Fort Bragg

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This article is about the U.S. Army post, North Carolina. For other uses, see Fort Bragg (disambiguation).
Fort Bragg
Cumberland / Hoke / Moore / Harnett counties,
near Fayetteville, North Carolina
18 ABC SSI.svg 82 ABD SSI.PNG 1st Sustainment Command SSI.svg US Army Special Forces SSI.png 16th Military Police Brigade SSI.jpg 18thAVN BDE SSI.gif
95CivilAffairsBdeSSI.jpg 525 BfSB.svg 20th Engineer Brigade SSI.png
JFKSWCS SSI.gif US Army Special Operations Command SSI.svg 44th Medical Command SSI.svg
18FiresBdeSSI.jpgUSACAPOC(A) small.jpg United States Army Forces Command SSI.svg US Army Reserve Command SSI.svg
Shoulder sleeve insignia of units stationed at Fort Bragg
Type Military Base
Site information
Controlled by United States
Site history
Built 1918
In use 1918 – present
Garrison information
Garrison 18 ABC SSI.svg XVIII Airborne Corps
For tenant units, See below

Fort Bragg is a major United States Army installation, located in Cumberland, Hoke, Harnett and Moore counties, North Carolina, mostly in Fayetteville but also partly in the town of Spring Lake. It was also a census-designated place in the 2010 Census, during which a population of 39,457 was identified. The fort is named for Confederate general Braxton Bragg. It covers over 251 square miles (650 km2). It is the home of the US Army airborne forces and Special Forces, as well as U.S. Army Forces Command and U.S. Army Reserve Command.

History[edit]

One of the signs at an entrance to the post.
Fort Bragg, North Carolina
CDP
Fort Bragg, North Carolina is located in North Carolina
Fort Bragg, North Carolina
Fort Bragg, North Carolina
Location within the state of North Carolina
Coordinates: 35°8′21″N 78°59′57″W / 35.13917°N 78.99917°W / 35.13917; -78.99917Coordinates: 35°8′21″N 78°59′57″W / 35.13917°N 78.99917°W / 35.13917; -78.99917
Country United States
State North Carolina
County Cumberland
Area
 • Total 251.0 sq mi (650.2 km2)
 • Land 249.7 sq mi (646.8 km2)
 • Water 1.3 sq mi (3.4 km2)
Population (2010)
 • Total 39,457
 • Density 1,540.0/sq mi (594.6/km2)
Time zone Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 28307, 28310
Area code(s) 910
FIPS code 37-24260[1]

World War I[edit]

Camp Bragg was established in 1918, as an artillery training ground. The aim was for six artillery brigades to be stationed there and $6,000,000 was spent on the land and cantonments.[2] There was an airfield on the camp used by aircraft and balloons for artillery spotters which was named Pope Field on April 1, 1919 in honor of First Lieutenant Harley H. Pope[2] an airman who was killed while flying nearby. The work on the camp was finished on November 1, 1919.[2] It was named to honor a native North Carolinian, Gen. Braxton Bragg, who commanded Confederate States Army forces in the Civil War.

The original plan for six brigades was abandoned after World War I ended[2] and once demobilisation had started. The artillery men, their equipment and material from Camp McClellan, Alabama were moved over to Fort Bragg and testing began on long range weapons that were a product of the war.[2] The six artillery brigades were reduced to two containments and a garrison was to be built for Army troops as well as a National Guard training center.[2] In early 1921 two field artillery units the 13th and 17th Field Artillery Brigades began training at Camp Bragg.

Due to the post war cutbacks the camp was nearly closed for good when the War department issued orders to close the camp on August 7, 1921. General Albert J. Bowley was commander at the camp and after much campaigning, and getting the Secretary of War to visit the camp, the closing order was cancelled on September 16, 1921. The Field Artillery Board was transferred to Fort Bragg on February 1, 1922.

