Dave Cockrum by Michael Netzer
|Born||David Emmett Cockrum
November 11, 1943
|Died||November 26, 2006
Belton, South Carolina
|Area(s)||Writer, Penciller, Inker|
|Notable works||Legion of Super-Heroes
David Emmett Cockrum (November 11, 1943 – November 26, 2006) was an American comic book artist known for his co-creation of the new X-Men characters Nightcrawler, Storm, and Colossus. Cockrum was a prolific and inventive costume designer, who updated the uniforms of the Legion of Super-Heroes, and did the same for the new X-Men and many of their antagonists, in the 1970s and early 1980s.
Cockrum was born on November 11, 1943, in Pendleton, Oregon. His father was a lieutenant colonel of the United States Air Force, resulting in the Cockrums frequently transporting their household from one city to another for years. Cockrum discovered comic books at a young age; an early favorite was Fawcett's Captain Marvel, especially Mac Raboy's Captain Marvel Jr. Other artists whose work the young Cockrum admired were Wally Wood, Gil Kane, Murphy Anderson, and Joe Kubert.
As a young man, Cockrum was a dedicated "letterhack," who had many letters printed in comic book letter columns such as Fantastic Four #22 (Jan. 1964), The Amazing Spider-Man #12 (May 1964), and Fantastic Four #36 (March 1965) (return address "YN 'A' School, USNTC"). A letter from Cockrum in Fantastic Four #34 [January 1965] led to a correspondence with Andrea Kline, who later became his first wife.
Cockrum's ambition was to become a comic-book creator himself. Following his school graduation, Cockrum joined the United States Navy for six years. During this time, Cockrum married Kline and had a child with her, Ivan Sean. He created the character Nightcrawler during this time, though the character would not be used until years later.
After leaving the military, Cockrum found employment with Warren Publishing. He was then hired as an assistant inker to Murphy Anderson, who was inking various titles featuring Superman and Superboy for DC Comics. At the time, Superboy featured a Legion of Super-Heroes backup strip.
When the position of artist for The Legion of Super-Heroes was left vacant, Cockrum sought the job and was rewarded with his first assignment drawing a series. Cockrum's work on the feature, beginning in Superboy #184 (April 1972), "established an exciting new vibe". He redefined the look of the Legion, creating new costumes and designs that would last until artist Keith Giffen did a similar revamp in the 1980s. Cockrum drew the story wherein the characters Bouncing Boy and Duo Damsel were married in Superboy Starring the Legion of Super-Heroes #200 (Feb. 1974). Cockrum eventually left DC and the Legion in a dispute involving the return of his original artwork from that issue.
Marvel and the X-Men
Moving over to a staff position at Marvel, Cockrum and Len Wein under the direction of editor Roy Thomas created the new X-Men, co-creating such characters as Storm, Nightcrawler and Colossus. Storm and Nightcrawler having been directly based on characters which Cockrum had intended to introduce into the Legion of Super-Heroes storyline had he remained on the title. These characters made their debut in Giant-Size X-Men #1 (Summer 1975), and then in a relaunched Uncanny X-Men (beginning with issue #94).
Journalist Tom Spurgeon wrote,
Cockrum's penciled interiors on those first few issues of the "new" X-Men were dark and appealingly dramatic . . . . Cockrum gave those first few issues of X-Men a sumptuous, late-'70s cinema style that separated the book from the rest of Marvel's line, and superhero comics in general. Reading those X-Men comics felt like sneaking into a movie starring Sean Connery or Sigourney Weaver, not simply like flipping on the television. Uncanny X-Men really felt new and different, almost right away, and Cockrum's art was a tremendous part of that.
Cockrum stayed with the title until 1977 (as main penciller on issues #94–105 and 107), when he was succeeded by penciller John Byrne with issue #108. The final issue of his run introduced the Starjammers, a spacefaring superhero team he had originally intended to debut in their own series.
He and Paty Cockrum were married on April 28, 1978. Cockrum quit his staff job at Marvel in 1979 and his angry resignation letter was printed in Iron Man #127 (October 1979) but he continued to work for Marvel as a freelancer. Cockrum was Marvel's primary cover artist during this period, and also penciled and/or inked a number of other titles for DC during this time. Although not a regular artist on the series, he re-designed the costume for Ms. Marvel. When artist Byrne left the X-Men in 1981, Cockrum returned to the title with issue #145 but left again with issue #164 in 1983 to work on The Futurians.
