Comparison of revision control software

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The following is a comparison of revision control software. The following tables include general and technical information on notable revision control and software configuration management (SCM) software. For SCM software not suitable for source code, see Comparison of open source configuration management software.

General information[edit]

Table explanation

  • Software: The name of the application that is described.
  • Maintainer: The company or group that is currently taking responsibility for the software's maintenance or development
  • Development Status: The current status of the software project
  • Repository model: describes the relationship between various copies of the source code repository. In a client–server model, users access a master repository via a client; typically, their local machines hold only a working copy of a project tree. Changes in one working copy must be committed to the master repository before they are propagated to other users. In a distributed model, repositories act as peers, and users typically have a local repository with version history available, in addition to their working copies.
  • Concurrency model: describes how changes to the working copy are managed to prevent simultaneous edits from causing nonsensical data in the repository. In a lock model, changes are disallowed until the user requests and receives an exclusive lock on the file from the master repository. In a merge model, users may freely edit files, but are informed of possible conflicts upon checking their changes into the repository, whereupon the version control system may merge changes on both sides, or let the user decide when conflicts arise. Note that distributed version control almost always implies a merge concurrency model.
  • License: The license model under which the software is licensed. These can be both free and paid licenses
  • Platforms Supported: The operating systems that the software application currently supports.
  • Cost: The price of the software application
Software Maintainer Development status Repository model Concurrency model License Platforms supported Cost
AccuRev SCM AccuRev, Inc. actively developed Client–server Merge or lock Proprietary Most Java Platforms (Unix-like, Windows, OS X) Non-free Quoted on an individual basis.
GNU Bazaar Canonical Ltd. limited development; latest release August 4, 2013 (2013-08-04) Distributed[nb 1] Merge GNU GPL Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
BitKeeper BitMover Inc. actively developed Distributed Merge Proprietary Unix-like, Windows, OS X Non-free Quoted on an individual basis.
CA Software Change Manager CA Technologies[1] actively developed Client-server Merge or Lock Proprietary Unix, Linux, Windows, i5/OS Non-free Named licenses available with volume discounts available
ClearCase IBM Rational actively developed Client–server Merge or lock[nb 2] Proprietary Linux, Windows, AIX, Solaris, HP UX, i5/OS, OS/390, z/OS, Non-free $4600 per floating license (held automatically for 30-minutes minimum per user, can be surrendered manually)
Code Co-op Reliable Software actively developed Distributed Merge Proprietary Windows Non-free $150 per seat
Codeville Ross Cohen official site offline; latest release July 13, 2007 (2007-07-13) Distributed precise codeville merge BSD Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
CVS The CVS Team[2] maintained but new features not added Client–server Merge GNU GPL Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
CVSNT March Hare Software[3] and community members maintained and new features under development Client–server Merge or lock GPL or proprietary Unix-like, Windows, OS X, i5/OS Free (with £425 distribution fee) for older version or £85 commercial license for latest version of CVS Suite or Change Management Server
darcs The Darcs team actively developed Distributed Merge GNU GPL Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
Fossil D. Richard Hipp actively developed Distributed Merge BSD POSIX, Windows, OS X, Other Free
Git Junio Hamano actively developed Distributed Merge GNU GPL POSIX, Windows, OS X Free
GNU arch Andy Tai unmaintained Distributed Merge GNU GPL Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
IC Manage IC Manage Inc. actively developed Client–server Merge or lock Proprietary Unix-like, Windows, OS X Non-free Commercial
MKS Integrity Integrity, a PTC Company actively developed Client–server Merge or lock Proprietary Unix-like, Windows Non-free
LibreSource Synchronizer Artenum[4] latest release May 21, 2008 (2008-05-21) Client–server extended to "tree"[nb 3] Merge GNU GPL[nb 4] Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
Mercurial Matt Mackall actively developed Distributed Merge GNU GPL Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
Monotone Nathaniel Smith, Graydon Hoare actively developed Distributed Merge GNU GPL Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
Perforce Perforce Software Inc. actively developed Client–server Merge or lock Proprietary Unix-like, Windows, OS X Cost free license, available on application, for OSS or educational use; Also free for up to 20 users, 20 workspaces, and unlimited files;[5] Or free for unlimited users and up to 1,000 files; Else $740-$900 per seat in perpetuity, or $144-$300 per seat per year on a subscription model, both with volume discounts[6]
Plastic SCM Codice Software actively developed Client–server Merge or lock Proprietary Linux, Windows, OS X Free for up to 15 users; else starting at $595 per seat, or $3,500 per 25 developers per year[7]
PVCS Serena Software actively developed Client–server Lock Proprietary Windows, Unix-like Non-free
Software Maintainer Development status Repository model Concurrency model License Platforms supported Cost
Rational Team Concert IBM Rational actively developed Client–server[nb 5][8][9] Merge or lock Proprietary Linux, Windows, AIX, Solaris, HP UX, i5/OS, OS/390, z/OS, OS X Free for up to 10 users; else non-free
Revision Control System Thien-Thi Nguyen actively developed local Merge or lock GNU GPL Unix-like Free
SCM Anywhere Dynamsoft Corporation actively developed Client–server Merge or Lock Proprietary Unix-like, Windows, OS X Non-free Single user free; $299 per user, bulk discount available
Source Code Control System Jörg Schilling[nb 6] actively developed local lock[nb 7] CDDL / proprietary[nb 8] Unix-like, Windows, OS X While SCCS has traditionally been bundled in commercial UNIX distributions, free CDDL-licensed versions exist
Sourceanywhere Standalone Dynamsoft Corporation actively developed Client–server Merge or Lock Proprietary Unix-like, Windows, Linux, OS X Non-free Single user free; $299 per user, bulk discount available
StarTeam Borland (Micro Focus) actively developed Client–server Merge or lock Proprietary Windows and Cross-platform via Java based client Non-free Quoted on an individual basis.
Subversion (SVN) Apache Software Foundation[10] actively developed Client–server[nb 9] Merge or lock[nb 10] Apache Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
Surround SCM Seapine Software actively developed Client–server Merge or lock Proprietary Linux, Windows, OS X Floating $1495 and named $595 per seat.
SVK Best Practical unmaintained Client–server, decentralized Merge Artistic/GPL Unix-like, Windows, OS X Free
Team Foundation Server (TFS) Microsoft actively developed Client–server, Distributed Merge or lock Proprietary Windows, Cross-platform via Visual Studio Online Free for up to 5 users in the Visual Studio Online or for open source projects through codeplex.com; else non-free, licensed through MSDN subscription or direct buy.
Synergy IBM Rational actively developed Client–server and Distributed Merge or lock Proprietary Linux, Windows, Unix-like Non-free Contact IBM Rational[11]
Vault SourceGear LLC actively developed Client–server Merge or lock Proprietary Unix-like, Linux, Windows Non-free $300 per user
Veracity SourceGear LLC web site appears unmaintained; latest release March 25, 2013 (2013-03-25) Distributed Merge or lock Apache Unix-like, Linux, Windows Free
Vesta Kenneth Schalk; Tim Mann,[12][13] web site not updated since 2006; latest release February 15, 2009 (2009-02-15) Distributed NFS-protocol-emulation choice to optionally confederate clients and/or servers lock on branch; merge branch-to-branch LGPL Tru64, Linux Free
Visual SourceSafe (VSS) Microsoft serious bug fixes only Shared Folder Merge or lock Proprietary Windows Non-free ~$500 per license or single license included with each MSDN subscription.

