Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra
||This article or section contains close paraphrasing of one or more non-free copyrighted sources. Ideas in this article should be expressed in an original manner. (September 2014)|
|Birla Institute of Technology,Mesra|
|बिरला प्रौद्योगिकी संस्थान|
Main Building of Birla Institute of Technology,Mesra
|Motto||सा विद्या या विमुक्तये
(Sā Vidyā Yā Vimuktaye)
|Motto in English||Learning is that which Liberates|
|Vice-Chancellor||Dr. M. K. Mishra|
|Undergraduates||2955 annual intake|
|Postgraduates||1013 annual intake|
|Campus||780 acres (3.2 km2)|
|Affiliations||AICTE, ACU, AIU, PCI, NAAC, NBA, UGC|
Since the inception of the main campus in Mesra, it has established extension centres in Ras-al-Khaimah and Muscat.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization and administration
- 3 Campus
- 4 Academics
- 5 Rankings Current Year
- 6 Student life
- 7 Other divisions at Mesra, Ranchi: University Polytechnic
- 8 Centres in India and Offshore
- 9 Notable Alumni
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The Birla Institute of Technology was established in 1955 at Mesra, Ranchi, Jharkhand by the philanthropist and industrialist B M Birla. The institute was affiliated to Patna University until 1960 and then to Ranchi University. BIT was declared a deemed university in 1986 under section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956 under notification No. F. 9-2/83-U.3 August 28, 1986.
BIT was the first institute in India to establish a department of space engineering and rocketry, in 1964. BIT introduced the concept of Small Industries Entrepreneurs' Park and became the first institute in the country not just to provide 'nursery sheds' and central designing and workshop facilities to young entrepreneurs, but also to facilitate the initial project funding.
Small Industries Research and Development Organization (SIRDO) was set up in 1970 as a launching pad for small manufacturing enterprises run by technical graduates of BIT. Companies born from this concept include Meditron, Alcast etc. This idea was appreciated by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India and spread to other leading institutes of India such as IITs by the Government as a concept of Science and Technological Entrepreneurs Park (STEP). The first STEP was approved and located in BIT Mesra. The entrepreneurship development cell was founded in 2007 and is run by the students. To add financial strength to this effort, BIT has set up SIDBI Center for Innovation and Incubation (SCII) by an arrangement with Small Industries Development Bank of India (SIDBI) to provide a limited period of time to new entrepreneurs, start up companies, and technology based organisations, to facilitate Research and Development operations in areas of interest with the faculty of the institute.
Organization and administration
BIT functions under the control of a Board of Governors, comprising representatives of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, the U.G.C., the State Government, the Chancellor, the A.I.C.T.E., the Hindustan Charity Trust and the Institute Faculty. C. K. Birla is the Chairman of the Board of Governors. The Governor of the state of Jharkhand is the Chancellor of the Institute. The Technical Council headed by vice chancellor decides the academic policy of the Institute.
The main campus of the Institute at Mesra is located 16 kilometres from Ranchi in a 980-acre (4.0 km2) setting at the confluence of the rivers Jhumar and Suvarnarekha. The Mesra campus is entirely residential, providing accommodation to undergraduate and postgraduate students and 550 members of faculty and staff. The infrastructure includes research laboratories, lecture halls, workshops, playground, gymnasium and a central library with over 100,000 books, journals and electronic databases.
- 780-acre (3.2 km2) campus
- Built up covered area exceeding 840,000 sq ft (78,000 m2)
- Golden Jubilee auditorium as well as a Mini auditorium
- PARAM 10000 super computer
- 100 Mbit/s LAN Connection in all BIT hostels rooms(1Gbps in newly built floors)
- R&D building housing computer and scientific labs.
- Post Office
- Indian Railways Reservation Counter
- A three storied library. There is a separate internet facility inside the library in order to let students read IEEE and other journals
- UCO Bank branch with an ATM.
- State Bank of India ATM
- ICICI Bank ATM
- 16 bed hospital.
- Lord Shiva temple
- Buses run between campus and Ranchi city, from 0600 hrs to 1900 hrs, at regular intervals.
- Co-operative shops.
- Food canteens.