In 1983, Cockrum produced The Futurians, first as a graphic novel (Marvel Graphic Novel #9), and then as an ongoing series published by Lodestone Comics. Though it did not last past issue #3, a collected edition was published by Eternity Comics in 1987 that included the "missing" issue 4. In 1995, Aardwolf Publishing printed the "missing" issue as Futurians #0, with a new five-page story by Cockrum and author Clifford Meth. Futurians has recently been reprinted in France by Semic Comics.
In 1994, Cockrum was recruited by Claypool Comics to produce work for them, resulting in several stories for Claypool's Elvira, Mistress of the Dark series (beginning with #7). Cockrum ten was put into rotation on Peter David's Soulsearchers and Company, beginning with issue #13-14, becoming the series' penciler with #17 and penciling most issues through #43. Cockrum contributed a short feature to Richard Howell's "Deadbeats" comic, issue #18.
Illness and death
In later years, Cockrum worked less frequently in comics. In 2004, he became seriously ill due to complications from diabetes and pneumonia; a number of fellow artists and writers led by Clifford Meth and Neal Adams organized a fundraising project. The auction, run by Heritage Auctions at the WizardWorld Chicago show in August, raised over $25,000. Due to pressure from Neal Adams and Clifford Meth, Marvel announced it would compensate Cockrum for his work in co-creating the enormously successful X-Men.
Cockrum was due to draw an eight-page story in Giant Size X-Men #3 (2005), but a recurrence of his health problems prevented this. Neal Adams was able to fill in for his friend.
Cockrum died at his home in Belton, South Carolina, on the morning of November 26, 2006, due to complications from diabetes. He was survived by his wife of many years Paty Cockrum (a long-time member of Marvel's 1970s production staff), his son, and two stepchildren.
To honor Cockrum's memory, the Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art bestowed the first annual Dave & Paty Cockrum Scholarship to a promising artist in 2008. The scholarship, which was organized by Clifford Meth, continues each year and is funded by sales of comics from Cockrum's personal collection.
In the novelization of X-Men: The Last Stand, the President is named "David Cockrum." Cockrum's longtime associate Chris Claremont created a character in homage to Cockrum in Exiles who eventually "moved on" at the end of X-Men: Die by the Sword, which ended with a full page tribute to Cockrum.
Comics work (interior pencil art) includes:
- Batman #246, #410–412, 423 (1972, 1987–88)
- Blackhawk #254–255 (1983)
- The Brave and the Bold #167 (1980)
- Green Lantern, vol. 2, #128, 177 (1980–1981)
- Green Lantern Corps Quarterly #3 (1992)
- Justice League America Annual #6 (1992)
- Justice League Quarterly #9, 11 (1992–93)
- Legion of Super-Heroes vol. 2 #300 (among other artists) (1983)
- Legion of Super-Heroes vol. 3, #45 (1988)
- The Legion #25 (among other artists) (2003)
- Secret Origins #42, Annual #3 (1989)
- Shazam! #9 (1974)
- Sovereign Seven #19–23 (1997)
- Superboy (Legion of Super-Heroes) #184, 188, 190–191, 193, 195, 197–202 (1972–74)
- Superman ("Fabulous World of Krypton") #248, 260, 264 (1972–73)
- Teen Titans #41 (1972)
- Vigilante #44 (1987)
- Weird War Tales #99 (1981)
- Who's Who in the Legion of Super-Heroes #1–3 (1988)
- Who's Who: The Definitive Directory of the DC Universe #2, 4, 7, 13, 25 (1985–1987)
- Wonder Woman vol. 2, Annual #5, Secret Files #1 (1996–1998)
- World's Finest Comics #218 (1973)
- The Amazing Spider-Man #264 (1985)
- Avengers #106–108, 124–126, Giant-Size #2–3 (1972–75)
- Bizarre Adventures #27 (1981)
- Captain Marvel #54 (1978)
- Defenders #50 (with Keith Giffen), 53 (Keith Giffen and Michael Golden), 57 (with George Tuska) (1977–1978)
- Destroyer, miniseries, #4 (1992)
- Giant-Size X-Men #1, 4 (1975, 2006)
- John Carter of Mars #11 (1978)
- Legion of Monsters #1 (1975)
- Marvel Comics Presents #23, 41, 73, 75–76 (1989–91)
- Marvel Graphic Novel (The Futurians) #9 (1983)
- Marvel Holiday Special (X-Men) #1 (1991)
- Marvel Preview #1 (1975)
- Monsters Unleashed #4 (1974)
- Ms. Marvel #20–21 (1978)
- Ms. Marvel, vol. 2, Giant-Size #1 (2006)
- Nightcrawler, miniseries, #1–4 (1985–86)
- Punisher: Bloodlines (1991)
- Savage Sword of Conan #188 (1991)
- Solo Avengers (Namor) #17 (1989)
- Star Trek #1–6, 8–10 (1980–81)
- Uncanny X-Men #94–107, 145–150, 153–158, 161–164; (1975–1977, 1981–1983)
- X-Men: Legacy, vol. 2 #109 (2001)
- What If? #38 (1983)
- David Emmett Cockrum at the Social Security Death Index via FamilySearch. Retrieved on June 22, 2013.