Technical information[edit]

Table explanation

  • Software: The name of the application that is described.
  • Programming language: The coding language in which the application is being developed
  • Storage Method: Describes the form in which files are stored in the repository. A snapshot indicates that a committed file(s) is stored in its entirety—usually compressed. A changeset, in this context, indicates that a committed file(s) is stored in the form of a difference between either the previous version or the next.
  • Scope of change: Describes whether changes are recorded for individual files or for entire directory trees.
  • Revision IDs: are used internally to identify specific versions of files in the repository. Systems may use pseudorandom identifiers, content hashes of revisions, or filenames with sequential version numbers (namespace). With Integrated Difference, revisions are based on the Changesets themselves, which can describe changes to more than one file.
  • Network protocols: lists the protocols used for synchronization of changes.
  • Source code size: Gives the size of the source code in megabytes.
Software Programming language Storage method Scope of change Revision IDs Network protocols Source code size
AccuRev SCM C++, Java Changeset File Number pair NN/NN custom Unknown
GNU Bazaar Python, Pyrex, C[nb 11] Snapshot Tree Pseudorandom custom, custom over ssh, custom over HTTP, HTTP, SFTP, FTP, email bundles,[nb 12] WebDAV (with plugin) 4.1 MB
BitKeeper C Changeset Tree Changeset keys, numbers custom, HTTP, rsh, ssh, email Unknown
CA Software Change Manager C, C++, Java, HTML Changeset and Snapshot File and Tree[citation needed] Numbers HTTP, TCP/IP Unknown
ClearCase C, Java, Perl Changeset File and Tree [14] Numbers custom (CCFS), custom (MVFS filesystem driver), HTTP Unknown
Code Co-op C++ Changeset Unknown User ID-Ordinal e-mail (MAPI, SMTP/POP3, Gmail), LAN Unknown
Codeville Python Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
CVS C Changeset File Numbers pserver, ssh 3.3 MB
CVSNT C++ Changeset File and Tree[15] Numbers custom over ssh, sspi, sserver, gserver, pserver 55 MB
darcs Haskell Changeset (Patch)[nb 13] Tree n/a custom over ssh, HTTP, email 1.7 MB
Fossil C Snapshot Tree SHA-1 hashes HTTP/HTTPS, custom over ssh 7.2 MB[nb 14]
Git C, shell scripts, Perl Snapshot Tree SHA-1 hashes custom (git), custom over ssh,[16] HTTP/HTTPS, rsync, email, bundles 10.2 MB
GNU arch C, shell scripts Changeset Tree Numbers HTTP, WebDAV Unknown
IC Manage C++, C Changeset Unknown Numbers custom Unknown
LibreSource Synchronizer Java Changeset Unknown Timestamps HTTP, File-System Unknown
Mercurial Python, C Changeset Tree Numbers,[nb 15] SHA-1 hashes custom over ssh, HTTP, email bundles (with standard plugin) 1.2 MB
MKS Integrity C, Java Changeset File Numbers custom, HTTP Unknown
Monotone C++ Hybrid[nb 16] Tree SHA-1 hashes custom (netsync), custom over ssh, file system 4.4 MB
Perforce C++, C Changeset Tree Numbers custom Unknown
PVCS C++, C Changeset File Numbers Unknown Unknown
Rational Team Concert Java Changeset Tree Numbers REST services over HTTP/HTTPS Unknown
SCM Anywhere C++, Java, C# Changeset File and Tree Numbers SOAP over HTTP or HTTPS Unknown
Source Code Control System C Changeset File Numbers NFS 1.3 MB
Sourceanywhere Standalone C++, Java Changeset File and Tree Numbers TCP/IP Unknown
StarTeam C++, C, Java Snapshot File and Tree MD5 hashes custom, TCP/IP Unknown
Subversion C Changeset and Snapshot Tree Numbers custom (svn), custom over ssh, HTTP and SSL (using WebDAV) 5.2 MB
Surround SCM C++ Changeset File and Tree Numbers TCP/IP Unknown
SVK Perl Changeset Tree Numbers Unknown Unknown
Synergy Java Changeset (text), Snapshot(binary) File Numbers custom, custom over ssh, HTTP Unknown
Team Foundation Server C++ and C# Changeset File and Tree Numbers SOAP over HTTP or HTTPS Unknown
Vault C# Changeset Unknown Unknown HTTP, HTTPS Unknown
Veracity C, JavaScript Changeset Tree Numbers, [nb 17] SHA-1, SHA-2 and Skein hashes. HTTP 52 MB
Vesta C++ Snapshot Tree Unknown NFS 15.8 MB
Visual SourceSafe C Snapshot File Numbers SMB, DCOM Unknown
Software Programming language Storage method Scope of change Revision IDs Network protocols Source code size

Features[edit]

