Federation of Arab Republics

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Federation of Arab Republics
اتحاد الجمهوريات العربية
Ittiħād Al-Jumhūriyyāt Al-`Arabiyya

 

 

1972–1977
 

 

Flag Coat of arms
The Federation of Arab Republics in 1972.
Capital Tripoli (Libya)
Cairo (Egypt)
Damascus (Syria)
Languages Arabic
Religion Secular[1] (Islam and Christianity)
Government Confederal republic
Historical era Cold War
 -  Referenda held 1 September 1971
 -  Federation established 1 January 1972
 -  Disestablished 19 November 1977
Area
 -  1977 2,947,171 km² (1,137,909 sq mi)
Population
 -  1977 est. 52,703,600 
     Density 17.9 /km²  (46.3 /sq mi)
Currency Libyan dinar
Egyptian pound
Syrian pound
Today part of  Egypt
 Libya
 Syria

The Federation of Arab Republics (Arabic: اتحاد الجمهوريات العربية Ittiħād Al-Jumhūriyyāt Al-`Arabiyya)[2] was an attempt by Libya's Muammar Gaddafi to merge Libya, Egypt and Syria in order to create a United Arab state. Although approved by a referendum in each country on 1 September 1971,[3] the three countries disagreed on the specific terms of the merger. The federation lasted from 1 January 1972 to 19 November 1977.

It is not to be confused with the United Arab Republic (1958–1961), which was a single sovereign state uniting Egypt and Syria.

Referendums[edit]

Three simultaneous referendums on the Federation of Arab Republics were held on 1 September 1971, in Egypt, Libya and Syria.[4] In the Egyptian referendum the proposal was approved by 99.9% of voters,[5] in the Libyan referendum it was approved by 98.6% of voters,[6] whilst in Syria 96.4% voted in favour.[7]

Other Federations of Arab Republics[edit]

"Federation of Arab Republics" could refer to five different proposals:

  • Federation between Egypt, Libya and Sudan (1969/70–1971)
  • Federation between Egypt, Libya and Syria (1971/72–1974/77)
  • Union between Egypt and Libya within the Federation (1972–1973/74)
  • Union between Egypt and Syria within the Federation (1976–1977)
  • Federation between Egypt, Sudan and Syria (1977)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Baer, Gabriel (2003) [First published 1964]. Population and Society in the Arab East. Volume 11 of The International Library of Sociology: The Sociology of Development (Reprinted ed.). Routledge. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-415-17578-4. "According to the temporary constitution of the UAR of March 1958, the provisions concerning a state religion or the president's religion were repealed, to be reintroduced into the National Charter of the UAR (Egypt) in May 1962." 
  2. ^ The literal translation is "Union of Arab Republics".
  3. ^ Nohlen, D, Krennerich, M & Thibaut, B (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, p336 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
  4. ^ Nohlen, D, Krennerich, M & Thibaut, B (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, p336 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
  5. ^ Nohlen, D, Krennerich, M & Thibaut, B (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, p340 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
  6. ^ Nohlen, D, Krennerich, M & Thibaut, B (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, p528 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
  7. ^ Syrien, 1. September 1971 : Bildung der Vereinigten Arabischen Republik Direct Democracy (German)