greater Boston" usually at least overlaps the North and South Shores, as well as MetroWest and the Merrimack Valley.

Greater Boston is tenth in population among U.S. metropolitan statistical areas in the United States, home to 4,684,299 people as of the 2013 U.S. Census and is ranked sixth among CSAs, having 8,041,303 people.[1]

Greater Boston has many sites and people significant to American history and culture, particularly the American Revolution, civil rights, literature, and politics, and is one of the nation's centers of education, finance, industry, and tourism, with the sixth-largest Gross metropolitan product in the country and twelfth-largest in the world.

Definitions[edit]

Light Blue represents the area in Massachusetts known as Greater Boston, while Dark Blue represents the Metro-Boston area[specify][citation needed] and Red represents the City of Boston.

Metropolitan Area Planning Council[edit]

The most restrictive definition of the Greater Boston area is the region administered by the Metropolitan Area Planning Council (MAPC).[2] The MAPC is a regional planning organization created by the Massachusetts legislature to oversee transportation infrastructure and economic development concerns in the Boston area. The MAPC includes 101 cities and towns that are grouped into eight subregions. These include most of the area within the region's outer circumferential highway, I-495. The population of the MAPC district is 3,066,394 (as of 2000), in an area of 1,422 square miles (3,680 km2),[2] of which 39% is forested and an additional 11% is water, wetland, or other open space.[3]

The eight subregions and their principal towns are: Inner Core (Boston), Minuteman (Route 2 corridor), MetroWest (Framingham), North Shore (Peabody), North Suburban (Woburn), South Shore (Route 3 corridor), SouthWest (Franklin), and Three Rivers (Norwood).

Notably excluded from the MAPC and its partner planning body, the Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization, are the Merrimack Valley cities of Lowell, Lawrence, and Haverhill, much of Plymouth County, and all of Bristol County; these areas have their own regional planning bodies. Northern Bristol County is part of Greater Boston, even though it is part of the Providence MSA.

New England City and Town Area[edit]

The urbanized area surrounding Boston serves as the core of a definition used by the U.S. Census Bureau known as the New England city and town area (NECTA). The set of towns containing the core urbanized area plus surrounding towns with strong social and economic ties to the core area is defined as the Boston-Cambridge-Nashua, MA-NH Metropolitan NECTA.[4] The Boston NECTA is further subdivided into several NECTA divisions, which are listed below. The Boston, Framingham, and Peabody NECTA divisions together correspond roughly to the MAPC area. The total population of the Boston NECTA was 4,540,941 (as of 2000).

  • Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA NECTA Division (92 towns)
  • Framingham, MA NECTA Division (12 towns)
  • Peabody-Salem-Beverly, MA NECTA Division (4 towns)
  • Brockton-Bridgewater-Easton, MA NECTA Division (Old Colony region) (8 towns)
  • Haverhill-Newburyport-Amesbury, MA-NH NECTA Division (Merrimack Valley region) (21 towns)
  • Lawrence-Methuen-Salem, MA-NH NECTA Division (part of Merrimack Valley region) (4 towns)
  • Lowell-Billerica-Chelmsford, MA-NH NECTA Division (Northern Middlesex region) (15 towns)
  • Nashua, NH-MA NECTA Division (21 towns)
  • Taunton-Middleborough-Norton, MA NECTA Division (part of Southeastern region) (9 towns)
  • Lynn-Saugus-Marblehead, MA NECTA Division (5 towns)

Metropolitan Statistical Area[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1850 650,357
1860 830,998 27.8%
1870 978,346 17.7%
1880 1,205,439 23.2%
1890 1,515,684 25.7%
1900 1,890,122 24.7%
1910 2,260,762 19.6%
1920 2,563,123 13.4%
1930 2,866,567 11.8%
1940 2,926,650 2.1%
1950 3,186,970 8.9%
1960 3,516,435 10.3%
1970 3,918,092 11.4%
1980 3,938,585 0.5%
1990 4,133,895 5.0%
2000 4,391,344 6.2%
2010 4,552,402 3.7%
U.S. Decennial Census

An alternative definition defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, using counties as building blocks instead of towns, is the Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is further subdivided into four metropolitan divisions. The metropolitan statistical area has a total population of approximately 4,640,802 and is the tenth-largest in the United States. The components of the metropolitan area with their estimated 2012 populations are listed below.

