Buddha Loetla Nabhalai

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Buddha Loetla Nabhalai
King Rama II
Buddha Loetla Nabhalai portrait.jpg
King of Siam
Reign 7 September 1809 – 21 July 1824
Coronation 1809
Predecessor Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke (Rama I)
Successor Nangklao (Rama III)
Vice King Maha Senanurak
Vice King of Siam
Tenure 1808 – 7 September 1809
Appointed Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke
Predecessor Maha Sura Singhanat
Successor Maha Senanurak
Spouse Queen Srisuriyendra
Princess Kundhon Dibyavadi
Princess Sri Sulalai
Issue 73 sons and daughters[1]
House Chakri Dynasty
Father Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke
Mother Amarindra
Born (1767-02-24)24 February 1767
Amphawa, Samut Songkhram, Ayutthaya Kingdom
Died 21 July 1824(1824-07-21) (aged 57)
Grand Palace, Phra Nakhon, Phra Nakhon, Kingdom of Siam
Religion Buddhism

Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Thai: พุทธเลิศหล้านภาลัย; RTGS: Phuttha Loet La Naphalai; 24 February 1767 – 21 July 1824) or Rama II was the second monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri, ruling from 1809 to 1824. In 1809, Itsarasunthon succeeded his father Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the founder of Chakri dynasty, as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai the King of Siam. His reign was largely peaceful, devoid of major conflicts. His reign was known as the "Golden Age of Rattanakosin Literature" as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai was patron to a number of poets in his court and the King himself was a renowned poet and artist. The most notable poet in his employ was the illustrious Sunthorn Phu, the author of Phra Aphai Mani.

Early life[edit]

Privy seal of King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai, "a garuda hold the nāgas" (Wat Arun, Bangkok)

Chim was born in 1767 during the (Ayutthaya period) in Amphoe Amphawa, Samut Songkram. Chim was a son of Luang Yokbat of Ratchaburi and Nak of Samut Sakorn, as his father and mother was then known. They would later become King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke and Queen Amarindra, respectively. In 1767, Ayutthaya fell to Burmese invaders. His father, Phraya Ratchaburi, joined Phraya Wachira Prakarn's (or Taksin's) forces to recapture the city. Under King Taksin, Chim's father rose rapidly to high rank as a military leader and was assigned with the campaigns to subjugate Laos and Cambodia. In 1782, his father crowned himself King of Siam (later named Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke) and Chim himself was raised to the title of Prince Itsarasunthon of Siam.

Buddha Loetla Nabhalai, with his concubine Chao Chom Manda Riam, fathered Prince Tub (ทับ – later King Jetsadabodin or Rama III) in 1787. Prince Itsarasunthon then had a secret affair with his own cousin, Princess Bunrod. In 1801, Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke then found out that Princess Bunrod had been pregnant for four months and banished her out of the palace to live with her brother. Itsarasunthon, however begged his father to forgive him and the princess was reinstated and became his consort through the negotiation by Concubine Waen. Unfortunately, the baby died just after its birth.

With Princess Bunrod, Buddha Loetla Nabhalai also fathered Prince Mongkut (1804) and Prince Chutamani (1808). Prince Itsarasunthon was appointed to the Front Palace as Vice King or Uparaja in 1807 to succeed his uncle Maha Sura Singhanat who had died in 1803, though he continued to stay at the Thonburi Palace.

Ascension[edit]

As the eldest surviving legitimate son of Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, Prince Itsarasunthon succeeded to throne when Buddha Yotfa Chulaloke died in 1809. No royal naming system was established at the time Rama II was crowned. He was later named by his son Nangklao as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai and by the Rama convention, called Rama II. His consort, Princess Bunrod, was raised to Queen Sri Suriyendra.

As soon as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai ascended the throne, Prince Kshatranichit, the surviving son of Taksin, rebelled as pretender to the throne. Buddha Loetla Nabhalai's son, Prince Tub effectively crushed the rebellion, proving himself to be competent, thus gaining his father's favor. Prince Tub was raised to Krom Muen, given the Sanskrit-derived name "Jessadabodindra," and made Krom Tha (minister of trade and foreign Affair.[2])

King Bodawpaya of Burma, seeing that Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke was dead, marched an army into Chumporn and conquered Thalang (Phuket) in the same year. Buddha Loetla Nabhalai sent his brother Maha Senanurak the Front Palace to recapture Thalang, which had been razed to the ground. This "Thalang campaign" was the last invasion by the Burmese into Siamese territory.

