Dungeons & Dragons in popular culture
||This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. (August 2013)|
Dungeons & Dragons (D&D) is a fantasy role-playing game that was first published as a series of gamebooks in 1974. As the popularity of the game grew throughout the late 1970s and 1980s, it became more frequently referenced in popular culture. The complement of games, films and cultural references based on Dungeons & Dragons or similar fantasies, characters, and adventures became ubiquitous after the end of the 1970s.
Dungeons & Dragons, and tabletop role-playing games in general, have exerted a deep and persistent impact on the development of all types of video games, from "first-person shooters to real-time strategy games and massively multiplayer online games", which in turn play a significant and ongoing role in modern popular culture.
In online culture, the term dungeon has since come to mean a virtual location where people can meet and collaborate. Hence, multi-user dungeons emerged throughout the 1970s and 1980s as a social virtual reality. By creating a means for players to assemble and explore an imaginary world, the Dungeons & Dragons rules provided a transition from fantasy literary settings, such as those of author J. R. R. Tolkien, to fully virtual worlds.
Public figures who play or have played Dungeons & Dragons are comedians Stephen Colbert and Chris Hardwick, musician Moby, and actors Vin Diesel, Matthew Lillard, Mike Myers, Patton Oswalt, Wil Wheaton, and Robin Williams.
Independent fiction derived from the Dungeons & Dragons game appeared with the Endless Quest series of books, published by TSR, Inc between 1982 and 1987. The Endless Quest books provided a form of interactive fiction in the style of the Choose Your Own Adventure series. The continuing success of Dungeons & Dragons then sparked an even more extensive series of novels, also published by TSR, Inc. The first of these were based upon the Dragonlance campaign setting, and were released in 1984. There proved to be a lucrative market for these works, and by the 2000s a significant portion of all fantasy paperbacks were being published by Wizards of the Coast, the American game company that acquired TSR, Inc in 1997.
The impact of Dungeons & Dragons on players and culture has inspired reflective non-fiction works:
- Fantasy Freaks and Gaming Geeks: An Epic Quest for Reality Among Role Players, Online Gamers, and Other Dwellers of Imaginary Realms, by journalist and gamer Ethan Gilsdorf; a travel memoir about Dungeons & Dragons, role-playing games, and other fantasy and gaming subcultures.
- The Elfish Gene: Dungeons, Dragons and Growing Up Strange, by novelist Mark Barrowcliffe; a memoir of playing Dungeons & Dragons and other role playing games in the 1970s.
- Author Shelly Mazzanoble wrote a humorous self-help guide called Everything I Need to Know I Learned from Dungeons & Dragons: One Woman's Quest to Trade Self-help for Elf-help. This followed her guide book, Confessions of a Part-time Sorceress: A Girl's Guide to the Dungeons & Dragons Game.
- American Nerd: The Story of My People is Time magazine writer Benjamin Nugent's study of the history and culture of people labeled nerds. It includes insights into why people play and enjoy Dungeons & Dragons.
Several characters created for playing Dungeons & Dragons, or games derived from Dungeons & Dragons, have later spawned popular fantasy series. Other novels make off-hand references to the game:
- In City of Bones, a novel by Cassandra Clare in her The Mortal Instruments series, the character Simon Lewis makes reference to Dungeons & Dragons.
Begun in 1986, the comic books The Adventurers and Redfox were inspired by Dungeons & Dragons. Several commercial comic strips are based entirely upon the game or make reference to the game in specific panels.
- Knights of the Dinner Table is a multiple award-winning comic-sized magazine featuring comic strips with a variety of characters who play "HackMaster," a parody of Dungeons & Dragons. (HackMaster would later go on to become an actual role-playing game.) Early strips appeared in the official Dungeons & Dragons magazine Dragon.
- Questionable Content, webcomic; appearing in Comic #963, "Raven Levels Up", and others
- Schlock Mercenary, webcomic; Referenced in the comic of 11 November 2007
- The Order of the Stick is an award-winning satirical webcomic that features a cast of characters in a world that loosely operates by the rules of Dungeons & Dragons.