  • Boston-Cambridge-Newton, MA-NH Metropolitan Statistical Area (4,640,802)

Combined Statistical Area[edit]

A wider functional metropolitan area based on commuting patterns is also defined by the Office of Management and Budget as the Boston-Worcester-Providence, MA-RI-NH-CT Combined Statistical Area. This area consists of the metropolitan areas of Manchester, Worcester, Providence, as well as Cape Cod, in addition to Greater Boston. The total population (as of 2013) for the extended region is 8,041,303. The following areas, along with the above MSA, are included in the Combined Statistical Area:

Principal cities and towns and related data[edit]

Boston metropolitan area[edit]

The Census Bureau defines the following as principal cities in the Boston NECTA[4] using criteria developed for what the Office of Management and Budget calls a Core Based Statistical Area:[5]

Boston CSA[edit]

The 40 largest cities and towns in the Boston CSA in descending order (2013):

Rank City 2013
population[6]
1 Boston 645,946
2 Worcester 182,544
3 Providence 177,944
4 Manchester 110,378
5 Lowell 108,861
6 Cambridge 107,289
7 New Bedford 95,078
8 Brockton 94,089
9 Quincy 93,494
10 Lynn 91,589
11 Fall River 88,697
12 Newton 87,978
13 Nashua 87,137
14 Warwick 81,971
15 Cranston 80,566
16 Somerville 78,804
17 Lawrence 77,657
18 Pawtucket 71,172
19 Framingham 70,068
20 Waltham 62,227
21 Haverhill 62,088
22 Malden 60,609
23 Brookline 59,115
24 Plymouth 57,463
25 Medford 57,170
26 Taunton 56,069
27 Weymouth 55,419
28 Revere 53,756
29 Peabody 52,044
30 Methuen 52,044
31 East Providence 47,149
32 Barnstable 44,641
33 Attleboro 43,886
34 Arlington 42,844
35 Everett 42,935
36 Salem 42,544
37 Concord 42,419
38 Woonsocket 41,026
39 Leominster 41,002
40 Beverly 40,664

The 40 most densely populated census tracts in the Boston CSA in descending order (2010):[7]

Rank City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population Population/sq mi
1 Fenway–Kenmore 10404 5,817 110,108
2 Fenway–Kenmore 10403 3,003 87,828
3 Fenway–Kenmore 10408 1,426 85,137
4 Beacon Hill 202 3,649 80,851
5 North End 301 1,954 66,288
6 North End 302 1,665 64,642
7 North End 304 2,451 58,435
8 Cambridge 3539 7,090 56,819
9 Back Bay 10801 2,783 56,534
10 East Boston 502 5,231 55,692
11 Allston-Brighton 704 4,801 51,858
12 South End 709 3,329 51,485
13 Back Bay 10802 3,059 50,961
14 Chinatown 10801 5,218 50,281
15 Allston-Brighton 701 4,446 49,972
16 South End 708 3,706 49,378
17 Beacon Hill 20101 4,193 48,669
18 South End 705 5,460 47,569
19 Chelsea 1602 4,043 47,136
20 East Boston 504 2,372 46,549
21 South Boston 61 3,098 46,370
22 Fenway–Kenmore 10104 4,804 44,540
23 East Boston 50101 5,115 44,193
24 South End 706 2,240 43,775
25 Fenway–Kenmore 10103 4,569 43,342
26 East Boston 507 4,504 42,930
27 East Boston 505 1,857 41,905
28 Back Bay 105 3,004 41,817
29 Allston-Brighton 503 2,211 41,151
30 Allston-Brighton 703 2,791 40,606
31 Mission Hill 809 4,008 40,444
32 Beacon Hill 20302 1,181 39,837
33 Cambridge 3538 4,702 39,778
34 Fenway–Kenmore 10203 5,569 39,505
35 Fenway–Kenmore 10405 5,522 39,323
36 Allston-Brighton 504 4,985 38,750
37 South Boston 607 1,983 38,235
38 Chelsea 160501 5,604 37,641
39 South End 707 2,361 37,257
40 Lawrence 2509 2,193 36,453