Culture and Literature[edit]

Monarchs of
the Chakri Dynasty
Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke portrait.jpg Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke
(King Rama I)
Buddha Loetla Nabhalai portrait.jpg Buddha Loetla Nabhalai
(King Rama II)
Nangklao portrait.jpg Nangklao
(King Rama III)
Rama4 portrait (cropped).jpg Mongkut
(King Rama IV)
King Chulalongkorn.jpg Chulalongkorn
(King Rama V)
King Vajiravudh.jpg Vajiravudh
(King Rama VI)
Prajadhipok portrait.jpg Prajadhipok
(King Rama VII)
Ananda Mahidol portrait.jpg Ananda Mahidol
(King Rama VIII)
Bhumibol Adulyadej portrait.jpg Bhumibol Adulyadej
(King Rama IX)

It was said that during Rama II's reign, if one could write a refined piece of poetry, then one would be able to become a royal favorite, as Buddha Loetla Nabhalai himself was a poet. The reign was a cultural renaissance after the massive wars that plague the First Reign; particularly in the fields of arts and literature. Poets employed by Rama II included Sunthorn Phu the drunken writer (Phra Aphai Mani) and Narin Dhibet (Nirat Narin). His sons, Prince Jessadabodindra and Prince Poramanuchit, were encouraged to excel in poetry. Prince Poramanuchit later became a Sangharaj (Buddhist hierophant) and was well known for his religious works.

Rama II's reign saw the reconstruction of Siamese culture and royal traditions. In 1811, the Grand Royal Funeral was held for King Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke. In the same year, a cholera epidemic broke out in Bangkok. Buddha Loetla Nabhalai ordered the "Apat Pinat" or sickness-repelling ceremonies to be performed. He also established the education and the examination system of Buddhism, by dividing it into nine levels. In 1817, the Vesak festival was restored.

Foreign Relations[edit]

In 1810, the first Rattanakosin-to-China mission was sent to the Jiaqing Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.

Since the Revolution of 1688, Western presence in Siam had been reduced to a small scale as the Siamese Kings ceased to encourage foreign influence, this coupled with the Napoleonic Wars meant there was little contact between Siam and foreigners.

However, the wars caused many subsequent changes, which were observed in Southeast Asia. The British interest in Malaya increased as their trade with China increased. The Sultan of Kedah, a Siamese vassal, gave Penang off to the British without consulting Siam in 1786, followed by the British acquisition of Province Wellesley. Soon the British replaced the Dutch as the dominating naval power south of Siam.

The mission of the Portuguese governor of Macau in 1818 was the first formal Western contact in Siam since the Ayutthaya times. The British founded Singapore in 1819 and Jaslis, the missionary from Rangoon, introduced the printing press to Siam in the same year. The Portuguese established the first western consulate in Siam in 1820. The first renewed formal British visit was made by Sir John Crawfurd in 1822.

Death and Succession[edit]

Buddha Loetla Nabhalai's reign was largely uneventful, though the next reign was to be beset on every side. In July 1824, the king died very suddenly, it was said of strangury, but not without strong suspicions of his being poisoned.[3] According to the succession rule then theoretically in force,[4] the throne would go to the son of Queen Sri Suriyendra, Prince Mongkut; however, his elder half-brother Jessadabodindra succeeded the same day. Though only the son of a concubine, he had served their father in putting down a revolt and then as Krom Tha (Ministry of Trade and Foreign Relations.) The elder brother's experience counted for more than the theoretical claim of the much younger and inexperienced brother, who nevertheless did much later succeed his elder brother.

Titles and styles[edit]

  • 1767–1782: Nai Chim
  • 1782–1808: Somdet Phra Chao Lukya Thoe Chaofa Krom Luang Itsarasunthon
  • 1808–1809: Krom Phraratchawang Bowon Maha Itsarasunthon (Krom Phrarajawang Bovorn Sathan Mongkol)
  • 1809–1824: Phrabat Somdet Phra Borommarajadhiraj Ramadhibodi
  • Posthumously renamed by King Mongkut as: Phra Bat Somdet Phra Borommarajabongjet Mahesvarasundorn Phra Buddha Loetla Nabhalai
Further information: Rama (Kings of Thailand)

References[edit]

  1. ^ A History of Thailand (2009), page 31
  2. ^ Norman G. Owen (2005). The Emergence Of Modern Southeast Asia. National University of Singapore Press. p. 95. ISBN 9971-69-328-3. 
  3. ^ Roberts, Edmund (Digitized October 12, 2007) [First published in 1837]. "Chapter XIX―History of Siam". Embassy to the Eastern courts of Cochin-China, Siam, and Muscat : in the U. S. sloop-of-war Peacock ... during the years 1832-3-4. Harper & brothers. p. 300. Retrieved April 25, 2012. 
  4. ^ Wales, H. G. Quaritch (Digitized April 14, 2005) [First published in 1931]. "Pt. III, Ch. VI, 1. Succession". Siamese state ceremonies. London: Bernard Quaritch. p. 67. Retrieved April 25, 2012. "The Succession to the Throne of Siam is, in theory, regulated by the law of A.D. 1360...." 
Buddha Loetla Nabhalai
Chakri Dynasty
Born: 24 February 1767 Died: 21 July 1824
Preceded by
Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke
King of Siam
1809–1824
Succeeded by
Nangklao
Preceded by
Maha Sura Singhanat
Front Palace
1808–1809
Succeeded by
Maha Senanurak

See also[edit]