Camp Bragg was renamed Fort Bragg, to signify becoming a permanent Army post, on September 30, 1922. From 1923 to 1924, permanent structures were constructed on Fort Bragg, including four barracks, which still stand today.[2]

World War II[edit]

By 1940, the population of Fort Bragg had reached 5,400; However, in the following year, that number ballooned to 67,000. Various units trained at Fort Bragg during World War II, including the 9th Infantry Division, 2nd Armored Division, 82nd Airborne Division, 100th Infantry Division, and various field artillery groups. The population reached a peak of 159,000 during the war years.[3]

Cold War[edit]

Following World War II, the 82nd Airborne Division was permanently stationed at Fort Bragg, the only large unit there for some time. In July 1951, the XVIII Airborne Corps was reactivated at Fort Bragg. Fort Bragg became a center for unconventional warfare, with the creation of the Psychological Warfare Center in April 1952, followed by the 10th Special Forces Group.[4]

In 1961, the 5th Special Forces Group (Airborne) was activated at Fort Bragg, with the mission of training counter-insurgency forces in Southeast Asia. Also in 1961, the "Iron Mike" statue, a tribute to all Airborne soldiers, past, present and future, was dedicated.[5] More than 200,000 young men underwent basic combat training here during the period 1966–70. At the peak of the Vietnam War in 1968, Fort Bragg's military population rose to 57,840. In June 1972, the 1st Corps Support Command arrived at Fort Bragg.[6]

In the 1980s, there was a series of deployments of tenant units to the Caribbean, first to Grenada in 1983, Honduras in 1988, and to Panama in 1989. The 5th Special Forces Group departed Fort Bragg in the late 1980s.[7]

Southwest Asia wars[edit]

Troopers of the 82nd Airborne Division training on Fort Bragg, December 2005

In 1990, the XVIII Airborne Corps and the 82nd Airborne Division deployed to Saudi Arabia in support of Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm. In the mid and late 1990s, there was increased modernization of the facilities in Fort Bragg. The World War II wooden barracks were largely removed, a new main post exchange was built, and Devers Elementary School was opened, along with several other projects.[8]

As a result of campaigns in Afghanistan and Iraq, the units on Fort Bragg have seen a sizeable increase to their operations tempo (OPTEMPO), with units conducting two, three, or even four or more deployments to combat zones. As directed by law, and in accordance with the recommendations of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission, Fort McPherson, Ga., closed and U.S. Army Forces Command and U.S. Army Reserve Command relocated to Fort Bragg, N.C. A new FORSCOM/U.S. Army Reserve Command Headquarters facility completed construction at Fort Bragg, N.C., in June 2011. Forces Command hosted June 24, 2011 an Army "casing of colors ceremony" on Fort McPherson, Ga., and an "uncasing of colors ceremony" Aug 1, 2011 on Fort Bragg, N.C. On March 1, 2011, Pope Field, the former Pope Air Force Base was absorbed into Fort Bragg.

Tenant units[edit]

Barracks of the 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division at Fort Bragg
Paratroopers in training at Fort Bragg

Several airborne units of the U.S. Army are stationed at Fort Bragg, notably the XVIII Airborne Corps HQ, the 82nd Airborne Division, and the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC).

Other units stationed at Fort Bragg include the:

Geography and ecology[edit]

Fort Bragg is at 35°8'21" North, 78°59'57" West (35.139064, −78.999143)[9].

According to the United States Census Bureau, the post has a total area of 19.0 square miles (49.2 km²), of which, 19.0 square miles (49.1 km²) of it is land and 0.1 square miles (0.2 km²) of it is water. The total area is 0.32% water.

International security website Globalsecurity.org reports that Fort Bragg occupies approximately 160,700 acres (650 km2) [1]

Ft. Bragg is the only locality where the endangered Saint Francis' Satyr butterfly (Neonympha mitchellii francisci) is known to occur. St. Francis’ satyr is found in wetland habitat dominated by graminoids and sedges such as abandoned beaver dams or along streams with active beaver complexes.

Fort Bragg fever, a bacterial zoonotic disease, has been named after it.

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
1970 46,995
1980 37,834 −19.5%
1990 34,744 −8.2%
2000 29,183 −16.0%
2010 39,457 35.2%
source:[10]

As of the census[1] of 2000, there are 29,183 people, 4,315 households, and 4,215 families residing on the base. The population density is 1,540.0 people per square mile (594.6/km²). There are 4,420 housing units at an average density of 233.3/sq mi (90.1/km²).