- Medical Store.
- Sports complex.
- Music room.
Central The CAD Laboratory is a central facility of the institute where all users – undergraduate and postgraduate students, research scholars and faculty members – can work with design and analysis software. They can learn to use the latest software and carry out their research work.
Central Computing Facilities (CCF) The maintenance and upkeep of the CCF is done by the Department of Computer Science and Engineering; however the CCF is used by students and staff from all departments of the Institute.
The PARAM 10000 Supercomputer was gifted to the Institute by C-DAC, in recognition of the Institute’s commitment towards quality higher education and research. The PARAM supports projects that require parallel processing and multi processor capabilities.
Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF) The Central Instrumentation Facility (CIF) was established in 2006 under the Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP), funded by the World Bank and Government of Jharkhand, with an objective to provide instrumentation facilities for advanced research, to faculty.
Central Library The Central Library was established in 1955. It has print and electronic resources in the fields of science and technology. The collection includes 10,000 online journals, 100 print journals, 113,000 books, 2500 CDs, 60 audiocassettes and 4000 project reports.
Departments and programmes
BIT has 21 academic departments. It offers undergraduate B.E./B.Tech. degrees and M.E./M.Tech. degrees in the various engineering departments. MSc degrees are offered in applied sciences and B.Pharm./M.Pharm. in pharmaceutical sciences. The department of IT also offers Master of Computer Application. The department of architecture offers Bachelor of Architecture and Master of Urban Planning (MUP) degrees. The university also has a Master of Business Administration (MBA) programme and a Bachelor of Hotel Management and Catering Technology (BHMCT).
BIT Mesra has established international ventures and tie-ups. It has collaborative arrangements with USA, UK, Canada, France, Italy, Denmark, Netherlands, Spain, Pakistan, and China.
- It is a member of the EAGER – NetWiC Project of ASIA LINK programme of European Commission for establishing an academic network of Higher Education in the field of Wireless and Mobile Communication between the five partner universities. An international centre for wireless and mobile communication has been created in the Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, in co-operation with Aalborg University (Denmark), Delft University of Technology (Netherlands), Università di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy), and Institut Teknologi, Bandung (Indonesia). A double-degree M.E. programme in Software Defined Radio (SDR) has been jointly developed by the centre and the Centre for Teleinfrastructure, Aalborg University, Denmark.
- The institute has an agreement with Purdue University, USA for a Student exchange program.
- The institute has an agreement with the University of Leeds in UK adding an option of getting dual degrees, one from BIT (B.E.) and other from the University of Leeds (MEng) for students of Electrical, Electronic and Production Engineering of BIT Mesra.
- BIT Mesra is one of the two Asian educational partners of University of New Brunswick, Saint John of Canada in the field of Business Administration.
- BIT Mesra is one of the five Indian Universities which are partners in French "n+i" network. "n+i" network is a consortium of 70 French engineering postgraduate schools (French: Grandes Ecoles d’Ingénieurs françaises) who made the choice to mutualised their actions in the field of international cooperation.
- BIT Mesra is an educational partner in conducting an International PhD in Computer Science financed by Ministry of Education, Universities and Research, Italy. The other partners are Università di Udine (Italy), Università di Siena (Italy), Institute of Information Science and Technologies-Italian National Research Council (Italy), Universidad Politécnica de Valencia (Spain), Université de Nice (France), INRIA, Sophia Antipolis (France), B.M Birla Science Centre (India), C-DAC Hyderabad (India) and Institute of Mathematical Sciences (India).
- BIT Mesra is among five leading Science and Technology institutions in India eligible for Cargill Global Scholars Program working with the Institute of International Education (IIE).
BIT offers programs in collaboration with Indian institutes and industry.
- BIT Mesra has a Memorandum of Understanding with Indian Railways Institute of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering (also known as IRIMEE) which allows candidates selected in Special Class Railway Apprentice (SCRA) course to undergo a four-year training programme in Mechanical Engineering at BIT Mesra.
- Institution of Engineers offers an ME programme for practising engineers to its graduates and corporate members in selected engineering disciplines in collaboration with BIT Mesra.