Table explanation

  • Software: The name of the application that is described.
  • Atomic commits: refers to a guarantee that all changes are made, or that no change at all will be made.
  • File renames: describes whether a system allows files to be renamed while retaining their version history.
  • Merge file renames: describes whether a system can merge changes made to a file on one branch into the same file that has been renamed on another branch (or vice versa). If the same file has been renamed on both branches then there is a rename conflict that the user must resolve.
  • Symbolic links: describes whether a system allows revision control of symbolic links as with regular files. Versioning symbolic links is considered by some people a feature and some people a security breach (e.g., a symbolic link to /etc/passwd). Symbolic links are only supported on select platforms, depending on the software.
  • Pre/post event hooks: indicates the capability to trigger commands before or after an action, such as a commit, takes place.
  • Signed revisions: refers to integrated digital signing of revisions, in a format such as OpenPGP.
  • Merge tracking: describes whether a system remembers what changes have been merged between which branches and only merges the changes that are missing when merging one branch into another.
  • End of line conversions: describes whether a system can adapt the end of line characters for text files such that they match the end of line style for the operating system under which it is used. The granularity of control varies. Subversion, for example, can be configured to handle EOLs differently according to the file type, whereas Perforce converts all text files according a single, per-client setting.
  • Tags: indicates if meaningful names can be given to specific revisions, regardless of whether these names are called tags or labels.
  • International Support: indicates if the software has support for multiple language environments and operating system
  • Unicode filename support: indicates if the software has support for interoperations under file systems using different character encodings.
  • Supports large repos: Can the system handle repositories of around a gigabyte or larger effectively?
Software Atomic commits File renames Merge file renames Symbolic links Pre/post-event hooks Signed revisions Merge tracking End of line conversions Tags International Support Unicode filename support Supports large repos
AccuRev SCM Yes Yes Partial[nb 18] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes N/A Yes Yes[17] Yes[18][19]
GNU Bazaar Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[20] Yes Yes Yes Unknown
BitKeeper Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown Yes Yes Yes Unknown Unknown Yes
CA Software Change Manager Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown
ClearCase Partial[nb 19] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[21] Unknown Yes
Code Co-op Yes Yes Yes No Partial No No No Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown
Codeville Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
CVS No No No No Partial No No Yes Yes Unknown No Yes
CVSNT Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
darcs Yes Yes Yes No[nb 20] Yes Yes N/A[nb 21] No Yes No Yes[nb 22] Unknown
Fossil Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes[nb 23] Yes Yes Yes Unknown
Git Yes Partial[nb 24] Yes Yes Yes Yes[nb 25] Yes Yes Yes Partial[nb 26] Yes[nb 27] Partial[nb 28]
GNU arch Yes Yes Unknown Yes Yes Yes Unknown Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown
IC Manage Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown Unknown
MKS Integrity Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes[nb 29] Yes[nb 30] Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown
LibreSource Synchronizer Yes Yes Yes No Partial[nb 31] No Yes[nb 32] No Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown
Mercurial Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[nb 33] Partial[nb 34] Partial[22]
Monotone Yes Yes Yes No[nb 35] Yes Yes, mandatory Yes Yes Yes Unknown Yes Unknown
Perforce Yes Yes[23] Yes[24] Partial[nb 36] Yes Yes Yes[25] Yes Yes Yes[26] Yes[27] Yes
Rational Team Concert Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[nb 37] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown
Source Code Control System Yes No N/A N/A No No Yes No No Partial[nb 38] Yes Yes
StarTeam Yes[nb 39] Yes Unknown Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown Yes
Subversion Yes Yes[nb 40] Partial[nb 41] Yes Yes No Yes.[nb 42] Yes Partial[nb 43] Yes Yes Yes
Surround SCM Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes[28] Yes Yes Yes
SVK Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[nb 44] Yes[29] Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown Unknown
Synergy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[nb 45] Yes
Team Foundation Server Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Vault Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown
Veracity Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Vesta Yes Yes Unknown Unknown Yes No No No Yes No Unknown Yes
Visual SourceSafe No No[nb 46] Unknown No Yes No No Unknown Yes Yes Unknown Unknown
Software Atomic commits File renames Merge file renames Symbolic links Pre/post-event hooks Signed revisions Merge tracking End of line conversions Tags International Support Unicode filename support Supports large repos

Advanced features[edit]

Table explanation

  • keyword expansion: Supports automatic expansion of keywords such as file revision number.
  • interactive commits: Interactive commits allow the user to cherrypick the patch-hunks that become part of a commit (leaving unselected changes as changes in the working copy), instead of having only a file-level granularity.
  • external references: embedding of foreign repositories in the source tree
  • partial checkout/clone: Ability to check out or clone only a specified subdirectory from a repository.
  • permissions: Tracks file permission bits in the revision history.
  • timestamp preservation: Overwrites the last modified filesystem attribute with the commit time upon checkout.
  • custom automatic merge tool: Automatic merging can be attempted by any tool of the user's choice (hopefully configurable on a per-file basis)
  • supported formats: either read/write support or read-only (conversion, potentially repeated)
  • shared build cache of derived objects: the ability to wink-in derived-objects that were built by other confederated clients that share exactly the same dependencies instead of rebuilding them locally
software keyword expansion interactive commits external references partial checkout/clone permissions timestamp preservation custom automatic merge tool supported formats shared build cache of derived objects
AccuRev SCM Yes Unknown Yes Yes execution bit only Yes Yes git (bi-dir)[30] No
GNU Bazaar Yes[31] Yes[32] Yes[33] No execution bit only No[nb 47] Yes[34] bzr, subversion,[35] git,[36] hg,[37] any that has a fastexporter No
BitKeeper POSIX and RCS Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes bitkeeper No
CA Software Change Manager No Yes No Yes execution bit only Yes Yes CA Software Change Manager No
ClearCase Yes[38] No No Yes Yes Yes[nb 48] Yes ClearCase Yes
CVS RCS No Yes Yes[nb 49] Partial[nb 50] Yes No cvs No
CVSNT RCS Yes[nb 51] Yes[nb 52] Yes[nb 53] Yes Yes No cvs Yes[nb 54]
darcs No Yes No No[nb 55] Partial[nb 56] No conflicts only darcs No
Fossil No Yes No No execution bit only[39] Unknown No fossil (uses sqlite), any that has a fastexporter[40] No
Git No[nb 57] Yes[nb 58] Yes[41] No[nb 59] execution bit only No[nb 60] Yes git, cvs, subversion, hg, any that has a fastexporter No
Mercurial Yes[42] Yes[43] Yes[44] Partial[45] execution bit only through (alpha) extension[46] non-trivial cases only hg, subversion,[47] git,[48] any other format supported by the Convert extension[49] No
Perforce Yes[50] No No Yes Yes Yes[51] Yes[52] Perforce No
Rational Team Concert No Yes Yes Yes Yes Unknown Unknown N/A No
Source Code Control System Yes No N/A Yes execution bit only some variants No rcs No
Surround SCM Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes[nb 61] Surround No
SVK Yes Yes[nb 62] Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown subversion No
Subversion Yes[53] Partial[nb 63] Yes[54] Yes execution bit only Partial[nb 64] Yes[nb 65] subversion No
Team Foundation Server No Yes Unknown Yes Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Veracity No No No No Yes Yes Yes git, cvs, subversion, hg, any that has a fastexporter No
Vesta No No Yes via SDL No Unknown Yes No Vesta Yes
software keyword expansion interactive commits external references partial checkout/clone permissions timestamp preservation custom automatic merge tool supported formats shared build cache of derived objects

Basic commands[edit]