The 40 most diverse Census tracts in the Boston CSA.[8]

Rank City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % White % Black % Hispanic % Asian % multiracial or other
1 Dorchester 916 3,138 12 32 15 26 14
2 Pawtucket 161 4,607 28 24 28 1 18
3 Pawtucket 151 4,472 24 24 29 1 23
4 Pawtucket 164 4,938 29 26 21 2 20
5 Dorchester 912 3,234 30 24 22 6 18
6 Dorchester 92101 6,451 30 22 11 31 6
7 Brockton 5115 4,308 21 32 13 2 32
8 Brockton 511 3,040 28 33 15 1 24
9 New Bedford 6519 1,942 26 11 33 1 29
10 Mission Hill 80801 3,885 32 20 35 10 2
11 Pawtucket 154 2,258 35 20 35 0 11
12 Brockton 5114 3,716 24 36 14 2 23
13 Brockton 5109 2,531 24 36 16 1 24
14 Brockton 5103 3,798 23 38 15 2 24
15 Brockton 5104 3,706 19 38 15 2 25
16 Dorchester 90901 3,730 38 18 21 20 4
17 Worcester 733 3,762 38 10 37 12 4
18 Providence 26 3,098 23 22 39 10 6
19 Malden 3415 4,780 39 23 14 19 5
20 Cambridge 3524 2,126 27 39 16 12 5
21 South End 71202 3,131 39 19 24 15 3
22 Brockton 511301 5,334 39 31 11 2 17
23 Providence 15 2,994 28 13 41 14 4
24 South Boston 61 3,098 41 15 29 11 4
25 Lynn 2072 2,939 30 12 42 13 2
26 Cambridge 3549 6,058 35 30 9 20 5
27 South Boston 61101 2,232 20 21 42 14 2
28 Brockton 5116 7,211 42 29 10 2 16
29 Roxbury 801 3,350 15 43 28 1 11
30 Lowell 3114 5,986 44 11 14 26 5
31 Brockton 5108 6,339 18 44 12 2 22
32 Mission Hill 81001 4,890 45 14 19 19 2
33 Malden 3418 6,554 46 20 13 16 5
34 South Boston 607 1,893 19 20 46 10 5
35 Brockton 5107 5,656 46 31 8 4 11
36 Brockton 5112 4,849 47 26 11 1 13
37 Somerville 351404 4,289 47 7 22 13 11
38 Lynn 2071 3,513 18 11 48 19 3
39 Framingham 383101 4,923 23 10 48 1 18
40 Mission Hill 811 4,091 48 21 15 13 2

The top 40 census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Hispanic or Latino.[9]

Rank City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Hispanic or Latino
1 Lawrence 2525 3,810 94
2 Lawrence 2509 2,193 93
3 Lawrence 2504 3,858 90
4 Lawrence 2503 2,101 89
5 Lawrence 2513 3,721 89
6 Lawrence 2512 1,356 86
7 Lawrence 2507 4,756 86
8 Lawrence 251 1,782 85
9 Chelsea 1602 4,043 83
10 Lawrence 2506 5,599 83
11 Lawrence 2514 5,053 77
12 Chelsea 160101 7,551 76
13 Lawrence 2501 2,329 75
14 Lawrence 2516 5,977 74
15 Lawrence 2511 2,937 73
16 Lawrence 2502 5,524 72
17 Chelsea 1604 2,716 71
18 Chelsea 160501 5,604 71
19 Providence 16 8,540 70
20 Lawrence 2515 6,149 70
21 Worcester 732001 3,327 67
22 East Boston 506 2,063 67
23 East Boston 502 5,231 66
24 East Boston 507 4,504 65
25 East Boston 50901 4,165 65
26 Providence 2 6,452 64
27 Providence 4 3,761 64
28 Providence 14 6,693 63
29 Providence 5 3,040 63
30 Central Falls 11 5,534 63
31 Lawrence 2508 6,932 63
32 Chelsea 160502 4,460 62
33 Methuen 2524 4,175 62
34 Providence 17 3,744 62
35 Providence 18 7,114 61
36 Central Falls 111 4,176 61
37 East Boston 50101 5,115 61
38 Lawrence 2517 5,145 61
39 Providence 3 7,714 60
40 Central Falls 108 4,763 59

