Euronext

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Euronext.liffe)
Jump to: navigation, search
This article is about the stock exchange. For its parent company, see IntercontinentalExchange.
Euronext
EURONEXT location collage small
Euronext Exchange locations (clockwise): London, Brussels, Lisbon, Paris, Amsterdam
Type Stock and derivatives exchange
Location Amsterdam, Netherlands
Founded September 22, 2000[1][2][3][4]
Key people Dominique Cerutti [5][6][7]
(CEO Euronext and Chairman of the Board of Euronext N.V)
[8][9]

Jos Dijsselhof[10]
(Chief Operating Officer Euronext)
Hans Schinkel[11]
(Senior Vice President Euronext)
Vincent Van Dessel[12]
(CEO Euronext Brussels)
Luís Laginha de Sousa[13]
(CEO Euronext Lisbon)
Antony Attia[7][14]
(CEO Euronext Paris)

Lee Hodgkinson[15]
(CEO Euronext London and Head of Markets and Global Sales, Euronext)
Currency Euro
No. of listings 1,299[16]
Market cap US$ 3.7 trillion (2013)[16][17]
Volume US$ 1.9 trillion (2013)[16]
Indexes AEX
BEL 20
CAC 40
PSI 20
Euronext 100
NEXT 150
Website Euronext.com

Euronext[8][9] is a pan-European exchange based in Amsterdam, Brussels, London, Lisbon and Paris.[18] In addition to cash and derivatives markets, the Euronext group provides listing market data, market solutions, custody and settlement services.[19] Its total product offering includes equities, Exchange Traded Funds, warrants &certificates, bonds, derivatives, commodities and indices.

As of the first quarter of 2014, Euronext was number one in continental Europe with 1.300 issuers representing a €2.6tn market cap.[20] Euronext merged with NYSE Group, Inc. on April 4, 2007 to form NYSE Euronext (NYX). On November 13, 2013 IntercontinentalExchange (NYSEICE), completed acquisition of NYSE Euronext. In June 2014 Euronext completed an initial public offering making it a standalone company again.[5][21] [22]

History[edit]

Amsterdam Stock and Derivatives Exchange building at Beursplein 5

Creation of Euronext[edit]

Euronext was formed on 22 September 2000 following a merger of the Amsterdam Exchanges,[23] Brussels Stock Exchange, and Paris Bourse, in order to take advantage of the harmonization of the European Union financial markets.[1][2][3][4] In December 2001, Euronext acquired the shares of the London International Financial Futures and Options Exchange (LIFFE), forming Euronext.LIFFE. In 2002 the group merged with the Portuguese stock exchange Bolsa de Valores de Lisboa e Porto (BVLP), renamed Euronext Lisbon.[3] In 2001, Euronext became a listed company itself after completing its Initial Public Offering.[24]

Merger with NYSE[edit]

Due to apparent moves by NASDAQ to acquire the London Stock Exchange,[25] NYSE Group, owner of the New York Stock Exchange, offered €8 billion (US$10.2b) in cash and shares for Euronext on 22 May 2006, outbidding a rival offer for the European Stock exchange operator from Deutsche Börse, the German stock market.[26] Contrary to statements that it would not raise its bid, on 23 May 2006, Deutsche Börse unveiled a merger bid for Euronext, valuing the pan-European exchange at €8.6 billion (US$11b), €600 million over NYSE Group's initial bid.[27] Despite this, NYSE Group and Euronext penned a merger agreement, subject to shareholder vote and regulatory approval. The initial regulatory response by SEC chief Christopher Cox (who was coordinating heavily with European counterparts) was positive, with an expected approval by the end of 2007.[28] The new firm, tentatively dubbed NYSE Euronext, would be headquartered in New York City, with European operations and its trading platform run out of Paris. Then-NYSE CEO John Thain, who was to head NYSE Euronext, intended to use the combination to form the world's first global stock market, with continuous trading of stocks and derivatives over a 21-hour time span. In addition, the two exchanges hoped to add Borsa Italiana (the Milan stock exchange) into the grouping.