- Dungeons & Dragons co-creator Gary Gygax was commemorated in webcomics series xkcd's comic #393, "Ultimate Game".
- Penny Arcade, A longstanding webcomic, created by Jerry Holkins and Mike Krahulik, references and even depicts humorous instances of bizarre campaigns, and other Dungeons & Dragons subject matter; implementing dice-rolling humor and other game dynamics.
Several films include instances of characters playing the game of Dungeons & Dragons. There have also been three feature films released that were based upon the game: Dungeons & Dragons (2000), Dungeons & Dragons: Wrath of the Dragon God (2005), and Dungeons & Dragons: The Book of Vile Darkness (2012).
- In scene 2 of Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra Terrestrial, the character Elliott, his older brother, and his friends were shown playing Dungeons & Dragons. Prior to the production of the movie, Spielberg ran a Dungeons & Dragons session with the young cast members.
- The Futurama film Bender's Game includes Dungeons & Dragons as a crucial plot device, in which the main characters end up in a fantasy realm much like the game. The film was already in production upon Gygax's death and debuted later that year, so it was dedicated in his honor. The film included parodies of Dungeons & Dragons-influenced movies.
- The short film Fear of Girls is a spoof of two heavy Dungeons & Dragons gamers. The filmmakers used viral marketing to attract attention to the movie.
- The films The Gamers and The Gamers: Dorkness Rising by the Dead Gentlemen are parodies of Dungeons & Dragons.
The CBS network ran a Saturday morning cartoon series called Dungeons & Dragons, in which a group of teenagers visiting a Dungeons and Dragons-themed theme park dark ride get magically transported into the fantasy world of Dungeons and Dragons. The show included the voice talents of Willie Aames of Eight is Enough, and ran from 1983 to 1985.
Dungeons & Dragons is referenced in a variety of television programs:
- Community - the second season episode titled Advanced Dungeons and Dragons (AD&D) centers around the study group playing a game of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons to cheer up their near-suicidal classmate, "Fat Neil". Pierce's exclusion leads him to barge into the game, and torment everyone. A later episode called Advanced Advanced Dungeons & Dragons has aired where a game of D&D is played in order to reunite Buzz Hickey to his son.
- Futurama - in the episode "Anthology of Interest I", Gary Gygax guest-starred. Other scattered references to the game appeared throughout the episode.
- Freaks and Geeks - the final episode of the series, titled Discos and Dragons, has Daniel (James Franco) being forced to join the Audio/Visual Club and the geeks invite him to a game of Dungeons & Dragons. He ends up enjoying it.
- The Sarah Silverman Program - in the second season episode Bored of the Rings, a planned date night is disrupted by a Dungeons & Dragons game.
- In the Radio Daze episode of That 70's Show, Donna is asked if she and Eric would like to stay to play Dungeons & Dragons at the radio station she works at. At the end of the episode, two staff members are shown playing a session, with a cameo appearance by Alice Cooper who is also shown playing.
- The Simpsons - Homer tells how he bonded with some new geek friends by playing Dungeons & Dragons "for three hours... then I was slain by an elf."
- Corner Gas - in the episode "Happy Campers", Brent is seen playing a game of Dungeons & Dragons with a group of teenage boys in the city.
- The Big Bang Theory - played a role in 3 episodes this far ("The Wiggly Finger Catalyst", "The Santa Simulation", and "The Love Spell Potential"), also some references.
- Buffy the Vampire Slayer - In the episode "Chosen", Andrew, Xander, Giles, and one of the potential Slayers play Dungeons & Dragons while Anya sleeps at the table.
- The IT Crowd - In the fourth series episode titled "Jen The Fredo", Moss has been making his own Dungeons & Dragons game and eventually gets John, John, Roy, and Phil to play, which finally entertains the business connections and helps Roy relieve his depression.
