Sigourney Weaver

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Sigourney Weaver
Sigourney Weaver2.jpg
Sigourney Weaver in September 2011
Born Susan Alexandra Weaver
(1949-10-08) October 8, 1949 (age 64)
Manhattan, New York City
New York, U.S.
Alma mater Stanford University (B.A., 1972)
Yale University (M.F.A., 1974)
Occupation Actress
Years active 1976–present
Height 5 ft 11.5 in (1.82 m)
Spouse(s) Jim Simpson (m. 1984)
Children 1 (Charlotte Simpson)
Parents Sylvester Weaver (deceased)
Elizabeth Inglis (deceased)
Relatives Doodles Weaver
(uncle, deceased)

Sigourney Weaver (born Susan Alexandra Weaver; October 8, 1949) is an American actress. She is known especially for the lead role of Ellen Ripley in the four Alien films: Alien, Aliens, Alien 3 and Alien Resurrection. She is also well known for her roles in Ghostbusters and Ghostbusters II, Gorillas in the Mist, Working Girl, and Avatar.

Her 1986 Academy Award nomination for Aliens is considered as a landmark in the recognition of science fiction, action, and horror genres, as well as a major step in challenging the gender role in cinema. Weaver progressively received fame for her numerous contributions to the science fiction film history (including minor roles in successful works such as Futurama, WALL-E, Paul and The Cabin in the Woods) and gained the nickname of "The Sci-Fi Queen".[1][2][3][4] She also played the lead role as Secretary of State Elaine Barrish on USA Network's Political Animals miniseries.

Weaver has been nominated for three Academy Awards: Best Actress for Aliens and Gorillas in the Mist: The Story of Dian Fossey, and Best Supporting Actress for Working Girl. She also won a BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role for The Ice Storm, and Saturn Awards for Aliens and Avatar. She also earned Emmy Award, Drama Desk Award and Tony Award nominations. She has been nominated for seven Golden Globe Awards and won both Best Actress in Drama and Best Supporting Actress in 1988 for Gorillas in the Mist and Working Girl, becoming the first person ever to have won two acting Golden Globe Awards in the same year.[5]

Early life[edit]

Weaver was born Susan Alexandra Weaver in Manhattan, New York City, the daughter of Elizabeth Inglis (née Desiree Mary Lucy Hawkins; 1913–2007), an English actress, and the NBC television executive and television pioneer Sylvester "Pat" Weaver (1908–2002).[6][7][8] Her uncle, Doodles Weaver (1911–1983), was a comedian and actor. She has English, Scottish, and Ulster-Scots ancestry, including roots in New England.[9][10] Weaver began using the name "Sigourney Weaver" in 1963 after a minor character (Sigourney Howard) in F. Scott Fitzgerald's novel The Great Gatsby.[11]

Weaver attended the Ethel Walker School, a girls' preparatory school in Simsbury, Connecticut. She also attended The Chapin School and The Brearley School. Sigourney was reportedly 5′ 10½″ (179 cm) tall by the age of 14, although she only grew another inch during her teens to her adult height of 5′ 11½″ (182 cm). In 1967, at the age of 18, Weaver visited Israel and volunteered on a kibbutz for several months.[12]

Weaver attended Sarah Lawrence College as well as Stanford University[13] where she first began her involvement in acting, by living in Stanford's co-ed Beta Chi Community for the Performing Arts.[14] Weaver earned her Master of Fine Arts degree at the Yale University School of Drama in 1974,[15] where one of her appearances was in the chorus in a production of Stephen Sondheim's musical version of The Frogs, and another was as one of a mob of Roman soldiers alongside Meryl Streep in another production.[16] Weaver later acted in original plays by her friend and classmate Christopher Durang. She later appeared in an "Off-Broadway" production of Durang's comedy Beyond Therapy in 1981, which was directed by the up-and-coming director Jerry Zaks.