Deutsche Börse dropped out of the bidding for Euronext on 15 November 2006, removing the last major hurdle for the NYSE Euronext transaction. A run-up of NYSE Group's stock price in late 2006 made the offering far more attractive to Euronext's shareholders.[29] On 19 December 2006, Euronext shareholders approved the transaction with 98.2% of the vote. Only 1.8% voted in favour of the Deutsche Börse offer. fr:Jean-François Théodore, the Chief Executive Officer of Euronext, stated that they expected the transaction to close within three or four months.[30] Some of the regulatory agencies with jurisdiction over the merger had already given approval. NYSE Group shareholders gave their approval on 20 December 2006.[31] The merger was completed on 4 April 2007, forming NYSE Euronext.

Attempted merger with Deutsche Börse[edit]

In 2008 and 2009 Deutsche Börse made two unsuccessful attempts to merge with NYSE Euronext. Both attempts did not enter into advanced steps of merger.[32][33]

In 2011, Deutsche Börse and NYSE Euronext confirmed that they were in advanced merger talks. Such a merger would create the largest exchange in history.[34] The deal was approved by shareholders of NYSE Euronext on July 7, 2011,[28] and Deutsche Börse on July 15, 2011[35] and won the antitrust approved by the US regulators on On December 22, 2011.[36] On February 1, 2012, the deal was blocked by European Commission on the grounds that the new company would have resulted in a quasi-monopoly in the area of European financial derivatives traded globally on exchanges.[37][38] Even if the project was definitely buried after this, Deutsche Börse appealed this decision.[39]

In 2012, Euronext announced the creation of Euronext London to offer listing facilities in the UK. As such, Euronext received in June, 2014 Recognized Investment Exchange (RIE) status from Britain's Financial Conduct Authority.[40]

Acquisition by Intercontinental Exchange[edit]

In December 2012 Intercontinental Exchange announced plans to acquire NYSE Euronext, owner of Euronext, in an $8.2 billion takeover.[41] The deal was approved by the shareholders of NYSE Euronext and Intercontinental Exchange on June 3, 2013.[42][43][44] The European Commission approved the acquisition on 24 June 2013[45] and on Aug. 15, 2013 the US regulator, SEC, granted approval of the acquisition.[46][47][48] European regulators and ministries of Finance of the participating countries approved the deal and on November 13, 2013 the acquisition was completed.[5][21] The fact that ICE intends to pursue an initial public offering of Euronext in 2014[5] was always part of the deal and a positive elements for European stakeholders. After a complex series of operation within a very limited frame, Euronext became public in June 2014.

Listing of Euronext and separation from ICE[edit]

On June 20, 2014 Euronext was split from ICE through an initial public offering.[49] In order to stabilize Euronext, a consortium of eleven investors decided to invest in the company. These investors referred to as "reference shareholders" own 33.36% of Euronext’s capital and have a 3 years lockup period: Euroclear, BNP Paribas, BNP Paribas Fortis, Société Générale, Caisse des Dépôts, BPI France, ABN Amro, ASR, Banco Espirito Santo, Banco BPI and Belgian holding public company SFPI (Société Fédérale de Participations et d'Investissement).[50] They have 3 board seats.

Alternext[edit]

Alternext is a market segment formed in 2005 by Euronext to help small and mid-class companies in the Eurozone seek financing. This initiative was later followed by the creation of EnterNext, a subsidiary of Euronext dedicated to promoting and growing the market for SMEs.[51]

EnterNext[edit]

Enternext was created in 2013 in order to help SMEs outline and apply a strategy that is most suited to support their growth. Enternext is a pan-European program and comprises over 750 SMEs, which are listed on Euronext markets in Europe.[52] Thus, EnterNext plays a key role in Euronext’s strategy of becoming a leading capital raising center in Europe.

In June 2014, EnterNext launched two initiatives to boost SME equity research and support the technology sector. EnterNext partnered with Morningstar to increase equity research focusing on mid-size companies, especially in the telecommunications, media and technology (TMT) sector.