Dungeons & Dragons is referenced in popular video games:
- Tiny Tina's Assault on Dragon Keep DLC features a game known as "Bunkers and Badasses", a tabletop role-playing game parody to Dungeons and Dragons, where Tiny Tina is the dungeon master. The world is fantasy-themed, with skeletons, orcs, treants (similar to J. R. R. Tolkien's Ents) and dragons featuring as enemies.
Dungeons & Dragons is referenced in popular music:
- The Weezer song "In The Garage" starts with the lines, "I've got the Dungeon Master's Guide. I've got a 12-sided die." This is on the Weezer (1994 album), also known as the Blue Album.
- The lyrics of "Weird Al" Yankovic's satirical song "White & Nerdy" includes the line, "Got skills, I'm a Champion of D&D".
- Flashlight Brown's song "Ready to Roll" is a veiled reference to a group playing Dungeons & Dragons.
- Seminal stoner rock band Kyuss was formed in 1989 under the name "Sons of Kyuss", in reference to the deity Kyuss.
- The lyrics of Team Unicorn's satirical song "Geek and Gamer Girls Song" includes a brief reference to Dungeons & Dragons, sandwiched between a mention of Frank Herbert's Dune series and a mention of the character Rand al'Thor, the main protagonist of Robert Jordan's Wheel of Time series.
- Owen Pallett's album He Poos Clouds is roughly based on the concept of the eight schools of magic from Dungeons & Dragons.
- Stephen Lynch has a comedic song titled "D&D" on his album Superhero.
- Marcy Playground Wrote a song called "Cloak of Elvenkind" about a magic item of the same name.
- Bill Amend, cartoonist
- Kevin J. Anderson, author
- Noah Antwiler, internet comedian
- Lee Arenberg, actor
- Mark Barrowcliffe, author
- Stephen Colbert, Emmy Award winning comedian
- Rivers Cuomo, musician
- Vin Diesel, actor
- Lexa Doig, actor
- Tim Duncan, two time NBA MVP winning professional basketball player
- Jon Favreau, actor, screenwriter and director
- James Franco, actor
- Ethan Gilsdorf, poet, teacher and journalist
- Michael Gove, conservative politician, journalist and author
- Matt Groening, Emmy Award winning cartoonist, screenwriter, and producer
- Sasha Grey, AVN Award winning porn star
- Chris Hardwick, actor, writer and comedian
- Tim Harford, economist and journalist
- Brent Hartinger, author and playwright
- Dan Harmon, writer, performer and producer
- Kimberly Kane, pornographic actress and director
- Paul S. Kemp, author
- Matthew Lillard, actor
- David Lindsay-Abaire, Pulitzer prize winning playwright and lyricist
- Michelle Malkin, conservative columnist
- Marilyn Manson, musician
- Robert MacNaughton, actor
- China Miéville, author
- John J. Miller, political reporter
- Moby, musician
- Mike Myers, actor
- Alexis Ohanian, entrepreneur, investor
- Patton Oswalt, actor and comedian
- Brian Posehn, actor and comedian
- Bruce Reyes-Chow, Presbyterian minister, writer
- John C. Reilly, theater actor, singer, and comedian
- Ed Robertson, musician
- Zak Smith, artist and alternative porn star
- Rider Strong, actor
- Karl Urban, actor
- Mark Tremonti, musician
- Varg Vikernes, musician
- Gerard Way, musician
- Chris Weitz, producer, writer, director and actor
- Wil Wheaton, actor
- Robin Williams, Grammy, Emmy, and Oscar award winning actor and comedian
- Daniel H. Wilson, author, television host, and robotics engineer
- Rainn Wilson, actor
- John Yuan, actor
- Matthew Yuan, actor
Stephen Colbert developed an intense interest in the game during his youth, which he later credits for his talent at character creation. Ethan Gilsdorf credits the game for bestowing upon him "gifts of creativity and self-actualization". Actor Vin Diesel, in his introduction to the book Thirty Years of Adventure, wrote that he was "attracted to the artistic outlet the game provided". The game was "a training ground for our imagination, and an opportunity to explore our own identities". Vin Diesel, Mike Myers, and Robin Williams participated in the 2006 Worldwide Dungeons & Dragons Game Day, demonstrating that the game is still a lively and active hobby.