Table explanation

  • Commands in green rectangles that are not surrounded by [square brackets] are at an interactive command-line prompt. Text in [square brackets] is an explanation of where to find equivalent functionality.
  • repository init: Create a new empty repository (i.e., version control database)
  • clone: Create an identical instance of a repository (in a safe transaction)
  • pull: Download revisions from a remote repository to a local repository
  • push: Upload revisions from a local repository to a remote repository
  • local branches: Create a local branch that does not exist in the original remote repository
  • checkout: Create a local working copy from a (remote) repository
  • update: Update the files in a working copy with the latest version from a repository
  • lock: Lock files in a repository from being changed by other users
  • add: Mark specified files to be added to repository at next commit
  • remove: Mark specified files to be removed at next commit (note: keeps cohesive revision history of before and at the remove.)
  • move: Mark specified files to be moved to a new location at next commit
  • copy: Mark specified files to be copied at next commit
  • merge: Apply the differences between two sources to a working copy path
  • commit: Record changes in the repository
  • revert: Restore working copy file from repository
  • generate bundle file: Create a file that contains a compressed set of changes to a given repository
  • rebase: Forward-port local commits to the updated upstream head
software repository init clone pull push local branches checkout update lock add remove move copy merge commit revert generate bundle file rebase
AccuRev SCM mkdepot N/A N/A N/A mkstream mkws update anchor add defunct move cp [then] add / incl -s / ln merge keep / promote purge / revert N/A chstream
GNU Bazaar init branch pull push create-local-branch[nb 66] checkout update Unknown add rm mv N/A merge commit revert send rebase[nb 67]
BitKeeper setup clone pull push clone co pull Unknown add rm mv cp pull commit undo makepatch collapse
ClearCase init N/A N/A N/A N/A checkout update lock / unlock mkelem rmname mv N/A merge checkin uncheckout / rmver N/A findmerge
CVS init N/A N/A N/A N/A checkout update Unknown add rm N/A N/A update -j commit remove [then] update N/A N/A
CVSNT init N/A N/A N/A N/A checkout update edit add rm rename N/A update -j commit update -C N/A N/A
darcs init get / put pull push N/A[nb 68] get pull Unknown add remove move N/A pull / push record revert send -o[nb 69] Coming soon[dated info]
Fossil new / open clone pull push branch / commit --branch clone/open update N/A add rm/del mv/rename N/A merge commit revert Fossil's repository is single sqlite file itself N/A
Git init / init --bare clone fetch[nb 70] push branch checkout pull N/A add rm mv cp [then] git add[nb 71] merge commit revert bundle rebase
Mercurial init clone pull push bookmark[nb 72] clone pull -u N/A add rm mv copy merge commit revert bundle rebase[55]
Monotone init clone pull push N/A checkout update Unknown add drop rename N/A merge commit revert N/A N/A
Perforce p4 client && p4 sync p4 sync p4 sync p4 submit Requires migration to recent streams feature edit sync lock / unlock add delete move copy integrate submit revert Unknown N/A
SVK svk depotmap [or] svnadmin create) mirror pull push copy checkout update Unknown add rm mv cp merge commit revert N/A smerge -I
Subversion svnadmin create svnadmin hotcopy [work-around]: svnadmin load [work-around]: svnadmin dump N/A checkout update lock add rm mv cp merge commit revert N/A N/A
Surround SCM mkmainline N/A N/A N/A mkbranch checkout get checkout add rm move N/A merge checkin voidcheckout N/A rebase
Veracity repo init clone pull push branch checkout pull -u lock add rm mv N/A merge commit revert N/A N/A
Vesta vcreate vrepl vrepl vrepl N/A vcheckout vadvance vcheckout [… then] vcheckin[nb 73] vrm mv [then] vcheckin[nb 74] cp [then] vcheckin[nb 75] vdiff vcheckin vcheckin -c 0 vmake [or] vesta vadvance
Visual SourceSafe ? Unknown Unknown Unknown N/A Get Latest Get Latest Check Out Add Files Delete ? Unknown ? Check In Undo Check Out Unknown Unknown
software repository init clone pull push local branches checkout update lock add remove move copy merge commit revert generate bundle file rebase

Advanced commands[edit]

Table explanation

  • Commands in green rectangles that are not surrounded by [square brackets] are at an interactive command-line prompt. Text in [square brackets] is an explanation of where to find equivalent functionality.
  • command aliases: create custom aliases for specific commands or combination thereof
  • lock/unlock: exclusively lock a file to prevent others from editing it
  • shelve/unshelve: temporarily set aside part or all of the changes in the working directory
  • rollback: remove a patch/revision from history
  • cherry-picking: move only some revisions from a branch to another one (instead of merging the branches)
  • bisect: binary search of source history for a change that introduced or fixed a regression
  • incoming/outgoing: query the differences between the local repository and a remote one (the patches that would be fetched/sent on a pull/push)
  • grep: search repository for lines matching a pattern
  • record: include only some changes to a file in a commit and not others
Software command aliases lock/unlock shelve/unshelve rollback cherry-picking bisect incoming/outgoing grep record
AccuRev SCM No enable file locking No revert / purge promote No No No Unknown
GNU Bazaar [in '.bazaar/bazaar.conf' file] No shelve/unshelve uncommit merge (non-tracking) bisect (bisect plugin) missing --theirs-only/missing --mine-only grep (grep plugin) Unknown
BitKeeper Unknown Unknown park/unpark undo Unknown Unknown changes -R/-L grep Unknown
CVSNT [in '.cvsrc' file] edit -x/unedit[nb 76] No admin -o[nb 77] yes[nb 78] annotate[nb 79] No no[56] No
Darcs No No revert/unrevert unrecord yes[nb 80] trackdown[nb 81] pull/push --dry-run No record
Fossil No No stash pop/stash apply[nb 82] merge --rollback merge --cherrypick bisect No search No
Git [in '.gitconfig' file] No stash/stash pop[nb 83] reset HEAD^ cherry-pick bisect cherry grep add -p
Mercurial [in '.hgrc' file] No shelve/unshelve (bundled extension[57]) rollback graft(core[58]) or transplant(bundled extension[59]) bisect incoming/outgoing grep record (bundled extension[60])
Monotone [in monotonerc] No No kill_rev_locally[nb 84] pluck bisect No No Unknown
Perforce via broker[61] lock/unlock shelve/unshelve obliterate integ[62] Unknown Unknown grep Unknown
SVK No No No No svk merge No status[nb 85] No No
Subversion No lock/unlock No No svnmerge cherry-picking Third party tool[nb 86] status -u[nb 87] No No
Surround SCM No checkout shelf rollback duplicatechanges No diff search No
Team Foundation Server Yes lock/unlock shelve/unshelve rollback merge No Unknown Unknown No
Veracity No lock/unlock [nb 88] No No No No incoming/outgoing No No
Software command aliases lock/unlock shelve (stash)/unshelve rollback cherry-picking bisect incoming/outgoing grep record

User interfaces[edit]