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Black American.[10]

Rank City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Black
1 Mattapan 101101 3,115 84
2 Mattapan 101102 4,396 84
3 Mattapan 101001 5,480 83
4 Mattapan 1003 3,303 80
5 Mattapan 1002 2,787 78
6 Mattapan 101002 4,979 77
7 Dorchester 923 2,893 77
8 Roxbury 82 2,815 74
9 Roxbury 817 3,820 71
10 Hyde Park 1404 7,650 71
11 Roxbury 901 4,571 71
12 Dorchester 919 3,860 70
13 Dorchester 1004 4,865 68
14 Roxbury 819 3,115 66
15 Roxbury 924 5,277 66
16 Roxbury 818 2,898 65
17 Mattapan 1001 5,510 64
18 Roxbury 815 2,134 62
19 Roxbury 821 5,025 62
20 Roxbury 803 1,769 60
21 Roxbury 903 3,179 58
22 Dorchester 1009 4,072 58
23 Dorchester 1005 5,909 55
24 Hyde Park 1403 6,382 54
25 Dorchester 92 4,945 54
26 Roxbury 902 2,233 53
27 Dorchester 918 3,452 52
28 Roxbury 904 3,659 52
29 Roxbury 814 3,003 50
30 Roxbury 80401 2,710 50
31 Roslindale 140106 1,901 49
32 Dorchester 917 3,069 47
33 Dorchester 914 2,741 46
34 Brockton 5108 6,339 44
35 Roxbury 805 3,096 44
36 Roxbury 801 3,350 43
37 Randolph 420302 7,703 42
38 Roxbury 813 4,760 42
39 Dorchester 922 3,349 42
40 Randolph 420202 6,303 40

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Asian American.[11]

Rank City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Asian
1 South End 70402 1,723 70
2 Chinatown 702 5,218 58
3 Lowell 3112 3,267 55
4 Lowell 3118 3,513 54
5 Lowell 3117 5,098 47
6 Quincy 417502 4,639 45
7 Quincy 4172 8,182 44
8 Malden 3413 5,439 39
9 Lowell 3113 4,057 38
10 Westborough 742402 3,026 38
11 Quincy 417501 5,004 37
12 Cambridge 353102 5,040 36
13 Quincy 417802 3,150 35
14 Lowell 3111 2,410 34
15 Lowell 3115 2,974 33
16 Dorchester 92101 6,451 31
17 Quincy 417601 5,196 30
18 Fenway–Kenmore 10103 4,569 29
19 Quincy 4180002 7,020 28
20 Quincy 417602 5,155 28
21 Chinatown/Leather District/Downtown 70101 5,902 27
22 Cambridge 3539 7,090 27
23 Lowell 3114 5,986 26
24 Lowell 3116 5,295 26
25 Lowell 3107 4,441 26
26 Quincy 4171 4,264 26
27 Dorchester 916 3,138 26
28 Malden 3412 6,857 25
29 Malden 341102 4,564 25
30 Malden 341101 3,675 25
31 Acton 363102 5,909 25
32 Dorchester 911 4,861 25
33 Allston-Brighton 703 2,791 24
34 Lexington 3583 5,526 24
35 Quincy 418004 4,280 23
36 Brookline 4009 3,865 22
37 Cambridge 3532 4,897 22
38 Cambridge 352101 1,654 22
39 Shrewsbury 7391 9,557 22
40 Westborough 7612 5,780 22

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Irish American.[12]

City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Irish
South Boston 60101 3,106 68
Milton 416400 6,069 63
Charlestown 040401 2,439 63
Dorchester 1007 4,322 63
South Boston 608 3,964 62
South Boston 604 4,904 61
Milton 416101 5,724 58
Marshfield 506204 4,886 57
Weymouth 422100 5,293 57
Quincy 417801 5,443 55
Hull 500101 3,702 55
Scituate 505101 3,860 55
West Roxbury 130402 4,637 54
Quincy 417400 2,566 53
South Boston 60301 3,076 52
Abington 520100 6,458 52
Braintree 419200 5,002 52
Braintree 419600 6,766 52
Abington 520201 3,952 52
Pembroke 508200 6,031 52

