Bertil Lundman

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Bertil J. Lundman (28 September 1899, Malmö – 5 November 1993) was a Swedish anthropologist. He is best known for having created a racial classification system of Europeans in his book The Races and Peoples of Europe (1977).

Lundman's Systematic Overview of the Human Races[edit]

From the Races of Europe (1977) and Umriss der Rassenkunde des Menschen in geschichtlicher Zeit (1952) added notes of anthropological traits described in other chapters of the book.

EUROPID OR WHITE PRIMARY RACE: Thin to medium-thick, more or less light skin. Soft, smooth to wavy or curly hair and (most often) strong growth of beard, quite narrow nose. Types of body build: mostly juvenile (virile) and boreal, occasionally mature.

A. Caspid southeastern high-skulled racial group.
I. Boreal.
a) Face robust or somewhat protomorphic.
1. Eye sockets often somewhat slanted. More-or-less high in frequency of blood type B.
+ Volgid: dark pigmented, very short-statured, stocky, long- to medium-skulled,
+ + East-Baltid: very light pigmented, taller, however thickset, round-headed with flat occiput. Eyes often situated somewhat flat in the face.
2. Eyes direct, large upper iris:
Pre-Pontid (extinct).
b) Face almost infantile.

1. Lappid: very short-statured, with very low face and round skull, rather dark pigmented. Low frequency of blood type B and very high frequency of blood type A. Also very unique in other serological traits.

2. East-Alpinid: Similar, but less pronounced, traits. Much higher frequency of blood type B.

II. Progressive eumorphic types. All extremely long-skulled:
a) East-Mediterranid: dark pigmented, with many subtypes.
1. The Pontid (in southern Russia).
2. The Iranid: partly influenced by the Arabid with narrow rectangular face.
3. The North-Indid: very tall, heavily bearded, large nose and a high frequency of blood type B.
4. The Indid: small, very gracile, small cranial capacity, with thin, sparse beard and a high frequency of blood type B.
5. The Nesiotid (in the South Seas) with somewhat convex nose.
6. The Saharid or South-Mediterranid (in North Africa): rather tall and juvenile.
7. The Aegyptid: very closely related to the Saharid, but with a high frequency of blood type B.
b) The East-Nordid subrace: of the North Race, but high-skulled and small-faced (almost disappeared through crossing).
III. Taurid: mature-boreal, with very high and round skull, very flat occiput and larger nose. At least two subtypes:
1. The very tall Dinarid with short arms.
2. The mature-boreal, medium-sized Anatolid or Armenid. + The somewhat less pronounced Mtebid in the Caucasus.
B. Atlantid northwestern low-skulled racial group (always with low frequencies of blood type B).
I. Long-skulled (dolichocephalic).
a. Palaeo-Atlantid or Cromagnid: somewhat protomorphic, broad-nosed, very broad-faced, tall and robust, light-mixed in pigmentation. Low in the frequency of blood type A and high in blood type O.
b. Nordid: virile, more progressive, lighter in pigmentation. Three subtypes:
1. The broader-faced, more robust Faelish subtype.
2. The narrow-faced, more gracile Scando-Nordid subtype, rather light-haired.
3. The North-Atlantid subtype which is morphologically similar to the Scando-Nordid, more dark-haired but at the same time light-eyed, higher frequency of blood type O and a lower frequency of A than the other two subtypes.
c. Southern, dark-pigmented, short-statured group:
1. Berid: paedo-protomorph, with low frequencies of the blood types A and B.
2. Juvenile.
+ West-Mediterranid: horizontal eye-orbits.- With a more virile Basquid subtype typical of the Basques. The ABO-allelic relationships, and also the Rh-system, are very unique in several ways in this subtype.
+ + Arabid subtype: slanted orbits and almond eyes. Differentiated from the preceding types in facial morphology and facial dynamics. Also a very narrow and sloping forehead, with a distinct rhombic face.- Syrid subtype: broad-formed, with a lower frequency of blood type O.
II. Round-skulled (brachycephalic):
- (West-) Alpinid: infantile-boreal, short-statured, brunet, round-faced, inflated temples.

MONGOLID PRIMARY RACE: High subcutaneous fat, tense somewhat yellowish skin, stiff hair, weak beard growth, often moderately broad nose, pink portion of the lips moderately thick to thin.

A. Mongolids of Asia: more pronounced traits, more yellowish skin and flat-nosed.
I. Northern Mongolid group: very low-skulled and larger-faced.
a) Long- (or medium-) skulled, somewhat more protomorphic:
- Siberid, variform with in particular two subtypes:
+ Obid with broad noses.
++ North-Siberid (Korjakid) with narrower noses.
b) Short-skulled; Mongol traits very pronounced:
- Tungid.
+ A Kumid subtype with an even coarser and broader, somewhat larger face, often snub-nosed.
II. Southeastern Mongolid group: significantly high-skulled.
a) Medium-skulled (mesocephalic):
1. Sinid: characteristic facial flatness, short legs and long but narrow trunk, feminized. A taller North-Sinid or Hoid subtype at the Yellow River with partly long faces.
++ A shorter Middle-Sinid or Kiangid subtype at the Yangtze River (and a half-Malaid South-Sinid race in Southern China).
2. Less pronounced facial flatness, i.e. with more projecting nose:
Dayakid (many variants).
b) Palaungid: somewhat short-skulled, very paedomorphic, almost midget-like in proportions.
c) Malaid: high- and short-skulled with (alveolar-) prognathous broad face.
B. Indianid racial group, with less pronounced Mongoloid traits, especially more or less large, somewhat convex nose and less yellowish skin (almost exclusively blood type O).
I. Low-skulled:
a) Fuegid: small nose with straight profile.
b) Californid: moderately tall (many variants).
(Apart from these two types, also others which are already to a greater degree extinct).
II. High-skulled:
a) Eskimid: face very Mongoloid, very high, extremely broad and especially large face, very long-skulled, narrow-nosed, short-statured, higher frequency of blood type A (which is not found among the Amerindians).
b) Less pronounced Mongolid traits.
1. (Long- and) Medium-skulled.
+ Lagid: moderately tall stature, individual protomorphic traits (short and broad nose, prominent browridge, etc.), narrow eye-slits.
- In North America a similar but stockier Margid subtype
++ Silvid: very tall with progressive (dinariomorphic) traits.
2. (Pronouncedly) Short-skulled:
+ Centralid: small and infantile, with round face, somewhat stocky build and quite atypical (for Amerindians) child nose etc.
++ Andid: Barely moderately tall but very robust with mighty thorax and large, dinariomorphic face.
+++ Patagonid: Very tall and dinariomorph, also overweight.
In addition others, not yet systematized Amerind groups.