Director Chris Weitz pointed out that there "are a lot of people who played and are horribly embarrassed about it and won't admit it, because it's part of their lives they put behind". He developed a fervent interest in the game, even greater than in making movies, and says the experience "had such an influence on his life". Director Jon Favreau was drawn into the game by the fantasy elements and the sense of story, saying "it gave me a really strong background in imagination, storytelling, understanding how to create tone and a sense of balance".
Political reporter John J. Miller says that Dungeons & Dragons was a big part of his life during his school years, and argues that, "there's a lot to admire about D&D and what it can do for kids by encouraging them to read, do math, and think creatively". Fantasy author China Miéville says that playing Dungeons & Dragons as a youth was one of the most enduring influences on his writing. The two things that particularly influenced him were "the mania for cataloguing the fantastic" and "the weird fetish for systematization", with the latter meaning in the sense that everything is reduced to "game stats". By contrast, author Mark Barrowcliffe now considers his years playing Dungeons & Dragons to be a wasted youth and all of the players to be nerds. He has tried to put the experience behind him.
- Tychsen, Anders (December 2006), "Role Playing Games – Comparative Analysis Across Two Media Play", IE '06 Proceedings of the 3rd Australasian conference on Interactive entertainment, Murdoch University, Australia: ACM, Inc, pp. 75–82, OCLC 170367427, retrieved 2011-06-10.
- Rausch, Allen (August 16, 2004), "Magic & Memories: The Complete History of Dungeons & Dragons", GameSpy (IGN), retrieved 2011-06-06.
- Steels, Luc (2004), "Virtual Venues", in Mario Tokoro, A Learning Zone of One's Own: Sharing Representations and Flow in Collaborative Learning Environments, Washington, DC: IOS Press, ISBN 1-58603-410-3, retrieved 2011-06-06.
- Heider, Don (2009), Living Virtually: Researching New Worlds, Digital formations 47, New York: Peter Lang, pp. 14–15, ISBN 1-4331-0130-0.
- Shanafelt, Steve (November 2, 2005), "The growing chic of geek: How turning 30 made Dungeons & Dragons feel young again", Mountain Xpress 12 (14), retrieved August 4, 2007.
- Tonjes, Wayne (October 19, 2005), Interview with Charles Ryan on the 2005 Worldwide Dungeons & Dragons Game Day, Gaming Report, retrieved 2007-08-04.
- Diesel contributed the introduction, and both Colbert and Wheaton page-long personal reflections to 30 Years of Adventure: A Celebration of Dungeons & Dragons.
- Leckart, Steven (June 26, 2007), "Ratatouille Star Patton Oswalt on Geeks vs. Nerds", Wired 15 (7).
- Mike Myers, Inside the Actors' Studio (9).
- Tresca, Michael J. (2010), The Evolution of Fantasy Role-Playing Games, McFarland, p. 103, ISBN 078645895X.
- Mackay, Daniel (2001), The Fantasy Role-Playing Game: A New Performing Art, Jefferson, N.C: McFarland, pp. 18–19, ISBN 0-7864-0815-4.
- Buker, Derek M. (2002), "The Science Fiction and Fantasy Readers' Advisory: The Librarian's Guide to Cyborgs, Aliens, and Sorcerers", ALA readers' advisory series (Chicago: ALA Editions): 127–128, ISBN 0-8389-0831-4.
- Harrison, Michael (September 1, 2009), "Don't Try to Escape Fantasy Freaks and Gaming Geeks", Wired.com Geek Dad (Conde Nast Digital), retrieved 2010-08-12.