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Italian American.[13]

City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Italian
Johnston 012402 2,486 63
Cranston 014501 5,179 58
Johnston 012500 5,490 57
Johnston 012200 7,187 57
Providence 011902 4,780 55
Cranston 014800 5,591 55
Saugus 208102 3,343 51
Cranston 014300 4,716 49
Cranston 014600 6,991 49
Cranston 014502 4,096 48
Johnston 012300 6,656 48
Johnston 012401 6,950 48
Stoneham 337102 5,042 45
Stoneham 337202 4,849 45
Revere 170200 4,564 45
Revere 170502 2,818 43
Cranston 013900 2,992 43
Revere 170300 9,040 43
North Providence 012103 2,965 43

Census tracts in the Boston CSA with the highest percentage of residents who identify as Portuguese American.[14]

City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % Portuguese
New Bedford 652800 3,277 72
Fall River 640600 4,450 69
Dartmouth 653203 5,005 65
New Bedford 652400 2,664 64
New Bedford 652000 2,676 62
Fall River 640500 5,165 60
Fall River 641200 2,803 59
New Bedford 650500 3,141 58
Fall River 640901 5,071 58
New Bedford 650400 3,773 57
New Bedford 652500 2,589 56
East Providence 010400 6,661 55
New Bedford 652300 2,870 54
Fall River 641000 2,419 54
Fall River 640300 3,693 53
Westport 646101 7,356 53
Fall River 640700 2,900 53
Fall River 640400 2,682 53
New Bedford 650101 5,753 53
Fall River 640100 5,358 52


Census tracts in the Boston CSA with French or French Canadian listed as first ancestry.[15]

City or Neighborhood Census Tract Population % French
Woonsocket 018500 2,831 66
Woonsocket 017700 3,518 61
Woonsocket 017500 3,128 59
Woonsocket 017800 2,514 58
Burrillville 013001 3,479 56
North Smithfield 012802 2,391 54
North Smithfield 012803 4,776 53
Burrillville 013002 7,539 53
North Smithfield 012801 4,800 52
Manchester 002300 3,758 52
Woonsocket 017900 3,049 51
Burrillville 012900 4,937 50
Manchester 000202 2,297 49
Manchester 002100 4,782 49
Woonsocket 017600 2,560 49
Manchester 002600 5,746 48
Manchester 002200 3,232 47
Woonsocket 018400 6,527 47
Blackstone 747101 5,110 47
Woonsocket 018000 2,680 46

Major companies[edit]

References:[16][17][18][19]

Selected statistics[edit]

Greater Boston has a sizable Jewish community, estimated at between 210,000 people,[21][22] and 261,000[23] or 5–6% of the Greater Boston metro population, compared with about 2% for the nation as a whole. Contrary to national trends, the number of Jews in Greater Boston has been growing, fueled by the fact that 60% of children in Jewish mixed-faith families are raised Jewish, compared with roughly one in three nationally.[21]

The City of Boston also has one of the largest LGBT populations per capita. It ranks fifth of all major cities in the country (behind San Francisco, and slightly behind Seattle, Atlanta, and Minneapolis respectively), with 12.3% of the city recognizing themselves as gay, lesbian, or bisexual.[24]

Changes in house prices for the Greater Boston area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 10-city composite index of the value of the residential real estate market.

Sports[edit]

Main article: Sports in Boston
Club Sport League Stadium Established League Titles
Boston Bruins Ice hockey National Hockey League TD Garden (Boston) 1924 6 Stanley Cups
7 Eastern Conference Titles
Boston Cannons Lacrosse Major League Lacrosse Harvard Stadium (Boston) 2001 1 MLL Championship
Boston Celtics Basketball National Basketball Association TD Garden (Boston) 1946 17 NBA Championships
21 Eastern Conference Titles
Boston Red Sox Baseball Major League Baseball (American League) Fenway Park (Boston) 1901 8-time MLB World Series Champions
13 American League Pennants
New England Patriots Football National Football League (American Football Conference) Gillette Stadium (Foxboro) 1960
(as Boston Patriots)
3-time Super Bowl Champions
7-time AFC Champions
New England Revolution Soccer Major League Soccer Gillette Stadium (Foxboro) 1995 1 US Open Cup
1 SuperLiga

Annual sporting events include:

Higher education[edit]

A long time center of higher education, the area includes many community colleges, two-year schools, and internationally prominent undergraduate and graduate institutions. The graduate schools include highly regarded schools of law, medicine, business, technology, international relations, public health, education, and religion.