BLACK OR NEGRID PRIMARY RACE: Lax, coarsely porous, black-brown skin. Hair more or less woolly. Bulging lips. Long- (and medium-) skulled.

A. Tall, dark skin.
I. High-skulled, very long legged:
- Sudanid.
+ Senegalid: gracile stature, very dark skin, small but prognathous face, very long-skulled, wide interorbital distance.
++ Nilid: extremely tall, also gracile, very long extremities - especially shanks, face and nose not narrower than Sudanid.
II. Low-skulled:
- Hyle-negrid (certainly many variants): quite tall (but not extremely long legged), somewhat narrower-faced, broader nose (also at the skull), narrower interorbital distance, blood type O predominates.
B. Less dark-skinned midgets:
I. Bambutid: on average 142 cm body height, (very) open eyes, broad mouth with thin lips, considerable protomorphic traits.
II: Mongoliform eye-folds: also quite deviating as a whole:
- Sanid: puerile, narrow eye-slits, often blood type O, never blood type B, with two subtypes:
+ A very short, stockier (almost extinct) one from the Karoo.
++ From the Kalahari: gracilized.

INDO-OCEANIC ARCHAIC RACIAL GROUP:

A. More or less short-statured, partly reduced (southern and southeastern Asiatic archaic racial group).
I. More or less curly-haired, long-skulled.
a) More or less light-skinned.
1. Heavily bearded, coarse body build:
Ainuid.
2. Less bearded, paedo-protomorph (face, etc.), feeble body build, small cranial capacity:
Veddid.
b) Indomelanid: dark-skinned, straight-haired.
II. Woolly-haired, (often) thick lips, more or less short-statured.
a) Malid: very long-skulled.
b) Negritid: (medium- and) short-skulled, multiple subtypes, especially the Andamanid, which is almost leptosomic (not as usual for Siberids infantile-built) and thin-lipped.
B. More or less medium-tall (Australian-Oceanic archaic racial group).
I. Curly-haired, very protomorphic: Australid.
a) South-Australid: low-skulled, somewhat stocky.
b) North-Australid: high-skulled, very leptosomic.
II. Curly haired, very dark skin, almost entirely Negroid traits, high-skulled:
Bukaid.

Notice also the following hybrid types:

Litorid: Armenid+West (and South-) Mediterranid.
Turanid: Kumid (and other Mongoloids)+East-Mediterranid+Armenid.
Tibetid: Sinid (+East-Mediterranid?).
Cambodid: Malaid+Veddid.
Polynesid: Nesiotid+Dayakid (+Indianid of unknown affinity?).
Arizonid: Very short-skulled.
Brazilid: Lagid+?
Ethiopid: often Sudanid+Saharid (also Arabid and Cafrid).
Koid: Khoisanid+Europids of unknown affinity.
Hyle-Negrid: Pygmid+Sudanid (+Cafrid).
Melanesid: North-Australid+Bukaid (+Nesiotid).

Lundman's personal life[edit]

Bertil Lundman was born in Malmö to Fredrik and Elin Lundman, his father, Fredrik Lundman was a courier and his work required the Lundman's to move around all over Sweden. Young Bertil began his interest in organisms first with plants and general nature, his interest remained even after he finished secondary education. Bertil Lundman's interest in life led him to extensively study biology and geography, he also studied theology as well in hopes of becoming a priest.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Västmanlandstyper, Julläsning, Västmanlands läns tidning (1931)
  • Folktypsundersökningar i Dalarna I-IX, Dalarnas hembygsbok (1932–38, 1940, 1946)
  • Nordens rastyper, (1940)
  • Jordens människoraser och folkstammar, (1943–44)
  • Dalaallmogens antropologi (Doctoral dissertation), (1945)
  • On the Origin of the Lapps, Ethnos (1946)
  • Nutidens människoraser (1946)
  • Nyare rasforskningar i Finland (1946)
  • Raser och folkstockar i Baltoskandia (1946)
  • Ergebnisse der anthropologischen Lappenforchung, Anthropos (1952)
  • Umriss der Rassenkunde des Menschen in geschichtlicher Zeit (1952)
  • Stammeskunde der Völker (1961)
  • Le Razze e i Popoli della Terra by Renato Biasutti reviewed in Mankind Quarterly July 1963, pp. 60-62
  • Blutgruppenforschung und geograpische Anthropologie (1967)
  • Jordens folkstammar (1969)
  • Jordens människoraser eller människans geografiska variation genom klimatanpassningar och folkvandringar (1969)
  • Kortfattad etnogeografi (1970)
  • The Races and Peoples of Europe (translation) (1977)
  • Minnen (Memoirs) (1987)

Footnotes[edit]


External links[edit]