- Harrison, Michael (November 7, 2008), "The Elfish Gene Looks Back at a Childhood Spent on D&D", Wired: Geek Dad (Condé Nast Digital).
- Baichtal, John (September 26, 2007), "Introducing D&D to Girly Girls", Wired, retrieved 2011-06-10.
- Nugent, Benjamin (2009), American Nerd: The Story of My People, Simon and Schuster, p. 183, ISBN 0-7432-8802-5.
- Carlisle, Rodney P. (2009), "Dungeons & Dragons", Encyclopedia of play in today's society 1, SAGE, p. 187, ISBN 1-4129-6670-1.
- Clare, Cassandra (2007), City of Bones, Simon and Schuster, p. 117, ISBN 1-4169-1428-5.
- Booker, M. Keith, ed. (2010), Encyclopedia of Comic Books and Graphic Novels 1, ABC-CLIO, p. 208, ISBN 0313357471.
- Panzeri Jr., Peter F. (July 1, 2006), 32nd Hall of Fame Inductees Announced (PDF), Talsorian, retrieved 2008-12-04.
- "Raven Levels Up", Questionable Content, retrieved 2010-04-01.
- Schlock Mercenary, Tayler Corporation, November 11, 2007, retrieved 2010-04-01.
- Carter, Glenn, "Eagle Awards 2008 (for 2007) results", Comics Village, retrieved 2010-06-11.
- Grossman, Lev (January 31, 2007), "Webcomics Are the New Blogs: The Order of the Stick", Techland (TIME, Inc.), retrieved 2010-06-11.
- "Ultimate Game", xkcd, retrieved 2010-04-01.
- Mackay, Daniel (2001), The Fantasy Role-Playing Game: A New Performing Art, Jefferson, N.C: McFarland, p. 22, ISBN 0-7864-0815-4.
- Buckland, Warren (2006), Directed by Steven Spielberg: Poetics of the Contemporary Hollywood Blockbuster, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, p. 161, ISBN 0-8264-1691-8.
- Communications, Emmis (April 1986), "Robert MacNaughton", Orange Coast Magazinee 12 (4): 80, 85, retrieved 2010-06-11.
- Wortham, Jenna (November 4, 2008), "Futurama Animators Roll 20-Sided Die With Bender's Game", Wired (Condé Nast Digital), retrieved 2010-07-05
- Lees, Jennie (January 30, 2006), "Fear of Girls", joystiq (Aol), retrieved 2011-09-30.
- staff (January 28, 2007), "Filmmaker germs and gems", Minneapolis Star-Tribune.
- "Dead Gentlemen deliver new movie, Review: 'The Gamers' is spoof from Tacoma filmmakers", The News Tribune, December 3, 2002, retrieved 2011-08-19.
- Jainchill, Johanna (October 13, 2006), "Horror Movie Festivals: The Screaming, er, Screening's at 8", The New York Times, retrieved 2011-08-19.
- "Dungeons & Dragons (TV Series 1983)", imdb, retrieved 2011-06-06.
- Stahler, Kelsea (February 4, 2011), "'Community' Recap: Advanced Dungeons and Dragons", Hollywood.com, retrieved 2011-08-16.
- Van Der Werff, Todd (February 3, 2011), "Advanced Dungeons & Dragons", The A.V. Club (The Onion), retrieved 2011-07-03.
- "IMBD Futurama Trivia Page", IMDb, retrieved 2010-04-01.
- Sacks, Mike (2009), And Here's the Kicker: Conversations with 21 Top Humor Writers on Their Craft, Writer's Digest Books, p. 160, ISBN 1-58297-505-1.
- "'Bored of the Rings'", Sarah Silverman Online, retrieved 2010-04-01.
- That '70s Show - Alice Cooper playing D&D (Video), YouTube, September 21, 2010, retrieved 2011-08-24.