Film career[edit]

Weaver with her father Pat Weaver in 1989

Weaver's first role is often said to be in Woody Allen's 1977 comedy Annie Hall playing a minor role opposite Allen, whereas she appeared at least in Sidney Lumet's Serpico three years before (she meets Al Pacino at a party). Weaver appeared two years later as Warrant Officer/Lieutenant Ellen Ripley in Ridley Scott's blockbuster 1979 film Alien, in a role initially designated to co-star Veronica Cartwright, until a late change in casting. She reprised the role in the three sequels of the Alien movie franchise, Aliens, Alien 3, and Alien Resurrection. Ty Burr of The Boston Globe states, "One of the real pleasures of "Alien" is to watch the emergence of both Ellen Ripley as a character and Sigourney Weaver as a star."[17] In the sequel Aliens directed by James Cameron, critic Roger Ebert writes, "Weaver, who is onscreen almost all the time, comes through with a very strong, sympathetic performance: She's the thread that holds everything together."[18] Weaver followed the success of Alien appearing opposite Mel Gibson in The Year of Living Dangerously released to critical acclaim and as Dana Barrett in Ghostbusters and Ghostbusters II.

Sigourney Weaver at the 2008 Tribeca Film Festival premiere of Baby Mama; she played a role in the film.

By the end of the decade, Weaver appeared in two of her most memorable and critically acclaimed performances in 1988 as Dian Fossey in Gorillas in the Mist. The same year she appeared opposite Harrison Ford in a supporting role as Katharine Parker in the film Working Girl. Weaver won Golden Globe awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress for her two roles that year. She received two Academy Award nominations in 1988, for Best Supporting Actress for her role in Working Girl and Best Actress for Gorillas in the Mist, making her one of the few actors nominated for two acting awards in the same year. By the early 1990s, Weaver appeared in several films including Ang Lee's The Ice Storm, earning her another Golden Globe nomination for Best Supporting Actress and winning a BAFTA Award, followed by Dave opposite Kevin Kline and Frank Langella. She played the role of agoraphobic criminal psychologist Helen Hudson in the 1995 movie Copycat. Weaver also concentrated on smaller and supporting roles throughout the decade such as Jeffrey (1994), Galaxy Quest (1999), and A Map of the World (1999) earning her another Golden Globe nomination for Best Actress.

In 2001, she appeared in the comedy Heartbreakers playing the lead role of a con artist alongside Jennifer Love Hewitt, Ray Liotta, Gene Hackman and Anne Bancroft. She appeared in several films throughout the decade including Holes (2003), the M. Night Shyamalan horror film The Village (2004), Vantage Point (2008), and Baby Mama (2008). Weaver also returned to Rwanda for the BBC special Gorillas Revisited. She was voted 20th in Channel 4's countdown of the 100 Greatest Movie Stars of All Time, being one of only two women in the Top 20 (the other was Audrey Hepburn).

In 2009, Weaver starred as Mary Griffith in her first made-for-TV movie, Prayers for Bobby, for which she was nominated for an Emmy Award,[19] Golden Globe Award, and Screen Actors Guild Award. She also guest starred in the TV show Eli Stone in the fall of 2008.[20] She reunited with Aliens director James Cameron for his 2009 film Avatar, with Weaver playing a major part as Dr. Grace Augustine, leader of the AVTR (avatar) program on the film's fictional moon Pandora.

Weaver in December 2009

Weaver has done voice work in television and film. She had a guest role in the Futurama episode "Love and Rocket" in February 2002, playing the female Planet Express Ship. In 2006, she was the narrator for the American version of the Emmy Award-winning series Planet Earth. Also in 2006, Weaver narrated "A Matter of Degrees", a short film that plays daily at The Natural History Museum of the Adirondacks (The Wild Center) in Tupper Lake, New York. In 2008, Weaver was featured as the voice of the ship's computer in the Pixar and Disney release, WALL•E. She also voiced a narrating role in another computer-animated film, 2008's The Tale of Despereaux, based on the novel by Kate DiCamillo.