Cash markets[edit]

Euronext combines four national markets in Europe, trading stocks of major companies of each country participant, and manages the main national indices representing these stocks: AEX-index, BEL 20, CAC 40 and PSI 20. Blue chip traded on Euronext represent 20+ issuers included in the EURO STOXX 50® benchmark.[53] In 2012, Euronext announced it was opening a listings venue in London under Euronext London, which strengthened the competitive position of Euronext in Europe and increased its visibility.[54][55]

Table of major instrument types traded on Euronext Cash Markets:

Market / Segment Name Equities[56] Bonds[57] ETFs[58] Funds[59] ETVs / ETNs[60] Warrants, Certificates & Structured Notes[61]
Alternext Amsterdam Yes - - - - -
Alternext Brussels Yes Yes - - - -
Alternext Lisbon Yes - - - - -
Alternext Paris Yes Yes - - - -
Easynext Lisbon Yes - - - - Yes
Euronext Amsterdam Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Euronext Brussels Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Euronext Lisbon Yes Yes Yes Yes - -
Euronext London Yes - - - - -
Euronext Paris Yes Yes Yes - Yes Yes
Marche Libre Brussels Yes Yes - - - -
Marche Libre Paris Yes Yes - - - Yes
NYSE Bondmatch - Yes - - - -
Traded But Not Listed Amsterdam Yes - - - - -
Trading Facility Brussels Yes - - - - -

Derivative market[edit]

Euronext has a leading milling wheat contract which is a benchmark for wheat prices in Europe. In June 2014, Euronext signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with the Dalian Commodity Exchange (DCE).[62] This agreement aims at researching the demand for commodity products in new geographic areas and developing strategies for the distribution and trading of these products in safe and orderly markets.

Table of major instrument types traded on Euronext Derivative Markets:[63]

Futures/Options Amsterdam, The Netherlands Brussels, Belgium Lisbon, Portugal Paris, France
Commodity Futures - - - Yes
Commodity Options - - - Yes
Index Futures Yes Yes Yes Yes
Index Options Yes Yes Yes
Stock Futures - - Yes -
Stock Options Yes Yes - Yes
ETF Options - - - Yes
Currency Futures Yes - - -
Currency Options Yes - - -
Dividend Futures Yes - - Yes

Structure and indices[edit]

Euronext comprises cash and derivatives markets, which, as of December 2013, cover the following operational markets and segments.[64]

Market / Segment Name Cash / Derivatives Country City MIC Code Comments
Euronext Amsterdam Cash The Netherlands Amsterdam XAMS
Alternext Amsterdam Cash The Netherlands Amsterdam ALXA
Traded But Not Listed Amsterdam Cash The Netherlands Amsterdam TNLA
Euronext EQF, Equities And Indices Derivatives Derivatives The Netherlands Amsterdam XEUE
Euronext IRF, Interest Rate Future And Options Derivatives The Netherlands Amsterdam XEUI
Euronext Brussels Cash Belgium Brussels XBRU
Alternext Brussels Cash Belgium Brussels ALXB
Easy Next Cash Belgium Brussels ENXB MTF for Warrants and Certificates
Marche Libre Brussels Cash Belgium Brussels MLXB
Trading Facility Brussels Cash Belgium Brussels TNLB
Ventes Publiques Brussels Cash Belgium Brussels VPXB
Euronext Brussels - Derivatives Derivatives Belgium Brussels XBRD
Euronext Lisbon Cash Portugal Lisbon XLIS
Alternext Lisbon Cash Portugal Lisbon ALXL Alternext is the name of a market (MTF) organised in Portugal by Euronext Lisbon, Sociedade Gestora De Mercados Regulamentados, S.A.
Easynext Lisbon Cash Portugal Lisbon ENXL
Mercado De Futuros E Opções Derivatives Portugal Lisbon MFOX
Market Without Quotations Lisbon Derivatives Portugal Lisbon WQXL
Euronext London Cash United Kingdom London XLDN A UK regulated market aimed at international issuers complementary to the existing euronext Cash markets
Liffe Derivatives United Kingdom London XLIF
Euronext Paris Cash France Paris XPAR
Alternext Paris Cash France Paris ALXP
NYSE Bondmatch Cash France Paris MTCH Financial, corporate and covered bonds trading platform for professional investors.
Euronext Paris Matif Derivatives France Paris XMAT
Marche Libre Paris Cash France Paris XMLI
Euronext Paris Monep Derivatives France Paris XMON