- Cherry, James A.; et al. (1997), "Homer Goes to College", The Simpsons Archive, retrieved 2010-04-01.
- Brent Butt (April 20, 2009), Corner Gas S4: Episode 18 - Happy Camper 3/4 (Television production), YouTube, event occurs at 2:59.
- Burch, Anthony (28 May 2013). "Borderlands 2: Tiny Tina DLC Commentary". IGN. IGN. Retrieved 29 May 2013.
- Weezer (August 4, 2008), Weezer - In the Garage (Television production), YouTube, event occurs at 0:21.
- "White & Nerdy Lyrics", MusicLyricsFYI.com, 2010, retrieved 2010-06-01, "Got skills, I'm a champion at D&D"
- Kaufman, Gil (May 1, 2003), "Flashlight Brown: What's The Opposite of Cool?", VH1, retrieved 2010-04-13.
- Rivadavia, Eduardo, "Kyuss Biography", AllMusic, retrieved 2010-04-01.
- Burton, Bonnie (September 10, 2010), Star Wars Shout Outs in "G33k & G4M3R Girls" Music Video, Lucas Online, retrieved 2010-09-30.
- Shreve, Jeff (June 29, 2006), "Final Fantasy", Stylus Magazine, retrieved 21 November 2010.
- MISS AMP, "divine magic", AMP, retrieved 21 November 2010.
- Stephen Lynch (Apr 17, 2011), Stephen Lynch - D&D (Television production), YouTube, event occurs at 2:50.
- Booth, John (April 14, 2010), "Interview With FoxTrot's Bill Amend", Wired, retrieved 2010-04-015.
- Carter, Randolph (February 16, 2010), "Reading the text: Kevin J. Anderson interview", Grinding to Valhalla, retrieved 2010-04-015.
- Antwiler, Noah, "About", The Spoony Experiment, retrieved 17 March 2010.
- Snider, John C., "Interview: Lee Arenberg", SciFi Dimensions, retrieved 2010-04-15.
- Barrowcliffe, Mark (2008), "An Unhealthy Interest", The Elfish Gene: Dungeons, Dragons and Growing Up Strange, Soho Press, ISBN 1-56947-522-9.
- Thomas, Harry (May 30, 2001), "Q&A: Not So Serious Rivers Cuomo", Rolling Stone.
- Bose, Lilledeshan (November 19, 2010), "What Weezer's Rivers Cuomo Said: Interviews from the Past vs. Present", OC Weekly, retrieved 2011-10-19.
- Staff (2010), "Lexa Doig", DragonCon (DCI, Inc), retrieved 2010-05-26.
- Briggs, Jerry (November 30, 1997), "Duncan's unusual hobby and more unusual request", San Antonio Express-News (Texas).
- Boucher, Geoff (May 5, 2008), "'Iron Man' action figure", Los Angeles Times: 3, retrieved 2010-03-26.
- Stanton, Pete (April 10, 2011), "Your Highness Interviews With Danny McBride, Zooey Deschanel, James Franco, Justin Theroux and David Gordon Green", MovieFone, retrieved 2011-05-05.
- Clausen, Elizabeth (March 18, 2010), "Event to showcase two alumni authors", The Daily Reveille, retrieved 2010-03-26.
- Staff (April 14, 2008), Teaching quality and peer influences, BBC News, retrieved 2011-10-17.
- "Stars are nerds too", The Chicago Tribune, February 22, 2006, retrieved 2011-11-11.
- Sabbath, Zak (March 17, 2010), "I Hit It With My Axe: Episode One: Meet the Party", Escapist Magazine (Themis Group, Inc.), retrieved 2010-07-04.
- Serota, Maggie (March 9, 2010), "Dork in the Road", New York press, retrieved 2010-04-15.
- Hartinger, Brent (January 5, 2011), "Everything I Know I Learned From Dungeons & Dragons", The Torch Online, retrieved 2011-11-11.