Weaver has hosted two episodes of the long-running NBC sketch show Saturday Night Live: once on the 12th season premiere in 1986, and again, on a season 35 episode in January 2010. In March 2010, she was cast for the lead role as Queen of the Vampires in Amy Heckerling's Vamps.[21] She was honored at the 2010 Scream Awards earning The Heroine Award which honored her work in science fiction, horror and fantasy films. In May 2010, there were reports that Weaver had been cast for the lead role Margaret Matheson in the Spanish thriller film Red Lights.[22]

In September 2011, it was confirmed that Weaver will be returning to Avatar 2, with James Cameron stating that "no one ever dies in science fiction."[23]

In 2014 Weaver reprised the role of Ripley for the first time in 17 years by voicing the character in the video game Alien: Isolation. Her character will appear in two DLCs set during the events of Alien, with most of the original cast voicing their respective characters.[24][25]

Personal life[edit]

Weaver was engaged to reporter Aaron Latham in 1967.[26] She has been married to the filmmaker Jim Simpson since October 1, 1984.[27] They have one daughter, Charlotte Simpson, who was born on April 13, 1990.[28]

After making Gorillas in the Mist: The Story of Dian Fossey, she became a supporter of The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund and is now the DFGFI's honorary chairwoman.[29]She was honored by the Explorers Club for this work. Weaver is considered to be an environmentalist.[30] In October 2006, she drew international attention through a news conference at the start of a United Nations General Assembly policy deliberation. She outlined the widespread threat to ocean habitats posed by deep-sea trawling, an industrial method for harvesting fish. On April 8, 2008, she hosted the annual gala of the Trickle Up Program, a non-profit organization focusing on those in extreme poverty, mainly women and the disabled, in the Rainbow Room.[31]

Awards and nominations[edit]

Weaver has been nominated three times for an Academy Award, three BAFTAs (one win) and seven Golden Globes (two wins). She has also earned Tony and Drama Desk nominations for her work on the stage.

Filmography[edit]

Film[edit]