- Cooke, Jon B. (Fall 1999). "Dave "Blackhawk" Cockrum: The Marvel Days of the Co-Creator of the New X-Men". Comic Book Artist (TwoMorrows Publishing) (6). Archived from the original on October 24, 2012.
- Smith, Stephen Scott Beau (May 15, 1983). "The LOCsmiths". Amazing Heroes (Fantagraphics Books) (23).
- Jacobson, Aileen (August 16, 1971). "Serious Comics Fans". Washington Post. p. B2.
- "Dave Cockrum". Lambiek Comiclopedia. 2010. Archived from the original on July 6, 2012.
- Martin, Douglas (November 29, 2006). "Dave Cockrum, 63, Comic Book Artist, Dies". The New York Times.
- Cockrum, Dave (writing as "Dark Bamf") (September 10, 2002). "How Did Nightcrawler Come to be Created?". Nightcrawlers v2.0. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- Meth, Clifford (August 1993). "How a Typhoon Blew in Success". Wizard: X-Men Turn Thirty. pp. 50–52.
- Spurgeon, Tom (December 1, 2006). "Dave Cockrum, 1943-2006". The Comics Reporter. Archived from the original on August 10, 2013. Retrieved April 25, 2009.
- McAvennie, Michael; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1970s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. Dorling Kindersley. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9. "After more than a year as Murphy Anderson's background inker, Dave Cockrum landed his big DC break as the Legion of Super-Heroes artist." "Cockrum's debut story, which was written by Cary Bates, quickly established an exciting new vibe for the super-team."
- McAvennie "1970s" in Dolan, p. 159: "Bouncing Boy and Duo Damsel became the first Legionnaires to tie the knot. The wedding planners were writer Cary Bates and artist Dave Cockrum."
- Larsen, Erik (December 1, 2006). "One Fan's Opinion: Issue #65". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on November 7, 2012.
- Sanderson, Peter; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1970s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. p. 169. ISBN 978-0756641238. "[Editor Roy] Thomas realized that if X-Men was to be successfully revived, it needed an exciting new concept. Thomas came up with just such an idea: the X-Men would become an international team, with members from other countries as well as the United States. Writer Len Wein and artist Dave Cockrum were assigned to the new project and the result was Giant-Size X-Men #1."
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 181: "When 'new' X-Men co-creator Dave Cockrum left the series, John Byrne took over as penciler and co-plotter. In his first issue, Byrne and writer Chris Claremont wound up the Shi'ar story arc."
- "Bullpen Bulletins," Marvel Comics cover-dated November 1978.
- Cronin, Brian (April 13, 2006). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #46!". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on July 31, 2013. Retrieved May 2, 2009.
- Sanderson "1970s" in Gilbert (2008), p. 186: "Ms. Marvel's...series was in the hands of Chris Claremont... and Dave Cockrum, a master of imaginative costume design. In this issue [#20], Claremont and Cockrum unveiled the latter's new stylish black costume for Ms. Marvel."
- Zero, Nightcrawler (February 18, 2005). "Dave on the X-men Again?". Nightscrawlers.com. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012.
- Meth, Clifford (February 22, 2008). "Own Dave Cockrum's and Gene Colan's Personal Comics and File Copies". Thecliffordmethod.blogspot.com. Archived from the original on May 12, 2013.
- X-Men: Die By the Sword #5 (Feb. 2008) at the Grand Comics Database
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Dave Cockrum.|
- Dave Cockrum at Mike's Amazing World of Comics
- Dave Cockrum at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators
|Superboy and the Legion of Super-Heroes artist
|Uncanny X-Men artist
|Uncanny X-Men artist