Table explanation

  • Software: The name of the application that is described.
  • Web Interface: Describes whether the software application contains a web interface. A web interface could allow the software to post diagnostics data to a website, or could even allow remote control of the software application.
  • GUIs: A GUI is a graphical user interface. If a software product features a GUI its functionality can be accessed through application windows as opposed to accessing functionality based upon typing commands at the command prompt such as a DOS interface.
  • Plug-ins: functionality is available through an Integrated Development Environment. Minimum functionality should be to list the revision state of a file and check in/check out files.
Software Web interfaces Stand-alone GUIs Integration and/or Plug-ins for IDEs
AccuRev SCM Yes Windows (incl. explorer integration), Linux, Unix, OS X, BeOS available IntelliJ IDEA, Eclipse, Visual Studio
GNU Bazaar can use a plain webserver, webserve, Launchpad, loggerhead or Trac Olive, bzr-gtk (GTK+), Bazaar Explorer (Qt), QBzr (Qt), TortoiseBzr (Windows) Eclipse (BzrEclipse, QBzrEclipse), Visual Studio (bzr-visualstudio), TextMate (TextMateBundle), Komodo IDE
BitKeeper included included (bkd) Unknown
CA Software Change Manager included Eclipse-based GUI Eclipse, MS Visual Studio
ClearCase included, Clearcase Web Interface older: MS Windows native, Motif-based GUI for Unix-like systems, TSO client for z/OS. Emacs, Eclipse ( IBM Proprietary, Eclipse-CCase ), Visual Studio (IBM proprietary), KDevelop (standard?), IntelliJ IDEA (standard in Ultimate Edition)
Code Co-op Not necessary since entire project is replicated locally Windows Unknown
CVS cvsweb, ViewVC, others TortoiseCVS, TkCVS (Tcl/Tk), (Windows Explorer), WinCVS, OS X, GTK, Qt available Eclipse (Team), KDevelop (standard), IntelliJ IDEA (standard in Community and Ultimate Editions), Emacs (standard VC), Komodo IDE, BBEdit
CVSNT cvsweb, ViewVC, others Windows, OS X, OS/400, GTK, Qt available All those that support CVS, plus commercial plugins for SCCI, Bugzilla, Build
darcs darcs.cgi included; darcsweb, Trac under development; TortoiseDarcs (Windows Explorer), OS X (alpha), Eclipse (eclipsedarcs), Emacs (vc-darcs.el)
Fossil Embedded webserver included (ui/server mode), ability to run multiple repositories via CGI mode fuel-scm Unknown
Git Gitweb, wit, cgit, GitHub, gitorious, Trac, Kallithea, Rhodecode, Bitbucket, Stash, Springloops,Bonobo Git Server gitk, git-gui (Tcl/Tk), tig, Gitbox (OS X), TortoiseGit, qgit, gitg (GNOME/GTK), (h)gct (Qt), git-cola (Qt), Git Extensions (Windows), GitEye, SmartGit/Hg, Tower, SourceTree (OS X/Windows), Sprout (OS X), GitX (OS X) Aptana 3 Beta (Aptana Studio 3 with Git Integration); Eclipse (JGit/EGit); Netbeans (NbGit); KDevelop; Visual Studio (Git Extensions); Emacs (extension for standard VC); TextMate (Git TextMate Bundle); Vim (VCSCommand plugin and fugitive plugin); IntelliJ IDEA >8.1 (standard in Community and Ultimate Editions); Komodo IDE; Anjuta
GNU arch ArchZoom ArchWay (GTK2), TlaLog Emacs (standard VC)
IC Manage included Windows, Linux, Unix, OS X Emacs, Cadence Design Framework, Synopsys Custom Designer
MKS Integrity Yes Windows, Linux, Unix, Solaris, AIX, Eclipse, Microsoft Visual Studio, Perforce and others. Also provides support for the industry standard Source Code Control (SCC) interface[63]
LibreSource Synchronizer LibreSource Windows, Linux, Unix, OS X available[nb 89] Unknown
Mercurial included,[nb 90] Bitbucket, Trac, Kallithea, Rhodecode Hgk (Tcl/Tk), (h)gct (Qt), TortoiseHg (Windows Explorer, Nautilus), MacHg,

MacMercurial, Murky, SourceTree (Windows/OS X), TortoiseHg, SmartGit/Hg

IntelliJ IDEA (hg4idea 3:rd party plugin), Eclipse (Mercurial Eclipse), NetBeans ([64]), Visual Studio 2008 ([65]), Emacs, Vim (VCSCommand plugin), Komodo IDE, Eric Python IDE
Monotone ViewMTN, TracMonotone, Monotone-Viz (GTK+), Guitone (Qt), Monotone Browser (GTK+, Perl) Unknown
Perforce included, P4Web, P4FTP Windows, Linux, Unix, OS X, BeOS available Eclipse, Visual Studio (P4SCC), KDevelop (standard?), IntelliJ IDEA (standard in Ultimate Edition), Komodo IDE, BBEdit, Emacs (p4.el)
Rational Team Concert Yes Eclipse-based GUI Eclipse integration; MS Visual Studio integration(Limited)
StarTeam included Windows, Java, Eclipse, Visual Studio, BDS2006 integration, plus Java command-line IntelliJ IDEA (standard in Ultimate Edition), Visual Studio, JBuilder, Eclipse
Subversion Apache 2 module included, WebSVN, ViewSVN, ViewVC, Trac, SharpForge, sventon, Springloops Java, KDESVN, OS X[66] (including Finder integration), Nautilus, Qt, RabbitVCS, RapidSVN, SourceTree (OS X), TortoiseSVN (Windows Explorer) Anjuta, BBEdit, Eclipse (Subclipse, Subversive), Emacs (standard VC), IntelliJ IDEA (standard in Community and Ultimate Editions), KDevelop (standard), Komodo IDE, MonoDevelop (standard), Netbeans, RabbitVCS (for GEdit), TextMate (SVNMate plugin), Visual Studio (AnkhSVN, VisualSVN). See also Comparison of Subversion clients
Surround SCM Yes Windows, OS X, Linux Dreamweaver, Eclipse, IntelliJ IDEA, JBuilder, JDeveloper, KDevelop, NetBeans, Powerbuilder, Visual Studio, WebStorm, XCode
Synergy via Telelogic Change interface Windows (incl. explorer integration), Linux, Unix Eclipse (Telelogic proprietary), Visual Studio (Telelogic proprietary), IntelliJ IDEA (Telelogic proprietary)
Team Foundation Server included (Sharepoint Server used for web services) Windows included; OS X, Unix available Visual Studio. Java client for Eclipse IDE and IntelliJ IDEA (standard in Ultimate Edition)
Vault included Windows, Unix-like, OS X Visual Studio 2003 and higher, Eclipse 3.2 and higher
Veracity included Tortoise interface for Windows No
Vesta VestaWeb No No
Visual SourceSafe none included; SSWI, VSS Remoting Windows included; Linux, OS X and Solaris using SourceOffSite; any Java VM using Sourceanywhere for VSS Visual Studio, IntelliJ IDEA (standard in Ultimate Edition)
Software Web interfaces Stand-alone GUIs Integration and/or plug-ins for IDEs

History and adoption[edit]