Year Film Role Notes
1977 Annie Hall Alvy's Date Outside Theatre
1978 Madman Not Specified
1979 Alien Ripley DVDX Award for Best Audio Commentary (New for DVD) (2003 re-issue in Alien Quadrilogy, shared with Ridley Scott, Ronald Shusett, Terry Rawlings, Tom Skerritt, Veronica Cartwright, Harry Dean Stanton and John Hurt)
Nominated—BAFTA Award for Best Leading Newcomer
Nominated—Saturn Award for Best Actress
1981 Eyewitness Tony Sokolow Crew Members & TV equipment from WNYW (then known as WNEW) appeared in the film. Weaver actually co-hosted the news on WNYW for the film.
1982 The Year of Living Dangerously Jilly Bryant
1983 Deal of the Century Catherine DeVoto
1984 Ghostbusters Dana Barrett
Terror in the Aisles Ripley archival footage
1985 Femme ou Deux, UneUne Femme ou Deux Jessica Fitzgerald English translation: One Woman or Two; almost entirely French-language production
1986 Half Moon Street Dr. Lauren Slaughter Mystfest Award for Best Actress
Aliens Ellen Ripley Saturn Award for Best Actress
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama
1988 Gorillas in the Mist: The Story of Dian Fossey Dian Fossey Golden Apple Award for Female Star of the Year
Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama (tied with Jodie Foster and Shirley MacLaine)
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Actress
Nominated—Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Actress
Working Girl Katharine Parker Golden Apple Award for Female Star of the Year
Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture
Nominated—Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated—BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
Nominated—Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actress
1989 Ghostbusters II Dana Barrett
1992 The Snow Queen The Narrator Short film
Voice only
Alien 3 Ellen Ripley Also co-producer
Nominated—Saturn Award for Best Actress
1492: Conquest of Paradise Queen Isabella
1993 Rabbit Ears: Peachboy The Narrator Short film
Voice only
Dave Ellen Mitchell
1994 The Wild Swans The Narrator Short film
Voice only
Death and the Maiden Paulina Escobar Gotham Award for Best Actress
1995 Copycat Helen Hudson Special Mention Award at the Festival du Film Policier de Cognac (Shared with Holly Hunter)
Jeffrey Debra Moorhouse
1997 Ice Storm, TheThe Ice Storm Janey Carver BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year Award
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture
Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture
Alien Resurrection (a clone of) Ellen Ripley Also co-producer
Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year Award
Nominated—Blockbuster Entertainment Award for Favorite Actress – Sci-Fi
Nominated—Saturn Award for Best Actress
1999 Map of the World, AA Map of the World Alice Goodwin Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama
Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama
Galaxy Quest Gwen DeMarco/Lieutenant Tawny Madison Nominated—Blockbuster Entertainment Award for Favorite Actress – Comedy
Nominated—Saturn Award for Best Actress
2000 Company Man Daisy Quimp
2001 Heartbreakers Angela Nardino/Max Conners/Ulga Yevanova Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Musical or Comedy
Big Bad Love Betti DeLoreo Voice only
2002 Tadpole Eve Grubman
Guys, TheThe Guys Joan Directed by husband Jim Simpson, starring daughter Charlotte Simpson
Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama
2003 Holes Warden Walker
2004 Imaginary Heroes Sandy Travis Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Actress – Motion Picture Drama
Village, TheThe Village Alice Hunt
2006 Snow Cake Linda Freeman Nominated—Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role
Nominated—Seattle International Film Festival Award for Best Actress
TV Set, TheThe TV Set Lenny
Infamous Babe Paley
2007 Happily N'Ever After Frieda Voice only
Girl in the Park, TheThe Girl in the Park Julia Sandburg
2008 Vantage Point Rex Brooks
Be Kind Rewind Ms. Lawson
Baby Mama Chaffee Bicknell
WALL•E Computer Voice only
Tale of Despereaux, TheThe Tale of Despereaux The Narrator
2009 Avatar Dr. Grace Augustine Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actress
Nominated—Scream Award for Best Supporting Actress
2010 Crazy on the Outside Vicky Zelda
You Again Ramona Clark
2011 Cedar Rapids Marcy Vanderhei
Paul "The Big Guy"
Abduction Dr. Geraldine "Geri" Bennett
Rampart Joan Confrey
2012 The Cabin in the Woods The Director
Red Lights Margaret Matheson
The Cold Light of Day Jean Carrack
Vamps Cisserus
2014 Exodus: Gods and Kings Tuya Post-production
2015 Chappie Post-production
2016 Avatar 2 Dr. Grace Augustine Announced

Television[edit]

Year Programme Role Notes
1976 Somerset Avis Ryan
1977 The Best of Families Laura Wheeler
1979 3 by Cheever: The Sorrows of Gin Marcia Lawton
3 by Cheever: O Youth and Beauty!
1997 Snow White: A Tale of Terror Lady Claudia Hoffman Hasty Pudding Woman of the Year Award
Nominated—Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress – Miniseries or a Movie
Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie
2002 Futurama The Female Planet Express Ship Episode: "Love and Rocket" (voice only)
2008 Eli Stone Therapist Episode: "The Path"
2009 Prayers for Bobby Mary Griffith Trevor Life Award
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film
Nominated—Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress – Miniseries or a Movie
Nominated—Prism Award for Best Actress
Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film
Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie
2011 Spring/Fall
2012 Political Animals Elaine Barrish Nominated—Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Lead Actress - Miniseries or Movie
Nominated—Golden Globe Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film
Nominated—Satellite Award for Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film
Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie
Nominated—Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie

Documentaries[edit]

Year Programme Role Notes
1999 Why Dogs Smile & Chimpanzees Cry The Narrator - Herself Voice only
2001 The Roman Empire In The First Century The Narrator Voice Only
2006 Planet Earth The Narrator Voice only
Gorillas Revisited Herself BBC Production
2009 ACID TEST: The Global Challenge of Ocean Acidification The Narrator Voice and image

Video games[edit]

Year Game Role Notes
2009 James Cameron's Avatar: The Game Dr. Grace Augustine Xbox 360/PS3/Wii version
2014 Alien: Isolation Ellen Ripley "Crew Expendable" and "Last Survivor" DLCs

Other accolades[edit]

Lifetime Achievement[edit]

