||This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the French Wikipedia. (March 2013)|
|Founder(s)||Cardinal de Richelieu|
|Area served||Naval Defence Industry|
|Products||Patrol Vessels, Corvettes, Frigates, Destroyers, LHD, Aircraft Carriers, Submarines (SSK, SSN, SSBN)|
FCPE Actions DCNS: 1,01%
DCNS Actionnarat: <0,01%
DCNS S.A. (formerly the Direction des Constructions Navales - DCN) is a naval defence company based in France and is one of Europe's leading shipbuilders.
The group designs, builds and supports surface combatants, submarines, systems and equipment. DCNS is also expanding into new markets in civil nuclear energy, marine renewable energy and naval and industrial services.
DCNS has a heritage of 350 years. Major shipyards were built in France in Ruelle (1751), Nantes-Indret (1771), Lorient (1778) and, subsequently, in Cherbourg (1813). Others were to follow. As early as 1926, what we know as DCNS today already had all the facilities now owned by the Group in mainland France.
- During the Second World War, the French government had its military ships designed and built by the Direction des constructions navales (DCN), later incorporated into the military procurement agency Délégation générale pour l'armement (DGA).
- In 1997, the French government decided to reform its shipbuilding and procurement system for naval systems. Design and procurement were separated from production. DCN retained the industrial part.
- Also in 1997, a criminal inquiry was launched into what the BBC has described as “one of France's biggest political and financial scandals of the last generation [having left] a trail of eight unexplained deaths, nearly half a billion dollars in missing cash and troubling allegations of government complicity” concerning the sale of ships to Taiwan in 1991 but continued into the 21st century.
- In 2000, DCN was transformed into a national service under the direct responsibility of the Minister of Defence, no longer under DGA. In 2001 the French government announced plans to transform DCN into a private company.
- In 2002, DCN and Thales established the joint company Armaris to exploit their combined capabilities. This collaboration improved DCN's weapons systems portfolio and increased Thales' business in shipbuilding. Armaris owns 50% of Horizon SAS, the development agency for the French/Italian Horizon frigate programme and 50% of EuroSysNav SAS, the primary contractor for the Horizon's combat system (including DCN's SYLVER launcher). Thales is at present working with BAE Systems on the contract for the Royal Navy's Future Carrier (CVF) and submitted a bid for the future French carrier in competition with DCN. However, in June 2002 DCN and Thales extended their collaboration by announcing that they will share the role of primary contractor for the French carrier project.
- On 29 March 2007, DCN and Thales finalised an agreement with the French government and consolidated their naval activities in France. DCN acquired all of Thales' French naval business, excluding its equipment activities, and became the sole shareholder of Armaris and MOPA2. Simultaneously, Thales acquired a 25% stake in DCN along with the French government, which retained a 75% stake.
The acronym DCN has been replaced by the brand DCNS.
Bribery Probe Investigation
Apart from the issues surrounding the sale of ships to Taiwan mentioned above, French prosecutors started investigating a wide range of corruption charges in 2010 involving different submarine sales, with possible bribery and kickbacks to top officials in France. In particular interest by the prosecutors are sales of Scorpène submarines to countries like India and Malaysia. The investigation in Malaysia has been prompted by human rights group Suaram as it involved current Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak when he was defence minister and his friend Abdul Razak Baginda whose company Primekar was alleged to be paid a huge commission during the purchase of two Scorpène submarines. French investigators are interested in the fact that Perimekar was formed only a few months before the contract was signed with the Malaysian government and DCNS and that Primekar had no track record in servicing submarines and did not have the financial capability to support the contract. Investigations have also revealed that a Hong Kong-based company called Terasasi Ltd in which the directors are Razak Baginda and his father, sold classified Malaysian navy defence documents to DCNS. Also under scrutiny are allegations of extortion and the murder of Shaariibuugiin Altantuyaa, a translator who worked on the deal.