Racial makeup[edit]

The racial makeup of the base is 58.1% Caucasian, 25.3% African-American, 1.2% Native American, 1.8% Asian, 0.9% Pacific Islander, 8.3% from other races, and 4.6% from two or more races. 15.8% of the population are Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Households[edit]

There are 4,315 households out of which 85.3% have children under the age of 18 living with them, 88.9% are married couples living together, 7.2% have a female householder with no husband present, and 2.3% are non-families. 2.1% of all households are made up of individuals and 0.0% have someone living alone who is 65 years of age or older. The average household size is 3.72 and the average family size is 3.74.

Ages[edit]

The age distribution is 25.8% under the age of 18, 40.9% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 1.1% from 45 to 64, and 0.1% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age is 22 years. For every 100 females there are 217.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there are 293.5 males. All of these statistics are typical for military bases.

Income[edit]

The median income for a household on the base is $30,106, and the median income for a family is $29,836. 10.0% of the population and 9.6% of families are below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 11.4% of those under the age of 18 and 0.0% of those 65 and older are living below the poverty line.

Events of note[edit]

  • In 1967, Manuel Noriega, who would later go on to become the dictator of Panama, received Psyop training at this location.
  • On February 17, 1970, the pregnant wife and two daughters of Jeffrey R. MacDonald were murdered. The events surrounding the murders were retold in the book Fatal Vision, itself made into a television miniseries of the same name.
  • On October 27, 1995, William Kreutzer, Jr. opened fire at Fort Bragg, killing an officer and wounding 18 other soldiers.
  • On June 28, 2005, President George W. Bush gave a nationally televised speech at Fort Bragg to reaffirm the United States' mission in Iraq.
  • On December 13, 2011, WWE hosted its annual Tribute to the Troops at Fort Bragg with special guest stars including Robin Williams, Nickelback, and Mary J. Blige
  • On December 14, 2011, President Barack Obama gave a nationally televised speech thanking soldiers for their service in Operation Iraqi Freedom.[11]
  • In 2012 one of the base's green berets Trey Scott Atwater was arrested and charged for attempting to board a flight with C4 in his luggage at Midland International Airport.[12]
  • On June 28, 2012, Specialist Ricky G. Elder shot and killed Lieutenant Colonel Roy L. Tisdale of the 525th Battlefield Surveillance Brigade during a safety brief. The soldier also shot himself and injured two other fellow soldiers.[13] He later died of his injuries.[14]
  • On January 20, 2013, Army Times highlights the experience of a married same-sex couple at Fort Bragg, both servicemembers, who are denied the housing allowance and other benefits that are available to different-sex married servicemembers.[15]

Notable people[edit]

  • Jason Miller (born 1980), retired mixed martial arts fighter, grew up on Fort Bragg

Burials[edit]

Actress Martha Raye is buried on Fort Bragg in commemoration of her work with the USO during World War II and Vietnam.[16]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g "1919–1939". XVIII Airborne. Retrieved July 13, 2010. 
  3. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1940s". http://www.bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Retrieved January 25, 2007. 
  4. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1950s". http://www.bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Retrieved January 25, 2007. 
  5. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1960s". http://www.bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Retrieved January 25, 2007. 
  6. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1970s". http://www.bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Retrieved January 25, 2007. 
  7. ^ "History of Fort Bragg". http://www.bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Retrieved January 25, 2007. 
  8. ^ "History of Fort Bragg, 1990s". http://www.bragg.army.mil/ Fort Bragg’s online website. Retrieved January 25, 2007. 
  9. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  10. ^ "CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING (1790–2000)". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 25, 2010. 
  11. ^ Nicholas, Peter (December 14, 2011). "At Ft. Bragg, Obama welcomes troops home from Iraq". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved January 26, 2013. 
  12. ^ U.S. Attorney’s Office. "Statement Regarding United States vs. Trey Scott Atwater". FBI. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  13. ^ "Official: Battalion commander dead in Fort Bragg shooting". MSNBC. Retrieved 28 June 2012. 
  14. ^ Santora, Marc (July 1, 2012). "Gunman in Fort Bragg Shooting Dies". The New York Times. 
  15. ^ Crary, David; Miesecker, Michaeltitle=DOMA a roadblock for same-sex military couples (January 20, 2013). Army Times http://www.armytimes.com/news/2013/01/ap-doma-roadblock-same-sex-military-couples-012013/ |url= missing title (help). Retrieved January 22, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Martha Raye Buried at Fort Bragg". Gadsden Times. Associated Press. October 23, 1994. Retrieved October 6, 2012. 

External links[edit]