Indices[edit]

Euronext manages various country (national), as well as pan-European regional and sector and strategy indices.[65]

Main indices managed by Euronext[65]

Name Symbol Trading Currency
AEX All-share AAX EUR
AEX AEX EUR
Alternext All-share ALASI EUR
AMX AMX EUR
AScX ASCX EUR
BEL 20 BEL20 EUR
BEL All-share BELAS EUR
BEL CONTIN STCK NR BELCU EUR
BEL Mid BELM EUR
BEL Small BELS EUR
CAC 40 PX1 EUR
CAC All-share PAX EUR
CAC All-tradable CACT EUR
CAC Mid & small CACMS EUR
CAC Mid 60 CACMD EUR
CAC Next 20 CN20 EUR
CAC Small CACS EUR
Euronext 100 N100 EUR
EURONEXT FAS IAS FIAS EUR
NYSE Euronext Iberian NEIBI EUR
IEIF SIIC FRANCE SIIC EUR
Low Carbon 100 Europe LC100 EUR
Next 150 N150 EUR
Next Biotech BIOTK EUR
OSEO INNOVATION NAOII EUR
Private Equity Nxt PENXT EUR
PSI 20 PSI20 EUR
PSI All-share BVLGR EUR
REIT EUROPE EUR
SBF - 120 FCI EUR

Agreements and cooperation with other exchanges[edit]