Year Ceremony Award
1999 Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
2001 Chicago International Film Festival Lifetime Achievement Award
2004 Empire Awards Lifetime Achievement Award
2006 Edinburgh International Film Festival Diamond Award
2008 Marrakech International Film Festival Honorary Award of the Festival
2010 Scream Awards The Heroine Award
2013 Goldene Kamera Best International Actress

Other[edit]

Year Accolade Notes
2008 Trevor Life Award For being an inspiration to LGBT youth
(for her involvement in Prayers for Bobby)
2011 Rachel Carson Award For environmental activism

Stage credits[edit]

Soundtrack discography[edit]

Year Soundtrack Song(s) performed
1993 Dave "Tomorrow"
2001 Heartbreakers "Back in the U.S.S.R."
2006 Snow Cake "Deep in the Heart of Texas"
2007 The Girl in the Park "Ooh Shoo Be Doo Be"

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Weaver's interview in Los Angeles Times Hero Complex". Los Angeles Times Hero Complex. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  2. ^ "Sigourney Weaver - "The Sci-fi Queen"" (in French). Geekophonie. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  3. ^ "Article about Weaver". The Post and Courier. Retrieved October 2, 2011. 
  4. ^ "Sigourney Weaver, Multi Award Winning TV and Film Actress". Celebrity Speakers. Retrieved November 17, 2011. 
  5. ^ "Session Timeout – Academy Awards Database – AMPAS". Awardsdatabase.oscars.org. January 29, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  6. ^ He is related to Matthew Laflin who was an American Manufacturer of Gunpowder, Businessman, Philanthropist, and an early pioneer of Chicago, Cook County, Illinois.
  7. ^ Chicago: its history and its .... January 14, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  8. ^ Reitwiesner, William Addams (2007). "Ancestry of George W. Bush". Retrieved July 24, 2009. 
  9. ^ Interview by Sigourney Weaver, The Late Late Show with Craig Ferguson, 8/25/08
  10. ^ "Sigourney Weaver – Weaver's Scottish Ancestry Mix-Up". Contactmusic.com. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  11. ^ "Sigourney Weaver – Biography". imdb.com. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  12. ^ Ashkenazi, Eli (June 28, 2010). "Kibbutz Movement planning reunion for thousands of foreign volunteers". Haaretz.com. Retrieved November 3, 2012. 
  13. ^ Bio, TVGuide
  14. ^ "The Beta Chi Chapter House Of Sigma Nu". Dynamics.org. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  15. ^ "Training Great Actors: A Scene from Shakespeare". Yale University Tercentennial (April Weekend Videos). Yale University. 2001. Retrieved February 1, 2008. 
  16. ^ "Sigourney Weaver The Frogs". Sigourneyweaver.org. May 15, 2008. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  17. ^ Burr, Ty October 29, 2003 The Boston Globe 'Alien' director's cut oozes gore and greatness Boston.com Retrieved on September 21, 2010
  18. ^ Ebert, Roger July 18, 1986 Sun Times Aliens review The Sun online Retrieved on September 21, 2010.
  19. ^ "Sigourney Weaver Emmy Nominated". Emmys.com. Retrieved November 3, 2012. 
  20. ^ "Sigourney Weaver Puts Eli Stone on the Couch". TV Guide. August 15, 2008. Retrieved August 15, 2008. 
  21. ^ "Sigourney Weaver Queen of the Vamps! Where Do We Sign Up to be Bitten?". Dreadcentral.com. March 17, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  22. ^ "Sigourney Weaver Flashes Red Lights for Rodrigo Cortés". Dreadcentral.com. May 25, 2010. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  23. ^ "BBC News - Sigourney Weaver Avatar 2 role confirmed". BBC News. September 18, 2011. Retrieved September 18, 2011. 
  24. ^ "Alien Isolation has best pre-order bonus ever: Sigourney Weaver and cast in special movie missions". Metro. 
  25. ^ "http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/jul/09/sigourney-weaver-to-appear-in-alien-isolation-video-game". The Guardian. 
  26. ^ "Sigourney Weaver Bio – Actor Information at MovieTome". Movietome.com. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  27. ^ "Sigourney Weaver- Biography". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved April 26, 2013. 
  28. ^ "Charlotte Simpson Bio". imdb.com. Retrieved October 17, 2011. 
  29. ^ "About Dian Fossey – Info about the Life of Dian Fossey – DFGFI". Gorillafund.org. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Center for Health and the Global Environment". Chge.med.harvard.edu. Retrieved July 12, 2010. 