Table explanation

  • Software: The name of the application that is described.
  • Notable users: is a list of well known projects using the software as their primary revision control system, excluding the software itself, followed by a link to a full list if available.
  • History: briefly describes the software's origins and development.
Software History Notable users
AccuRev SCM 2002 First publicly released in 2002 American Airlines, Ford, Lockheed Martin, Orbitz,[67] Xerox, McAfee,[68] Polycom, SanDisk,[69] Siemens, Sony, Symantec,[70] Thomson Financial, Verizon Wireless[71] and many others
GNU Bazaar Loosely related to baz. Sponsored by Canonical Ltd.. Ubuntu, Launchpad, KatchTV,[72] MySQL, GRUB2, Bugzilla, GNU Emacs
BitKeeper Influenced by Sun WorkShop TeamWare Linux Kernel (2002–2005) and many companies[73]
CA Software Change Manager Original company founded in 1977; CA SCM (then called CCC/Harvest) first released in 1995. CA does not disclose customer lists without the companies' permission. CA SCM is used by companies with global development teams including 13 of the Fortune 100.
ClearCase 1990 Developed beginning in 1990 by Atria Software, following concepts developed by Apollo Computer in DSEE during the 1980s. The most recent version is 8.0.1, released in Nov 2011. IBM, Alcatel-Lucent, Cisco, Motorola, Siemens, Ericsson, Nokia, Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication and other large organizations worldwide[citation needed]
Code Co-op 1997 The first distributed VCS, demoed in 1997,[74] released soon after. Clients include: Logitech, HP, Ericsson[citation needed]
CVS 1986 First publicly released July 3, 1986; based on RCS thousands of organizations worldwide[citation needed]
CVSNT 1998 First publicly released 1998; based on CVS. Started by CVS developers with the goal adding support for a wider range of development methods and processes. Primarily professionals (not hobbyists), e.g.: AnandTech,[75] Wachovia,[76] Wells Fargo,[77] Goldman Sachs [78]
darcs 2003 First announced on April 9, 2003 Mnet, xmonad, Projects Using Darcs
Fossil 2007 Fossil and SQLite have used Fossil since 21 July 2007. SQLite, Fossil, Tcl/Tk Project
Git 2005 Started by Linus Torvalds in April 2005, following the BitKeeper controversy.[79] Linux kernel, Android, GNOME, KDE, Perl 5,[80] PostgreSQL, X.Org, Cairo, Qt Development Frameworks, Samba, OpenEmbedded, Ruby, Ruby on Rails, Wine, Fluxbox, Openbox, Compiz Fusion, XCB, ELinks, XMMS2, e2fsprogs, GNU Core Utilities, DokuWiki, Drupal, MediaWiki,[81] Mono, ASP.NET MVC, ADO.NET Entity Framework, NuGet, jQuery and many of its plugins, OpenCV, OpenOffice.org, Wireshark, Django, (Also see list of Git projects), many companies like Ericsson, Microsoft, Huawei, Apple, Amazon, LG
GNU arch 2001 Started by Tom Lord in 2001, it later became part of the GNU project. Lord resigned as maintainer in August 2005. available for GNU Savannah and Gna.org projects
IC Manage 2003 Developed by IC Manage, Inc which was founded in 2003 by Shiv Sikand and Dean Drako. many organizations worldwide[82]
MKS Integrity 2003 Originally developed by MKS Software. Purchased by PTC in May 2011[83] Many global engineering and IT organizations[84]
LibreSource Synchronizer 2005 First publicly released on June 13, 2005 Most of the LibreSource Community
Mercurial 2005 Started April 6, 2005 by Matt Mackall, following the BitKeeper controversy.[79] First released on April 19, 2005 Python,[85] Mozilla, OpenJDK, NetBeans, Xine, Xen, OpenSolaris, wmii, MoinMoin, Linux-HA, Pidgin (Also see list of projects using Mercurial)
Monotone 2003 First released in April 2003 CTWM, Xaraya, I2P,[86] Botan[87][88]
Perforce 1993 Developed by Perforce Software, Inc which was founded in 1995 by Christopher Seiwald. many organizations worldwide,[89] FreeBSD,[90] Google[91]
Rational Team Concert 2008 Version 1.0 released on June, 2008 IBM
Revision Control System 1985 July 1985 RCS is generally (but not always) superseded by other systems such as CVS, which began as a wrapper on top of RCS.
Source Code Control System 1972Started by Marc Rochkind in 1972 (binary history files, written in Snobol on IBM-370,[92] SCCSv4 with text history files was published February 18, 1977.[93] The same history file format is still used in SCCS 5.0.[94] as the POSIX source-control tool, SCCS is widely available on UNIX platforms, but not included in many Linux distributions. Sun WorkShop TeamWare uses SCCS files.
StarTeam 1995 Version 1.0 1995;[95] Developed by StarBase software, acquired by Borland(which was acquired by Micro Focus). Borland, BT, Cintas, EDS, Kaiser Permanente, Met Office, Quest Software, Raymond James, Siemens, and many more globally distributed companies[96]
Subversion 2000 Started in 2000 by CVS developers with goal of replacing CVS ASF, SourceForge, FreeBSD, Google Code, KDE (-2011), GCC, PuTTY, Zope, Xiph, GnuPG, CUPS, TWiki, WebKit, available on CodePlex, and many organizations worldwide[97]
SVK 2003 Authored by Chia-liang Kao with Audrey Tang. First version was on November 19, 2003. 1.00 on May 9, 2005. 2.0.0 on Dec 28th, 2006. SVK became a product of Best Practical on June 5, 2006. Request Tracker
Synergy 1988 Developed beginning in 1988 by Caseware, as AmplifyControl. The company was renamed Continuus in 1994, where the product became better known as Continuus/CM. Continuus was acquired by Telelogic in 1999 shortly after going public; the product was renamed Telelogic Synergy. IBM acquired Telelogic in 2008 for integration into their Rational tool suite. The product is now known as IBM Rational Synergy. General Motors, BMW, Chrysler, Nokia, Philips, Raytheon, Morgan Stanley, Friends Provident, Boeing, Lockheed Martin, Siemens and other small, medium and large organizations worldwide[citation needed]
Team Foundation Server 2006 First publicly released on March, 2006 Available on CodePlex, Microsoft itself and other large organizations worldwide[citation needed]
Vault 2003 First publicly released in February, 2003 Unknown
Vesta 1991 First publicly released under the LGPL in 2001 DEC Alpha team, Compaq Alpha team, Intel microprocessor development
Visual SourceSafe 1995 originally created by a company called One Tree Software, version 3.1. Company was bought by Microsoft which released version 4.0 of VSS around 1995 Unknown
Software History Notable users