- Van Der Werff, Todd (June 9, 2011), "Dan Harmon walks us through Community's second season (part 3 of 4)", A. V. Club (Onion, Inc), retrieved 2011-06-10.
- "I Hit it With My Axe". escapistmagazine.com. 2010-03-17. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
- Krug, Kurt Anthony (May 25, 2011), "Grosse Pointe Park Resident Authors Star Wars Novels", Grosse Pointe Patch, retrieved 2011-06-06.
- Hodgman, John (February 13, 2005), Crossover: The Musical, The New York Times, p. 3, retrieved 2011-10-17.
- Malkin, Michelle (March 4, 2008), "D&D co-creator Gary Gygax, R.I.P", michellemalkin.com, retrieved 2010-04-15.
- Manson, Marilyn; Strauss, Neil (1999), The Long Hard Road Out of Hell, New York: HarperCollins, p. 26, ISBN 0-06-098746-4.
- Pevere, Geoff (May 29, 2011), "Bard of Geekdom: China Miéville discovers yet another new world", The Toronto Star, retrieved 2011-06-06.
- Miller, John J. (October 15, 2004), I Was A Teenage Half-Orc, National Review, retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Roy, Jessica (June 25, 2012), "Reddit Cofounder’s Brooklyn Apartment Turned Into Set for Dungeons & Dragons Documentary", BetaBeat, retrieved 2012-06-29.
- Reyes-Chow, Bruce, "Bruce’s Friday Five v6.8", SFGate (San Francisco Chronicle), retrieved 2012-06-29.
- Larnick, Eric (October 10, 2011), John C. Reilly on the nerve-wracking cast of 'Carnage' and his D&D upbringing, Moviefone, retrieved 2011-10-17.
- John J., Miller (2008), Dungeons & Dragons In a Digital World, WSJ, retrieved 2013-02-18.
- Smith, Zak (March 17, 2010), "Episode One: Meet the Party", I Hit It With My Axe (The Escapist), retrieved 1 August 2010.
- Ryan, Mike (May 3, 2011), "25 Questions for Boy Meets World's Rider Strong", Vanity Fair, retrieved 2011-05-05.
- Adler, Shawn, Vin Diesel of The Chronicles of Riddick (Universal) Interview, UGO Entertainment, retrieved 2010-04-16.
- Staff, "Mark Tremonti – The Tone Behind the Man", Guitar Edge, retrieved 2010-05-31.
- Vikernes, Varg (2010), A Burzum Story: Part I – The Origin And Meaning, Burzum.org, retrieved 2010-05-31.
- Scott, Kevin Conroy (2005), Screenwriters' masterclass: screenwriters talk about their greatest movies, Newmarket Insider Filmbook, Newmarket Press, p. 75, ISBN 1-55704-692-1.
- Castaneda, Gustavo (March 26, 2010), "Geek Out!: Wheaton wows gamers", CNN, retrieved 2010-03-26.
- Memmott, Carol (May 25, 2011), "Robots gone wild in Daniel H. Wilson's 'Robopocalypse'", USA Today, retrieved 2011-06-06.
- McHenry, Eric, "Columns Q&A: Rainn Wilson", Columns, retrieved 2010-12-08.
- Carter, Bill (2010), The war for late night: when Leno went early and television went crazy, Penguin, p. 113, ISBN 0-670-02208-X.
- Gilsdorf, Ethan (March 8, 2011), How "Dungeons & Dragons" changed my life, Salon Media Group, retrieved 2011-10-16.
- Diesel, Vin (2004), "Foreword", Thirty Years of Adventure: A Celebration of Dungeons & Dragons, Wizards of the Coast, ISBN 0-7869-3498-0.
- Dungeons and Dragons Game Day at London Dungeon, View London.co.uk, November 3, 2007, retrieved 2010-04-01.
- Gordon, Joan (November 2003), "Reveling in Genre: An Interview with China Miéville", Science Fiction Studies 30 (91), retrieved 2011-10-17.