Subsidiaries and Offices
DCNS has its head office in Paris, France. It has production and engineering sites in mainland France in Cherbourg, Brest, Lorient, Nantes-Indret, Ruelle, Toulon and Saint-Tropez.
It has subsidiaries in Brazil, Bulgaria, India, Malaysia, Saudi Arabia and Singapore. DCNS also has offices in Chile, Greece, Italy and Pakistan.
- La Fayette class frigates and derivatives
- Al Riyahd (F3000S Sawari II) Class Frigates (Saudi Arabia)
- Kang Ding Class Frigates (Taiwan)
- Formidable Class Frigates (Singapore)
- Horizon class frigates
These frigates are designed to provide anti-air cover for carrier groups and local or extended cover against saturation missile attacks in severe electromagnetic environments. They feature anti-air weapons, including tens of Aster missiles in Sylver vertical launchers. The combat system includes a hull-mounted sonar, the SLAT anti-torpedo system, anti-ship missiles, lightweight torpedoes and an electronic warfare suite.
Horizon frigates are designed to accommodate a heavy helicopter (NH90, EH 101 or similar) and to conduct flight operations under a wide range of conditions. The French and Italian navies have ordered two Horizon frigates each.
- Forbin, launched in 2005. The Forbin is the first of the new Horizon anti-air type for the French Navy.
- Chevalier Paul, launched in 2006
- FREMM class frigates
FREMM is a family of multi-purpose frigates for the French and Italian navies, and export customers.
- FM400 class frigates
A 4000-ton frigate design that is offered in four different configurations
- A general-purpose frigate;
- An anti-submarine warfare (ASW) frigate;
- A land-attack frigate; and
- An anti-air warfare (AAW) frigate.
- Gowind class corvettes
- Swordship class Warship
Swordship was a concept ship presented at Euronaval 2006. It combines elements of the Zumwalt class destroyer and the trimaran Littoral Combat Ship in a stealthy tumblehome hull of 5,300 tonnes, with boat and helicopter facilities, a triple-barrelled 155mm gun and 48 VLS cells.
Ecoship was a concept design presented in 2008 incorporating solar panels, air-source heat pumps and a kite sail. Elements were incorporated into Project ESPADON (l'Evaluation de Solutions Potentielles d'Automatisation de Déminage pour les Opérations Navales), studying future minesweepers for the French Navy.
- Clemenceau class aircraft carriers
- Charles De Gaulle nuclear aircraft carrier
The Charles de Gaulle, in service since late 2000, carries up to 40 aircraft — including Rafale multi-role combat aircraft and Hawkeye airborne early warning aircraft — which can be launched at a rate of one every 30 seconds.
The automated Senit combat management system (CMS) controls all weapon systems, including the ship’s Aster self-defence missiles. The communications suite includes Link 16 tactical datalinks for interoperability with NATO forces.
- PA2 (Porte Avions 2) Future Aircraft Carrier
- Foudre class LPD
- Mistral class amphibious assault ship
The Mistral class is a class of three amphibious assault ships, also known as a helicopter carrier, of the French Navy. Russia has announced its intention to purchase one such vessel.
- Redoutable class nuclear submarine
The Redoutable class submarine is a ballistic missile submarine class of the French Marine Nationale . The first submarine, Redoutable, was ordered in 1963, built at Cherbourg, launched in 1967 and commissioned in 1971. The sixth, and last, Inflexible was retired in 2008.
- Triomphant class submarine
- Rubis class nuclear submarine
- Barracuda class submarines
The Barracuda program is scheduled to replace the Rubis-class nuclear-powered attack submarines (SNA) with six new-generation submarines, providing the French navy with a powerful asset for the control of maritime areas and the projection of naval power. The first Barracuda-class submarine will be delivered in 2017, and the subsequent vessels will be delivered at the rate of one every two years. The six new submarines will be christened Suffren, Duguay-Trouin, Dupetit-Thouars, Duquesne, Tourville and De Grasse.