Since the acquisition of Euronext by IntercontinentalExchange, information about the status and validity of agreements and cooperations is not available. Euronext provides technology and managed services to third parties. In March 2014, the group signed agreements with four new exchanges, the Beirut Stock Exchange, the Amman Stock Exchange, Bourse de Tunis and the Muscat Securities Market, for the implementation of its UTP.[66]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Kingdom of the Netherlands-Netherlands: Detailed Assessment of Standards and Codes (Report). Washington, D.C.: International Monetary Fund. 2004-09-29. p. 136. IFM Country Report No 04/310. http://books.google.fr/books?id=J5zSdO4k6pIC&lpg=PA136&ots=B9MEYKrKQK&dq=Euronext%20September%2022%2C%202000&pg=PP3#v=onepage&q=Euronext%20September%2022,%202000&f=false. Retrieved 2013-12-27.
  2. ^ a b Yutaka, Kurihara; Sadayoshi, Takaya; Nobuyoshi, Yamori (2006). Global Information Technology and Competitive Financial Alliances. Idea Group Inc. (IGI). p. 137. ISBN 9781591408833. 
  3. ^ a b c Fabozzi, Frank J., ed. (2008). "Handbook of Finance, Financial Markets and Instruments". Handbook of Finance 1. John Wiley & Sons. p. 143. ISBN 9780470391075. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  4. ^ a b Théodore, Jean-François (2000-09-22). "Birth of Euronext: Speech from Jean-François Théodore, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Euronext". Paris Europlace. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  5. ^ a b c d "IntercontinentalExchange Completes Acquisition of NYSE Euronext" (Press release). ICE Intercontinental Exchange. 2013-11-13. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  6. ^ Kutler, Jeffrey (2013-07-16). "The 2013 Tech 50: Dominique Cerutti". Institutional Investor. Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  7. ^ a b Alcaraz, Marina (2013-12-06). "Anthony Attia prend la tête d’Euronext en France". Les Échos (in French) (Paris). Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  8. ^ a b "ICE looks to sell part of Euronext ahead of IPO". Financial Times. Retrieved 7 April 2014. 
  9. ^ a b "Nasdaq Says No Merger Discussions With LSE, Euronext". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2014-02-26. 
  10. ^ "Euronext Taps Jos Dijsselhof as COO to Handle Pan-European Markets". Forex Magnates. 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-15. 
  11. ^ "Euronext appoints Hans Schinkel, Senior Vice President, Human Resources". NYSE. 2014. Retrieved 2014-10-15. 
  12. ^ "NYSE Euronext launches EnterNext® in Brussels" (Press release). NYSE Euronext. 2013-07-04. Retrieved 2013-12-26. 
  13. ^ "NYSE Euronext Appoints Luis Laginha De Sousa To Succeed Miguel Athayde Marques As Chairman And CEO Of NYSE Euronext Lisbon" (Press release). Mondo Visione. 2010-06-14. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  14. ^ "Anthony Attia prend la tête d'Euronext France". Le Figaro (in French) (Paris). 2013-12-06. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  15. ^ "Euronext strengthens senior management team". NYSE Euronext. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  16. ^ a b c "Cash Market - Monthly Statistics". Euronext. Retrieved 8 April 2014. 
  17. ^ Bunge, Jacob; Demos, Telis (2013-11-18). "Euronext Attracts Potential Buyers". The Wall Street Journal (Lex Fenwick). Retrieved 2012-12-29. 
  18. ^ "Regulation". NYSE Euronext. Retrieved 2010-09-23. 
  19. ^ "About Euronext". Euronext. Retrieved 2014-03-27. 
  20. ^ "http://www1.nyse.com/press/1401280737728.html". June 4, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  21. ^ a b "ICE buys NYSE-Euronext. The end of the street". The Economist (New York: London, The Economist Newspaper Ltd.) 2013 (November 16). 2013-11-16. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  22. ^ "Intercontinental Exchange Announces Closing of Euronext Initial Public Offering". ICE Press Release. Retrieved 47 August 2014.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  23. ^ "Amsterdam Stock Exchange". NYSE Euronext. Retrieved 2014-03-27. 
  24. ^ Pownall, Grace; Maria Vulcheva; Xue Wang (01/03/2013). "Creation and Segmentation of the Euronext Stock Exchange and Listed Firms' Liquidity and Accounting Quality: Empirical Evidence". p. 7. Retrieved 4 April 2014.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  25. ^ MacDonald, A.; Manuel, G. (2006-12-12). "Nasdaq Formally Launches Bid for London Stock Exchange". The Wall Street Journal. 
  26. ^ "NYSE and Euronext 'set to merge'". BBC News. 2006-05-21. Retrieved 2006-05-22. 
  27. ^ "Deutsche Boerse outbids NYSE for Euronext merger". BBC News. May 23, 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-23. 
  28. ^ a b Lucchetti, Aaron; Macdonald, Alistair; Scannell, Kara (June 2, 2006). "NYSE, Euronext Set Plan to Form A Markets Giant". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2006-06-02. 
  29. ^ Taylor, Edward; Lucchetti, Aaron; Macdonald, Alistair (2006-11-15). "Deutsche Börse Is Exiting Euronext Chase". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2006-11-15. 
  30. ^ Lucchetti, Aaron; Macdonald, Alistair (2006-12-19). "Euronext Shareholders Approve Acquisition by NYSE". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2006-12-19. 
