Gryfice ( [ɡrɨˈfʲit͡sɛ] (; ) Kashubian: Grëfice), formerly known by its German name Greifenberg, is a town in [1 ] Pomerania, north-western Poland with 16 632 inhabitants (2008). It is the capital of Gryfice County in West Pomeranian Voivodeship (since 1999), previously in Szczecin Voivodeship (1975–1998).
History [ edit ]
Battle of Niekładź took place in the area of Gryfice in 1121, in which Polish ruler Bolesław III Krzywousty defeated Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania and Swantopolk I, Duke of Pomerania [2 ] [3 ]
In 1262, throughout the German
Ostsiedlung, Wartislaw III, Duke of Pomerania founded a town under Lübeck law on the Rega river. After his death, his successor, Barnim I, Duke of Pomerania, named the settlement Civitat Griphemberch super Regam (Griffinsmountain) after the coat of arms symbol of the Dukes of Pomerania. In 1365 the town entered the Hansa and prospered due to the right of free navigation on the Rega.
A town wall was built and at the end of the 13th century the construction of the St. Mary’s church was begun. In a document of 1386 a Latin school is mentioned, which is generally called the oldest in Pomerania. After the death of the last Pomeranian Duke and by the
Treaty of Westphalia Greifenberg became part of Brandenburg-Prussia in 1648 and part of Imperial Germany in 1871. In 1818 the town became the capital of the Greifenberg district (Kreis Greifenberg).
In 1894 the town was connected to the railway line
Altdamm - Kolberg. On July 1, 1896 the Greifenberger Kleinbahn was opened, a narrow-gauge railway today used as a railway Museum.
At the end of
World War II Soviet Red Army conquered the town, approximately 40 percent of the town was destroyed by a fire. Following the post-war boundary changes, Greifenberg was renamed Gryfice and became Polish. Its German population was expelled and the town was populated with Poles, many of them expellees themselves from Polish areas annexed by the Soviet Union.
Demographics [ edit ]
Before the end of World War II the (then-German) inhabitants were predominantly Protestant. With the transformation into a Polish town after World War II, the majority of its population has been composed of
Number of inhabitants in years
Jews. [4 ]
incl. 19 Jews.
Catholics and 35 Jews. [4 ]
incl. 44 Catholics and 35 Jews.
incl. 13 Catholics and 82 Jews.
incl. 9 Catholics and 132 Jews.
incl. 15 Catholics and 129 Jews.
incl. 31 Catholics, and 134 Jews.
incl. 110 Catholics, 80 Jews and 630 others.
expulsion of Germans after World War II and war losses
Notable residents [ edit ]
David Christiani (1610–1688), German Lutheran
Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner, (1783–1857), scientist
Friedrich-Karl Krützmann (1917–2004), German officer
Walter Neitzel (1913–1944), Wehrmacht officer
Conrad Pochhammer (1873–1932), physician
Moritz Seeler (1896–1942), author and film producer
Ehrengard Schramm (1900–1985), Politician
Gustav von Struensee (1803–1875), author
Friedrich Heinrich Albert Wangerin (1844–1933), mathematician
International relations [ edit ]
Twin towns — Sister cities [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ " Greifenberg" in the Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed., Vol. XI. 1880.
^ Rodowód książat pomorskich Szczecin 2005 page 94-95, 98
^ Richard Roepell: Geschichte Polens, vol. I, Hamburg 1840, pp. 267-268 (in German)
^ a b c d e f g h i Kratz (1965), p. 176.
^ Meyers Konversations-Lexikon. 6th edition, vol. 8, Leipzig and Vienna 1907, p. 272.
^ Der Große Brockhaus. 15th edition, vol. 2, Leipzig 1929, p. 488.
External links [ edit ]
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Coordinates: 53°54′53″N 15°11′55″E / 53.91472°N 15.19861°E