- The Institute of Technology and Management (ITM), Mumbai has started a collaborative research program leading to the award of PhD Degree in Management with BIT Mesra.
- BIT Mesra conducts a six-month post-graduate program in management and insurance (PGPMI) in association with ICICI Prudential Life Insurance.
- Lotus Clinical Research Academy, Bangalore conducts 2-year Master of Pharmacy course in Clinical Research, M.S. in Clinical Research and Pharmacovigilance and 1-year Postgraduate Diploma course in Bioanalytical Techniques, in academic collaboration with BIT Mesra.
- Department of Space Engineering & Rocketry has initiated collaborations with R&D Laboratories of VSSC‐ISRO, DRDL, DRDO, Research Centre Imarat, High Energy Materials Research Laboratory (HEMRL), Liquid Propulsion Systems centre(LPSC),Aeronautical Development (ADA) and Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL). It has been recognised as a Centre for Training of the Scientists from DRDO and ISRO.
- Dept. of Applied Chemistry established Research Collaboration with Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, India, ICMR Institute, Virus Unit, Kolkata, IIT Guwahati, Assam and National Centre For Cell Science, Pune.
- Department of Mechanical Engineering has been identified by National Program for Materials and Smart Structures (NPMASS), an initiative by GOI, to establish a Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Design Centre.
- Department of Remote Sensing & Geoinformatics of BIT Mesra is selected for interpretation of Chandrayaan-1 data by SAC ISRO and PRL Ahmadabad along with IIT Bombay and IIT Roorkee in the country. Experience gained in this mission will be used in future Chandrayaan-2 and Mangalyaan mission.
BIT publishes international journals through its departments. These journals have eminent personalities from India as well as abroad on their Editorial Advisory Boards.
Admissions for BIT Mesra are based on All India level exams in respective fields.
- B.E.: through JEE Main conducted by CBSE and Central Counselling by CCB
- B.Arch.: through JEE Main and Central Counselling by CCB
- B.Pharm.: through JEE Main and AIPMT
- Bachelor of Hotel Management and Catering Technology (BHMCT): through Institute Entrance Exam and Interview.
- M.E./M.Tech./M.Pharm./MUP: based on GATE scores and interviews (for GATE candidates) and Institute Entrance Exam and personal interviews (for non-GATE candidates)
- M.B.A.: through CAT conducted by IIMs, Group Discussions and Interview
- M.C.A.: based on Online Entrance Exam followed by Counselling.
- MSc: based on scores in the Institute Online Entrance Exam and Counselling/Interviews.
Rankings Current Year
|Engineering – India|
BIT Mesra ranked 15th in the India Today best engineering colleges of 2012 13th in Outlook India 's Top Engineering Colleges of 2012 and 13th in Dataquest's Top Engineering Colleges of 2012. It also ranked 13th by 'The Week' in top engineering colleges of 2013 and 2nd in the limited participation CSR-GHRDC 's Engineering Colleges Survey of 2013. In rankings to private institutes, it ranked 2nd in Mint 's Top 50 Private Engineering Colleges of 2009 and 1st in their limited engineering college rankings.
There are numerous active student clubs, covering various activities and events on campus:
- BIOTS (Biotech Society)
- Electronics and Communication Society (ECE SOC)
- ACM, Students' Chapter
- Dance Club
- DRISTI (Directing Rural India Towards Social and Technological Integration)
- Ehsaas- The Dramatics Society
- Entrepreneurship Development Cell (EDC)
- Environment Protection Awareness Club (EPAC) Club
- Electrical and Electronics Society (EEE SOC)
- Fine Arts Society (FAS)
- IEEE, Students' Chapter
- IEI (Prod), Students' Chapter
- IEI (Civil), Students' Chapter
- IET, Students' Chapter
- LEO Club, Students' Chapter
- Literary Society
- Music Club
- News and Publication Society (NAPS)
- Photographic Society (PSOC)
- Team Robolution
- Rotaract Club, Students' Chapter
- SAE, Students' Chapter
- Sports and Adventure Club
The following groups provide specialised activities platforms:
- BIT LUG
- Opera Campus Crew
The institute has hosted several All India as well as Zonal Level tournaments. Sports facilities are:
- Gymnasium including multi gym
- Stadium for track and field events
- Cricket/football/hockey ground
- Basketball courts
- Volleyball courts
- Table tennis
- Tennis courts
- Badminton courts (three indoor and five outdoor)
BITotsav is a five-day festival organized every year in February. Teams from BIT and other colleges participate to win prizes during the event. The main attractions are Band-Nite, Dance-Nite, Music-Nite and Pro-Nite.