  31. ^ "Big Board Holders Back Euronext Deal". The New York Times. 2006-12-21. Retrieved 2006-12-21. 
  32. ^ Grant, Jeremy (2008-12-06). "Deutsche Börse pitches merger with NYSE Euronext". Financial Times. London. Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  33. ^ Bunge, Jacob; Launder, William; Lucchetti, Aaron (2011-02-10). "NYSE, Deutsche Börse Talk Tie-Up as Competition Intensifies". The Wall Street Journal (Chicago: Lex Fenwick). ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  34. ^ Waller, Martin (2008-12-08). "Talks to create world's biggest exchange". Times Online (London). Retrieved 2008-12-09. 
  35. ^ Bunge, Jacob (2011-07-15). "Deutsche Börse Wins 82% Backing for NYSE Deal". The Wall Street Journal (Chicago: Lex Fenwick). Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  36. ^ Bartz, Diane (2011-12-11). "Deutsche Boerse, NYSE deal wins U.S. approval". Reuters (Washington D.C.). Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  37. ^ "Mergers: Commission blocks proposed merger between Deutsche Börse and NYSE Euronext" (Press release). European Commission. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  38. ^ "NYSE Euronext merger with Deutsche Boerse blocked by EU". BBC News. 2012-02-01. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  39. ^ "Deutsche Borse To Appeal EU Veto Of NYSE Euronext". International Business Times. March 20, 2012. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  40. ^ "Euronext UK secures RIE status". FTSE Global Markets. June 4, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  41. ^ McCrank, John; Jeffs, Luke (2012-12-20). "ICE to buy NYSE Euronext for $8.2 billion". Reuters (London). Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  42. ^ Pisani, Bob (2013-06-03). "NYSE Euronext Shareholders Approve ICE Merger". CNBC. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  43. ^ "NYSE Euronext Shareholders Approve Acquisition by IntercontinentalExchange" (Press release). New York: NYSE Euronext. 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  44. ^ "IntercontinentalExchange Stockholders Approve Acquisition of NYSE Euronext" (Press release). Atlanta: ICE Intercontinental Exchange. 2013-06-03. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  45. ^ "Mergers: Commission approves acquisition of NYSE Euronext by InterContinental Exchange" (Press release). Brussels: European Commission. 2013-06-24. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  46. ^ "Self-Regulatory Organizations; New York Stock Exchange LLC; NYSE MKT LLC; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule Change Relating to a Corporate Transaction in which NYSE Euronext Will Become a Wholly-Owned Subsidiary of IntercontinentalExchange Group, Inc" (Press release). Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). 2013-08-15. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  47. ^ Bunge, Jacob (2013-08-16). "SEC Approves ICE-NYSE Deal". The Wall Street Journal (Chicago: Lex Fenwick). Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  48. ^ Lynch, Sarah N.; McCrank, John (2013-08-16). McCormick, Gerald E.; Wallace, John, eds. "SEC approves ICE's planned takeover of NYSE". Reuters. Retrieved 2013-12-27. 
  49. ^ "Euronext Detaches From ICE Through $1.2 Billion IPO". Bloomberg. June 20, 2014. 
  50. ^ "ICE to sell third of Euronext to institutions in pan-European IPO". Financial Times. May 27, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  51. ^ "EnterNext, la Bourse des PME, devra convaincre". Le Monde. May 24, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  52. ^ "Enternext". Europeanequities.nyx. Retrieved 2014-03-27. 
  53. ^ Euronext. "About Euronext". Retrieved 2014-01-10. 
  54. ^ "NYSE Euronext opens 'NYSE Euronext London'". Automatedtrader. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  55. ^ "NYSE Euronext to rival LSE for London listings". Reuters. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  56. ^ Euronext. "Euronext Equities Product Directory". Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  57. ^ Euronext. "Euronext Bonds Product Directory". Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  58. ^ Euronext. "Euronext ETF Product Directory". Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  59. ^ Euronext. "Euronext Funds Product Directory". Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  60. ^ Euronext. "Euronext ETV/ENT Product Directory". Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  61. ^ Euronext. "Euronext Warrants & Certificates Product directory". Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  62. ^ "Euronext signe un partenariat avec Dalian Commodity Exchange". L'Agefi. June 12, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 
  63. ^ NYSE Euronext. "NYSE Euronext Global Derivatives Product Directory". Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  64. ^ S.W.I.F.T. SCRL (2013-12-09). "ISO 10383 - Market Identifier Codes" (PDF). International Organization for Standardization. Retrieved 2014-01-06. 
  65. ^ a b NYSE Euronext. "Euronext Index Directory". Retrieved 2014-01-11. 
  66. ^ "MENA exchanges sign up for Euronext trading platform". Trade News. March 18, 2014. Retrieved October 15, 2014. 

External links[edit]