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Bazaar is a Distributed version control system but it can also be used in a centralized manner using lock step development and checkouts.
  2. ^ In ClearCase, a trigger may be set to allow for the lock model, and this is done at many sites. However, ClearCase development usually takes place on private branches where each developer is given their own branch, so the lock vs. merge concurrency model doesn't matter as much. Code is merged back to the main branch once the developer is ready to deliver their code to the project.
  3. ^ "a workspace can be synchronized with more than one LibreSource Synchronizer. As a limitation, the network must have tree topology." says LibreSource Synchronizer.
  4. ^ As of version 2.5, "LibreSource is now released under GPL Version 2". 
  5. ^ RTC is not a distributed revision control system; but has some distributed feature that can be configured
  6. ^ Various forks of the original Unix sources exist, only one of which is actively maintained
  7. ^ While it is possible for multiple users to edit the same version of a file concurrently, only one of them can write back the changes.
  8. ^ While some forks of SCCS are free software, others remain closed as parts of commercial Unix distributions.
  9. ^ SVK allows Subversion to have Distributed branches.
  10. ^ In Subversion, a file attribute enables the lock model on per-file basis. This file attribute can be set automatically using file name wildcard expressions.
  11. ^ Bazaar's critical modules are written in Pyrex. They are automatically translated to pure C; except for the patience sorting module, used in merge resolution, which is written directly in the C language.
  12. ^ A Bazaar bundle is a summary diff, with sufficient extra information to preserve history.
  13. ^ Snapshots with binary files. It's discussed to have binary changesets in future (darcs 3)
  14. ^ 4 MB of which are sqlite3.c
  15. ^ Mercurial revision numbers are local to a repository; they can differ from repository to repository depending on in which order merges are performed.
  16. ^ A Monotone's revisions represent changesets and its manifests represent snapshots, each revision is linked to some manifest. But manifests are legacy constructs, they aren't kept in the database anymore and reconstructed on the fly if needed. The real work now happen in rosters which are hybrid snapshot/changeset structures.
  17. ^ Veracity revision numbers are local to a repository; they can differ from repository to repository depending on in which order merges are performed.
  18. ^ Evil twins are common.Evil Twins in SCM, Not Hollywood
  19. ^ Atomic commit can be enabled for individual checkin's ClearCase 7.1.1 release notes.
  20. ^ See FAQ
  21. ^ darcs' patches each bear a unique identifier, impossible to merge twice the same patch in a repository (without destructively modifying history using "unsafe" commands).
  22. ^ Although it stores (and shows by default) 8-bit filename. See FAQ
  23. ^ Controlled by the 'crnl-glob' setting ([1])
  24. ^ Git does not explicitly track renames, because by design it does not track individual files. Renames and split of source files are detected after the fact, if the file content does not change dramatically.
  25. ^ Since git-1.7.9 (see release notes). Older versions do not sign commits, only tags (see the -s option in git-tag(1) Manual page)
  26. ^ Git itself is not internationalized, just git-gui and gitk (both are shipped with git).
  27. ^ UTF-8 filenames are supported as of version 1.7.10 (MSysGit release notes).
  28. ^ Git has some issues with very large repositories. See Section Better big-file support and Section Designing a faster index format in SoC 2012 Ideas.
  29. ^ Integrity enabled change packages provide complete workflow and 21 CFR Part 11 compliant digital signatures against the item controlling the change package.
  30. ^ 2009 SP5 added a feature to merge child development paths.
  31. ^ Its possible to embed the action in a shell or Ant script.
  32. ^ A merged is tracked by its workspace origin.
  33. ^ Mercurial is in the process of being translated to at least Dutch and Chinese
  34. ^ Support depends upon host OS and is well supported under Unix, but not Windows OSs, due to lack of host support. See [2]
  35. ^ It could be done via user level hooks
  36. ^ Perforce will version-control symbolic links themselves, but will not recognise its own version-controlled views (local file trees), if you access them via symbolic links.
  37. ^ Through the procees behaviour components: Operation advisors and Operation participants. http://jazz.net/library/article/292
  38. ^ While the source code of SCCS has been written to support internationalisation, only English message texts exist.
  39. ^ StarTeam supports atomic commits as of version 2006
  40. ^ Subversion can move a file and conserve its history, if and only if the target of the move is in the same Subversion repository as the source. Cross-repository moves require third-party tools such as svk.
  41. ^ Since SVN 1.8 subversion supports improved move-tracking on the client side. On the server-side it's not supported yet.
  42. ^ New to SVN 1.5 <http://subversion.apache.org/docs/release-notes/1.5.html#merge-tracking>. A separate tool "svnmerge" <http://www.dellroad.org/svnmerge/> provides merge tracking for older versions.
  43. ^ In Subversion, tags are a special case of the more generic "cheap copy" concept of Subversion. Per convention, a tag is a copy into a directory named "tags". Because of this, even tags are versioned. See http://svnbook.red-bean.com/nightly/en/svn.branchmerge.tags.html for more information. The reason for partial support in the table is because Subversion's emulation of tags in this manner does not meet the requirement that the tag name can be used in place of any revision identifier wherever the user may be required to enter one. This column would be meaningless if the definition were to be loosened enough to encompass Subversion's approach as every version control system supports branching and would therefore support tags as well.
  44. ^ Uses subversion server
  45. ^ in Asian releases (v6.6a to v7.1a) and since version 7.2 in general
  46. ^ Version change history is removed upon rename; old name not referenced.
  47. ^ not implemented yet
  48. ^ Can not be disabled in dynamic views.
  49. ^ Using alias of the CVSROOT/modules file.
  50. ^ CVS records executable bit when a file is added, but does not allow changing it later on.
  51. ^ This is a GUI feature supported by TortoiseCVS and WinCVS both of which include/use CVSNT.
  52. ^ Same as CVS, plus also the ability to have replicated repositories including 'shadow' repositories.
  53. ^ Use the module/directory name or an alias created using CVSROOT/modules or CVSROOT/modules2 administration file.
  54. ^ CVSNT supports this when the make/build tool used also supports it.
  55. ^ Darcs can do sparse checkouts from explicit checkpoints on darcs-1 repositories, but not from darcs-2 ones[citation needed]
  56. ^ Darcs can automatically detect #! scripts and make them executable on checkout.
  57. ^ The Git FAQ states that keyword expansion is not a good thing
  58. ^ add -i and add -p, see git-add(1) Manual Page
  59. ^ The Git Community Handbook clearly explains that "Git does not allow partial checkouts"[not in citation given]
  60. ^ The Git FAQ explains why preserving modification time is considered harmful
  61. ^ Configurable on server as a Project Option and on the client as a User Option.
  62. ^ commit --interactive, see SVK::Command::Commit
  63. ^ Through third-party tools such as Tortoise SVN.
  64. ^ SVN can not preserve file modification times. On request by the client, it can restore check-in time as last-modified time. Disabled by default.
  65. ^ MIME type of the file must be detected as a "human-readable" MIME type, even if the merge tool can work with non-human-readable files
  66. ^ bzr-local-branches plugin
  67. ^ rebase plugin
  68. ^ darcs doesn't have named branches, local or not, branching is handled solely through repository cloning
  69. ^ darcs send prepares a bundle of patches, defaults to sending it by mail but can send it to a file instead
  70. ^ pull is fetch plus merge.
  71. ^ copies are detected after the fact, much like renames
  72. ^ Mercurial Bookmarks are similar to local branches.
  73. ^ Through any of various means, place (to-be-immutable) file in an immutable directory prior to vcheckin.
  74. ^ mv(1) or link(2) the immutable file from its origin immutable directory to its destination immutable directory prior to vcheckin.
  75. ^ Through any of various means, copy the immutable file from its origin immutable directory to its destination immutable directory prior to vcheckin.
  76. ^ You can also enable this as a central preference in the repository server control panel or configuration file
  77. ^ Requires administrator privileges. You can 'rollback' a change using 'cvs update –e –j @commitid –j "@<commitid"' but the change and rollback evidence remains in the history
  78. ^ yes - use TortoiseCVS or WinCVS to commit the change to the destination and select which specific files to keep
  79. ^ bisect is also available for cvs which should work with CVSNT
  80. ^ darcs operate on patches not revision, cherrypicking simply consists in pulling a given patch from one repository to another one as long as the dependencies are fulfilled
  81. ^ trackdown performs an automated search by repeatedly running a provided command on previous revisions on the working copy until the command succeeds (doesn't return an error code)[dead link]
  82. ^ fossil stash supports multiple shelves with comments.
  83. ^ git stash is a multi-level shelve, it's possible to shelve several change groups at the same time
  84. ^ Only works on a local repository and only on revisions without children. The disapprove command might be an alternative.
  85. ^ svk status lists differences between working copy and repository, not differences between two repositories
  86. ^ SVN Bisect tool svn-bisect
  87. ^ svn status lists differences between working copy and repository, not differences between two repositories
  88. ^ locks are advisory, and can't be enforced on disconnected instances
  89. ^ Any OS that support a Java Virtual Machine 1.5
  90. ^ hgweb for single-repository access and hgwebdir for multiple repository access from a single HTTP address