Pantheon is a three-day techno-cultural fest organised by the Student's Activity Council of BIT Mesra (which consists of members from all the technical and cultural clubs). Started in 2010, Pantheon is held in the monsoon semester and is usually the first event of the year. It has technical events (organised by the IET Student Chapter, Robolution and the IEEE Student Chapter) and three cultural nights (Music Night and Drama Night, Dance Night and Fugiya Night).
Dhwani was a three-day musical fest organized by the music club (now held during BITotsav).
Unnayan was a biennial international level technical festival organized by the IEEE Student Chapter at BIT Mesra, started in1997 (now held during Pantheon).
Drishtant was a national techno-management fest organised biennially by the IET Student Chapter. Started in 2005 (now part of Bitotsav).
Zeitgeist was a techno-management extravaganza organised biennially by the IEEE Student Chapter. It has witnessed events like Den Katalveno, Cashflow, Ne Plus Ultra, Galazio and others.
TechNIEEK is BIT's biannual monsoon session technical extravaganza, conducted by the IET Student chapter of BIT Mesra. . Technieek is a team based technical fest in which students form teams and compete in technical and non-technical events. On the final day the first six teams battle it out in a Core-Night, which determines the winning team of Technieek.
Spardha was an annual intra-BIT technical festival organized by the IEEE student chapter, BIT Mesra. The IEEE student chapter does not hold Spardha any more .
ColossIEIum was an annual festival organized by The BIT Students Chapter (CS and ET Division) of The Institution of Engineers (India). The online events of Pantheon now go under the name 'Colossieium'.
Samaagam is an All India Management Festival, organized each year by the Department of Management, with participation from nationwide B-schools. Some of the events are Business Quiz, Brand Equity, Stock Exchange, Business Bazigaar, Paper presentation.
Technika is the annual technical festival of the Patna Campus of the institute. Started in 2009 TECHNIKA has emerged to be one of the largest technical festival in the region drawing more than 1000 participants.
Deepotsav is a cultural festival which is organized during DIWALI break by LEO CLUB, for the institute students and teachers.
Rostra is the annual National Literary Meet organized by Literary Society. Started in 2012, it has emerged as one of the largest college level Literary meets of the nation.
Sports meet is the annual Intramural Sports meet.
Srijan is an annual art and photography exhibition at BIT, Lalpur organized by the Fine Arts Society.
Dandia Nite is an annual cultural event organised every year by Dance Club during Navratris which is one of the most awaited and successful event at the institute.
Other divisions at Mesra, Ranchi: University Polytechnic
The University Polytechnic was established in 2001, as a joint venture of the Department of Welfare, Government of Jharkhand and BIT, Mesra, to impart Diploma level technical education amongst the youths of Jharkhand. The campus of the University Polytechnic is located close to the National Highway 33 in the vicinity of the BIT Main campus. Spread over an area of 13 acres (53,000 m2), it is on the outskirts of Ranchi, surrounded by green forests.
The University Polytechnic is fully residential with three large hostels, (two for boys and one for girls), accommodating about 450 students. It has twenty full-time faculty and an equal number of visiting faculty from BIT Mesra. It has a library, laboratories, training and placement cell and sports and games facilities.
The University Polytechnic conducts the following 3-year courses:
Centres in India and Offshore
BIT has established extension centres, in cities within the country as well as overseas, which function under the administrative control of BIT Mesra. Intake process for these campuses is as stringent as that of the main campus and only the top rankers find admission.
India– Allahabad, Jaipur, Kolkata, Noida, Patna, Deoghar, Lalpur.
Overseas– Muscat, Ras al-Khaimah.