  31. ^ "Sigourney Weaver's Charity Work, Events and Causes at Look To The Stars". Looktothestars.org. Retrieved November 3, 2012. 
  32. ^ "Acting Theatre". Christopher Durang. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  33. ^ "Performance Archives | Williamstown Theatre Festival". US: Wtfestival.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  34. ^ "Performance Archives | Williamstown Theatre Festival". US: Wtfestival.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  35. ^ "Performance Archives | Williamstown Theatre Festival". US: Wtfestival.org. August 19, 1972. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  36. ^ "Performance Archives | Williamstown Theatre Festival". US: Wtfestival.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  37. ^ "Performance Archives | Williamstown Theatre Festival". US: Wtfestival.org. August 26, 1972. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  38. ^ "Performance Archives | Williamstown Theatre Festival". US: Wtfestival.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  39. ^ a b c "Yale Repertory Theatre, Production History 1966/67-1977/80 Seasons". Webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 
  40. ^ "Christoper Durang - Longer One Act Plays - The Nature and Purpose of the Universe". Christopherdurang.com. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  41. ^ "Sondheim Guide / The Frogs". Sondheimguide.com. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  42. ^ The Broadway League. "The Constant Wife | IBDB: The official source for Broadway Information". IBDB. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  43. ^ "Christoper Durang - Longer One Act Plays - Titanic". Christopherdurang.com. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  44. ^ "Lortel Archives-The Internet Off-Broadway Database". Lortel.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  45. ^ [1][dead link]
  46. ^ "Lortel Archives-The Internet Off-Broadway Database". Lortel.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  47. ^ "Lortel Archives-The Internet Off-Broadway Database". Lortel.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  48. ^ The New York Times, January 13, 1978. Gussow, Mel. "A Flea in Hartford's Ear"
  49. ^ The New York Times, February 16, 1979. Gussow, Mel. "An Evening in New Jerusalem; On the Trail of Kef"
  50. ^ "Lortel Archives-The Internet Off-Broadway Database". Lortel.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  51. ^ "Full Length Plays - Beyond Therapy by Christopher Durang". Christopherdurang.com. January 1, 1981. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  52. ^ "Animal Kingdom Review". The New York Times. 
  53. ^ "Performance Archives | Williamstown Theatre Festival". US: Wtfestival.org. August 13, 1983. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  54. ^ The Broadway League. "The official source for Broadway Information". IBDB. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  55. ^ "Performance Archives | Williamstown Theatre Festival". US: Wtfestival.org. August 24, 1986. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  56. ^ [2][dead link]
  57. ^ "Performance Archives | Williamstown Theatre Festival". US: Wtfestival.org. August 27, 1988. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  58. ^ "Full Length Plays - Sex and Longing by Christopher Durang". Christopherdurang.com. September 12, 1996. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  59. ^ "The Flea Theater - The Guys". Theflea.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  60. ^ By JULIE SALAMONPublished: December 15, 2002 (December 15, 2002). "THEATER; A Response to 9/11 So Unheroically Human - New York Times". Select.nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  61. ^ "The Flea Theater - Mrs. Farnsworth". Theflea.org. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  62. ^ [3][dead link]
  63. ^ "Sigourney Weaver and Jeff Daniels Will Send Love Letters for Flea's One-Night Benefit". Playbill.com. May 9, 2007. Retrieved 2013-01-23. 
  64. ^ "Playbill.com. July 26, 2008. Gans, Andrew. "Sigourney Weaver and Jeff Daniels Send ''Love Letters'' July 26". Playbill.com. Retrieved September 25, 2010. 

External links[edit]