References[edit]

  1. ^ Computer Associates 
  2. ^ "CVS team member list", Non-GNU Savannah, The GNU Project 
  3. ^ CVS Pro, March Hare 
  4. ^ "Artenum, Paris". 
  5. ^ Get Started with Perforce for Free!, Perforce 
  6. ^ Licensing Options, Perforce 
  7. ^ Licesing and pricing, PlasticSCM 
  8. ^ "distributed version control systems (DVCS) Comparisons [sic]". Jazz Forums. 
  9. ^ Jean-Michel Lemieux, Countdown to the next Rational Team Concert: Part II – Source control enhancements, Jazz Community 
  10. ^ Apache Software Foundation 
  11. ^ Rational Synergy, IBM 
  12. ^ Vesta Configuration Management System, Sourceforge 
  13. ^ Vesta Configuration Management System, Vesta 
  14. ^ IBM - Rational ClearCase - United States 
  15. ^ "Changesets". March Hare Software Ltd. Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  16. ^ Git Server Protocol 
  17. ^ http://www.accurev.com/download/docs/5.3.0_books/AccuRev_5_3_0_Install_Release_Notes.pdf
  18. ^ "SCM News - Kronos Turns to AccuRev for Software Configuration Management". AccuRev. 2004-04-26. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  19. ^ "Enhanced Performance and Scalability for Cross-Platform Geographically Distributed Teams". AccuRev. 2008-09-23. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  20. ^ "EOL conversions are supported since bzr 1.14". Doc.bazaar-vcs.org. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  21. ^ Support Policy for National Languages and ClearCase from IBM Support
  22. ^ Largefiles Extension since Hg Rev.:2.0
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  24. ^ [4] from the Perforce User's Guide
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  28. ^ [5] - Seapine Software Releases Surround SCM 2009
  29. ^ Signature - SVK Wiki
  30. ^ "GitCentric | AccuRevGit for the Enterprise". Accurev.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  31. ^ "Bazaar keywords plugin". Wiki.bazaar.canonical.com. 2005-09-05. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  32. ^ "Bazaar interactive plugin". Launchpad.net. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  33. ^ "Bazaar Externals plugin". Launchpad.net. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  34. ^ "Ignore merge operation for given extension". 
  35. ^ "bzr-svn". Launchpad.net. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  36. ^ "bzr-git". Launchpad.net. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  37. ^ "bzr-hg". Launchpad.net. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  38. ^ IBM Rational ClearCase: The ten best triggers from IBM DeveloperWorks
  39. ^ The manifest, Fossil file formats
  40. ^ "Fossil import and export". Fossil-scm.org. 2014-01-22. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  41. ^ "git-submodule(1) Manual Page". Kernel.org. 2013-02-15. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
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  43. ^ "Mercurial RecordExtension page". Selenic.com. 2013-08-27. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  44. ^ "hgforest repository". Bitbucket.org. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  45. ^ "Subrepository - Mercurial". Mercurial.selenic.com. 2013-09-03. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  46. ^ "Mercurial Timestamp Extension". Mercurial.selenic.com. 2012-04-24. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  47. ^ "hgsubversion page". Selenic.com. 2013-08-28. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  48. ^ "Hg-Git Mercurial Plugin". Hg-git.github.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  49. ^ "Mercurial ConvertExtension page". Selenic.com. 2013-11-29. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  50. ^ "P4 User's Guide". Perforce. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  51. ^ "P4 User's Guide". Perforce. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
  52. ^ "P4 User's Guide". Perforce. Retrieved 18 September 2014. 
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  54. ^ "Externals Definitions". Svnbook.red-bean.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  55. ^ "Mercurial Rebase Extension". Selenic.com. 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2014-04-23. 
  56. ^ "bug 6463 - enh: search repository". Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  57. ^ "Mercurial Shelve extension page". Selenic.com. 2013-11-07. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  58. ^ "graft -core command (since Hg Rev.2.0)". Selenic.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  59. ^ "Mercurial Transplant extension page". Selenic.com. 2012-05-12. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  60. ^ "Mercurial Record extension page". Mercurial.selenic.com. 2013-08-27. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
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  76. ^ "Combining a tag which contains all files with a tag which only contains a subset". Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
  77. ^ "Can no no longer connect to CVSNT from unix clients". 
  78. ^ "gserver client errors". Retrieved 8 May 2012. 
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  81. ^ "Git". MediaWiki. Retrieved 1 August 2012. 
  82. ^ IC Manage: Industrial Strength Data Management
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  84. ^ "Customers — PTC Integrity". Mks.com. Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
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  88. ^ "ProjectsUsingMonotone". wiki.monotone.ca. 2011-02-06. Retrieved 2014-07-03. 
  89. ^ http://www.perforce.com/perforce/customers.html
  90. ^ Perforce in FreeBSD Development
  91. ^ http://www.perforce.com/perforce/conferences/eu/2010/Presentations/Geoff_Mendal-Strategic_Plan.paper.pdf
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  93. ^ http://minnie.tuhs.org/cgi-bin/utree.pl?file=PWB1/usr/news/pibs PWB UNIX product announcement
  94. ^ Compare the SCCS 4 file format with the SCCS 5.0 file format (as manpage sccsfile(4) in http://dlc.sun.com/osol/man/downloads/20070320/man-sunosman-20070320.tar.bz2
  95. ^ Starteam®
  96. ^ Customer Profiles
  97. ^ http://subversion.tigris.org/testimonials.html