Deoghar Extension Centre
The Jharkhand Government, willing to spread BIT further across the state, made a request to the institute to establish an Extension Centre at Deoghar, Jharkhand. BIT responded wholeheartedly and subsequently, a MoU was signed between the Institute and the Government of Jharkhand. Thus, the Deoghar Extension Centre of BIT commenced functioning in October 2007. As per the provisions of the MoU it was decided that 50% seats would be for students acquiring eligible qualifications from Institutions located in Jharkhand while the remaining 50% would be for students from the other states of the country. Admission has been through JEE Main with Central Counselling conducted by the Central Counselling Board.
Jaipur Extension Centre
The Birla Institute of Technology, Jaipur Extension Centre was started in 1995 in the campus of the Birla Institute of Scientific Research (BISR). The centre started by offering postgraduate programmes and now offers undergraduate programmes as well.
Patna Extension Centre
The Birla Institute of Technology, Patna Extension Centre was established in 2006, on the request of the Government of Bihar. A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between the Institute and the Government of Bihar in December 2005. Subsequently, the Government of Bihar allotted 25 acres (100,000 m2) of land located between the Bihar Veterinary College and the Jai Prakash Narayan International Airport at Patna and also agreed to release the requisite funds for establishing the campus. The foundation stone of the campus was laid on 24 December 2005 and construction started in April 2006.
The Patna centre is fully residential. All the hostels are inside the institute campus. The infrastructure includes laboratories, lecture halls, workshops, playgrounds, gymnasium, canteen and a library. The plans for the campus include construction of 525,000 square feet of academic space, hostel accommodation for students and residential facilities for staff, dispensary, playgrounds, gyms and guesthouses.
Lalpur Extension Centre
The institute started an extension centre in 1976 at Lalpur in Ranchi. It was primarily for the benefit of officers working in Ranchi-based public sector undertakings and private industries such as MECON, SAIL, HEC, CIL, CMPDI, Shriram Ball-bearings Limited, Usha Martin Industries Limited, and nationalised banks to upgrade their technical skill. The laboratory classes are conducted on Sundays and holidays at the Mesra campus. This Centre is now referred to as the BIT Lalpur Extension Centre.
Kolkata Extension Centre
The Birla Institute of Technology, Kolkata Extension Centre was established in 1990 . It is located in the southern part (Rajdanga, Kasba) of the city. The premises of the Centre includes a computer laboratory with a server room, several lecture rooms, a seminar hall, and a library. Students have free access to online journals through ACM, IEEE and Emerald-online. The whole Centre is networked and internet facilities are provided.
Allahabad Extension Centre
The Birla Institute of Technology, Allahabad Extension Centre was established in January 1998. It has five academic departments namely Department of Computer Science, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering and Department of Mechanical Engineering. The centre has a library with a large number of books and technical journals. A digital library for on-line access of books and journals has also been provided for staff and students.
Noida Extension Centre
The Birla Institute of Technology, Noida Extension Centre was started in 1998. The centre registers scholars for PhD programmes in Mass Communication and Computer Science. The Noida centre was the first institute in India to set up a full fledged degree course in BSc Animation and Multimedia. An International Research Centre on Fourth Generation Mobile Communication System (IRC – 4G) has been set up under EAGER -NetWiC Project of Asia Link Programme by European Commission.
Some notable alumni of the Institute are listed below. A detailed list is available here. According to Toptalent.in, BIT mesra ranks 10th in India for successful start-ups by the alumni.
- Alok R. Chaturvedi, Professor, Purdue eBusiness Research Center, Krannert School of Management, Purdue University
- Deven Sharma, Executive Vice President Standard & Poor's, a Division of The McGraw-Hill Companies
- K. N. Rao, CEO & Board of Director, DCM Shriram Industries Ltd
- Karan Bajaj, author of Keep off the Grass, Johny Gone Down
- M. Chandra Dathan,Director, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC)
- Sanjeeva Kumar Singh, recipient of Arjuna Award (1992) and Dronacharya Award (2007) in archery
- Shree K. Nayar, T.C. Chang Professor of Computer Science, Columbia University
- Sudhir Trehan, Vice Chairman, Crompton Greaves
- V. Vaidyanathan, Chairman, Capital First Limited. Formerly MD and CEO, ICICI Prudential Life Insurance & Executive Director on the Board of ICICI Bank
- Sheo Keshwar Singh, former Engineer-in-Chief who also served as Director (Distributions) & Member of Board at Bihar State Electricity Board 
- Birla Institute of Technology International Centre
- Birla Institute of Technology – Science and Technology Entrepreneurs' Park
- Waljat Colleges of Applied Sciences
- Kreh, William (May 1962). "Science Overseas". Popular Mechanics (Chicago, Illinois: Hearst Magazines) 117 (5): 22. Retrieved 2008-12-24.