Transportation[edit]

Highways[edit]

Bridges and tunnels[edit]

Airports[edit]

Rail and bus[edit]

The MBTA district, with Commuter Rail lines in purple

The first railway line in the United States was in Quincy. See Neponset River.

The following Regional Transit Authorities have bus service that connects with MBTA commuter rail stations:

Ocean transportation[edit]

The Salem Ferry, 92 ft. Catamaran is photographed approaching its dock off Blaney Street at the Salem Maritime National Historic Site in Salem, Massachusetts, USA.

Geography[edit]


References[edit]

  1. ^ http://factfinder2.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?src=bkmk.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  2. ^ a b "About MAPC". Metropolitan Area Planning Council. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  3. ^ "Transportation Plan – Overview". Boston Region Metropolitan Planning Organization. 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-27. 
  4. ^ a b "New England City and Town Areas and Principal Cities". U.S. Census Bureau. November 2008. Retrieved September 14, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Standards for Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas". Office of Management and Budget. December 27, 2000. Retrieved September 14, 2009. 
  6. ^ "City and Town Population for 2013". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved September 19, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Mapping the 2010 U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  8. ^ "Mapping the 2010 U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  9. ^ "Mapping the 2010 U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  10. ^ "Mapping the 2010 U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  11. ^ "Mapping the 2010 U.S. Census". U.S. Census Bureau. 
  12. ^ http://www.usa.com/rank/irish-as-first-ancestry-population-percentage--rank-of-census-tract-near--02176.htm?yr=3000&dis=100&wist=&plow=&phigh=.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. ^ http://www.usa.com/rank/italian-as-first-ancestry-population-percentage--rank-of-census-tract-near--02176.htm?yr=3000&dis=100&wist=&plow=&phigh=.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. ^ http://www.usa.com/rank/Portugese-as-first-ancestry-population-percentage--rank-of-census-tract-near--02176.htm?yr=3000&dis=100&wist=&plow=&phigh=.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  15. ^ http://www.usa.com/rank/French-as-first-ancestry-population-percentage--rank-of-census-tract-near--02176.htm?yr=3000&dis=100&wist=&plow=&phigh=.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  16. ^ "2009 Globe 100 – Top Massachusetts-based employers – The Boston Globe". The Boston Globe. 2010-01-19. 
  17. ^ UCSO.indiana.edu
  18. ^ "Top Companies in Massachusetts on the Inc. 5000"
  19. ^ "The Globe 100"
  20. ^ http://news.vistaprint.com/facility/us-operations-and-north-american-business-unit-head-office
  21. ^ a b Michael Paulson (2006-11-10). "Jewish population in region rises". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  22. ^ "Cities with the Largest Jewish Population in the Diaspora". adherents.com. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  23. ^ "Metro Area Membership Report". The Association of Religion Data Archives. Retrieved 2009-11-29. 
  24. ^ "12.9% in Seattle are gay or bisexual, second only to S.F., study says". The Seattle Times (The Seattle Times Company). 2006. Retrieved 2009-05-01. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Wilson, Susan (2005). The Literary Trail of Greater Boston: A Tour of Sites in Boston, Cambridge, and Concord, Revised Edition. Commonwealth Editions. ISBN 1-889833-67-3.  An informative guidebook, with facts and data about literary figures, publishers, bookstores, libraries, and other historic sites on the newly designated Literary Trail of Greater Boston.
  • Warner, Sam, Jr. (2001). Greater Boston: Adapting Regional Traditions to the Present. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-1769-1. 

Coordinates: 42°21′29″N 71°03′49″W / 42.35817°N 71.06369°W / 42.35817; -71.06369