- Agosta & Agosta 90B class diesel submarine
- Agosta (S 620) - completed 1977 - decommissioned 1997
- Bévéziers (S 621) - completed 1977 - decommissioned 1998
- La Praya (S 622) - completed 1978 - decommissioned 2000
- Ouessant (S 623) - completed 1978 - decommissioned 2001
The Agosta 90B, also known as the Khalid Class, is a modernised design built for the Pakistan Navy. Various modifications give lower acoustic signature, lower diving depth, improved battery range and performance. Greater automation also allows the crew to be reduced from 54 to 36. The submarine can be armed with up to 16 torpedoes and SM39 Exocet anti-ship anti-ship missiles. The SM39 was test-fired from a Khalid-class submarine in 2001. - PNS/M Khalid (S137) - built in France by DCN Cherbourg, completed in 1999 - PNS/M Saad (S138) - built in Pakistan with French assistance, completed in 2002 - PNS/M Hamza (S139) - built in Pakistan, commissioned 14 August 2006
- Scorpene Class diesel submarine
The Chilean Navy ordered two Scorpène. The Chilean Scorpène class O'Higgins and Carrera were completed in 2005 and 2006, respectively, and are currently in operation. The Royal Malaysian Navy ordered two while the Indian Navy ordered six (see the section on #Corruption charges above). All Indian boats will be built in India at Mazagon Dock Limited. In 2009, the Brazilian Navy ordered four Scorpene. A fifth hull has been ordered to be fitted with an indigenously developed nuclear propulsion plant.
Equipped with the MESMA air-independent propulsion system, a Scorpene can remain submerged for periods in excess of 3 weeks. The class has suffered problems, with the Malaysian boats unable to dive.
- Andrasta class submarine
Suited to special operations or information-gathering assignments. No Andrasta has yet been ordered.
In December 2010, DCNS presented a design for a multipurpose support vessel (and replenishment tanker) called BRAVE, for Bâtiment RAVitailleur d'Escadre.
- Flight deck systems
- Submarine AAW
Civil Nuclear Engineering
The DCNS is working on the Flexblue reactor concept, which would be a SMR type subsea reactor of 50 to 250 MWe fully based on the reuse of the same technologies as the reactor of nuclear submarines that the DCNS has a long experience building.
Marine renewable energy
- French DCNS' 2011 net profit jumps 43% Y/Y - SeeNews Shipping
- Schofield, Hugh. "Book delves into frigate scandal". BBC News.
- Jane's World Defence : DCNS (France), West Europe
- Asia Sentinel - Malaysia's Submarine Scandal Surfaces in France
- "French legal team in Malaysia to probe sub deal". 28 April 2010. Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. "The submarine deal was crafted during the tenure of the then-Defence Minister Najib Tun Razak, now prime minister, in 2002. As a result of the pact, RM3.7 billion in commission went to Najib's closest associate Abdul Razak Baginda."
- France probes corruption in arms to Malaysia < French news | Expatica France
- Malaysians allege graft in French submarine deal - BusinessWeek
- Main - Malaysia - Razak Baginda’s firm sold Malaysian naval secrets to French, says lawyer @ Thu May 31 2012
- "FM 400 Family: Combat Flexible Frigate". 2011-01-20. Retrieved 2011-01-20.
- "Le Swordship, précurseur des marines du futur". Mer et Marine (in French). 25 October 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- "Drones et guerre des mines : Le projet ESPADON progresse". Mer et Marine (in French). 10 February 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2012.
- SSK Agosta 90B Class Submarine - Naval Technology
- Pakistan Navy Test-fires Two Missiles
- "Zahid: Our submarine can’t dive". Malaysia Today. 11 February 2010.
- "DCNS presents new-generation support vessels". 2010-12-15. Retrieved 2010-12-15.
- DCNS : Flexblue nuclear reactor concept
- DCNS : Civil Nuclear activities
- DCNS : Marine renewable energy
- On the corruption scandal involving Taiwan: Jean-Pierre, Thierry (2003). Taïwan connection (in French). Robert Laffont. ISBN 978-2-221-10082-0.