- SIDBI. "SIDBI's National Programme on Innovation and Incubation for Small Scale Industries". Retrieved 2008-11-04.
- "PARAM 10000 at Premier Institutes". C-DAC. Retrieved 2008-06-17.
- "Governance". Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
- EAGER – NetWiC. "Euro – Asian Network Strengthening Graduate Education and Research in Wireless Communication" (Press release). Retrieved 2008-06-20.
- Purdue University. "Study Abroad, Program Details, Birla Institute of Technology". Retrieved 2008-11-11.
- BIT Mesra. "Dual degrees beckon BITians". Retrieved 2008-08-27.[dead link]
- University of Leeds. "Articulation Agreement with Birla Institute of Technology, India". Retrieved 2009-01-12.
- University of Leeds. "Advance Entry Agreement between Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi and University of Leeds, U.K". Retrieved 2008-08-27.
- University of New Brunswick. "Our Educational Partners". Retrieved 2008-08-27.
- n+i. "Foreign Universities,n+i Partners". Retrieved 2008-08-27.
- Università di Udine. "Partners, International PhD in Computer Science". Retrieved 2008-11-13.
- Cargill Global Scholars Program. "Cargill launches new Cargill Global Scholars Program in 5 countries". Retrieved 2013-12-02.
- IRIMEE. "Under Graduate Course, Special Class Railway Apprentice(SCRA)". Retrieved 2008-06-17.
- Institution of Engineers. "Postgraduate Programme for Practicing Engineers". Retrieved 2008-11-18.
- ITM, Mumbai. "Collaborative Research Program (PhD Degree) in Management" (Press release). Retrieved 2008-09-24.
- ICICI Prudential. "PGPMI at BIT Mesra". Retrieved 2008-11-04.
- Lotus Clinical Research Academy, Bangalore. "University Approved Courses". Retrieved 2008-11-04.
- "Best Engineering colleges 2014". India Today. 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2014.
- "Top Engineering Colleges". Outlook India. 16 June 2012. Retrieved 17 June 2012.
- "India's Top Engineering Colleges 2012 (DQ-CMR T-Schools Survey 2012)". archive.dqindia.com/. Dataquest. 15 December 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- "Top 50 Private Engineering Colleges of 2009" (PDF). Mint. 23 June 2009. Retrieved 9 September 2011.
- "GHRDC-CSR Engineering Colleges Survey 2013 - Private Caleges" (PDF). Competition Success Review (Competition Success Review and the Global Human Resources Development Centre): 1–4. July 2013.
- "Overall Ranking of Top Engineering Colleges". CSR-GHRDC Engineering Colleges Survey 2013 (Ranchi). July 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "BIT mobile research cell in Noida". The Telegraph (Kolkata) (Ranchi). 26 October 2004. Retrieved 2009-01-07.
- "DCM Shriram Industries: Outcome of board meeting".
- "DCM Shriram Ind - Outcome of Board Meeting".
- Rediff MoneyWiz. "DCM SHRIRAM INDUSTRIES LTD. - Outcome of Board Meeting".
- "DCM Shriram In - Outcome of Board Meeting".
- Special Correspondent. "New VSSC director". The Hindu.
- "V. Vaidyanathan takes wing with a $17 million stake in a star NBFC - Business Today".
- "Capital First Management Team / Board Members".
- "V. Vaidyanathan". Forbes. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "S K Singh, former Engineer-in-Chief & Director (Distributions) at Bihar State Electricity Board is BIT Mesra Alumni".
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Birla Institute of Technology.|