History of education in England
The history of education in England can be traced back to the Anglo-Saxons settlement of England, or even back to the Roman occupation. During the Middle Ages, schools were established to teach Latin grammar, while apprenticeship was the main way to enter practical occupations. Two universities were established: the University of Oxford, followed by the University of Cambridge. A reformed system of "free grammar schools" was established in the reign of Edward VI of England.
In the 19th century the Church of England was responsible for most educations until the establishment of free, compulsory education towards the end of that century. University College London was established, followed by King's College London; the two colleges forming the University of London. Durham University was also established in the early 19th century. Towards the end of the century the "redbrick" universities were founded.
Early modern period 
So-called public schools have a long history in England; some were set up before the 10th century. Many public schools were charitable foundations; however they gradually started charging fees.
In England the Tudor King Edward VI reorganised grammar schools or instituted new ones so that there was a national system of "free grammar schools" that were in theory open to all and offered free tuition to those who could not afford to pay fees. The vast majority of poor children did not attend these schools since their labour was economically valuable to their families.
In 1564, the Statute of Artificers and Apprentices was passed to regulate and protect the apprenticeship system, forbidding anyone from practising a trade or craft without first serving a 7-year period as an apprentice to a master (though in practice Freemen's sons could negotiate shorter terms).
Following the Act of Uniformity in 1662, religious dissenters set up academies to cater for students who did not wish to subscribe to the articles of the Church of England. Some of these 'dissenting academies' still survive, the oldest being Bristol Baptist College. Several Oxford Colleges (Harris Manchester, Mansfield, and Regent's Park) are also descendents of this movement.
From 1692, 'parish' apprenticeships under the Elizabethan Poor Law came to be used as a way of providing for poor, illegitimate and orphaned children of both sexes alongside the regular system of skilled apprenticeships, which tended to provide for boys from slightly more affluent backgrounds. These parish apprenticeships, which could be created with the assent of two Justices of the Peace, supplied apprentices for occupations of lower status such as farm labouring, brickmaking and menial household service.
Until as late as the nineteenth century, all university fellows and many schoolmasters were expected or required to be in holy orders. Schoolmistresses typically taught the three Rs (reading, writing and 'rithmetic) in dame schools, charity schools, or informal village schools.
18th century 
In the early years of the Industrial Revolution entrepreneurs began to resist the restrictions of the apprenticeship system, and a legal ruling established that the Statute of Apprentices did not apply to trades that were not in existence when it was passed in 1563, thus excluding many new 18th century industries.
Robert Raikes initiated the Sunday School Movement, having inherited a publishing business from his father and become proprietor of the Gloucester Journal in 1757. The movement started with a school for boys in the slums. Raikes had been involved with those incarcerated at the county Poor Law (part of the jail at that time) and saw that vice would be better prevented than cured. He saw schooling as the best intervention. The best available time was Sunday as the boys were often working in the factories the other six days. The best available teachers, were lay people. The textbook was the Bible, and the originally intended curriculum started with learning to read and then moved on to the catechism.
Raikes used the paper to publicize the schools and bore most of the cost in the early years. The movement began in July 1780 in the home of a Mrs. Meredith. Only boys attended, and she heard the lessons of the older boys who coached the younger. Later, girls also attended. Within two years, several schools opened in and around Gloucester. He published an account on November 3, 1783 of Sunday School in his paper, and later word of the work spread through the Gentleman's Magazine, and in 1784, a letter to the Arminian Magazine.
The original schedule for the schools, as written by Raikes was "The children were to come after ten in the morning, and stay till twelve; they were then to go home and return at one; and after reading a lesson, they were to be conducted to Church. After Church, they were to be employed in repeating the catechism till after five, and then dismissed, with an injunction to go home without making a noise."
There were disputes about the movement in the early years. The schools were derisively called "Raikes' Ragged School". Criticisms raised included that it would weaken home based religious education, that it might be a desecration of the Sabbath, and that Christians should not be employed on the Sabbath. "Sabbatarian disputes" in the 1790s led many Sunday schools to cease their teaching of writing.
Most schools at this time focused on grammar instruction, which at that time was centered on the instruction of Latin and Greek. Many schools taught Latin and Greek to the exclusion of all other subjects.
19th century 
Prior to the 19th century, there were very few schools. Most of those that existed were run by the church, for the church, stressing religious education. The Church of England resisted early attempts for the state to provide secular education, and church schools are still an integral part of the state school system.
In 1814, compulsory apprenticeship by indenture was abolished. By 1831, Sunday School in Great Britain was ministering weekly to 1,250,000 children, approximately 25% of the population. As these schools preceded the first state funding of schools for the common public, they are sometimes seen as a forerunner to the current English school system.
In August 1833, Parliament voted sums of money each year for the construction of schools for poor children, the first time the state had become involved with education in England and Wales, whereas the programme of universal education in Scotland began in 1561.
A meeting in Manchester in 1837, chaired by Mark Philips, led to the creation of the Lancashire Public Schools' Association. The association proposed that non-denominational schools should be funded from local taxes.
In 1839 government grants for the construction and maintenance of schools were switched to voluntary bodies, and became conditional on a satisfactory inspection.
Before 1870, education was largely a private affair, with wealthy parents sending their children to fee-paying schools, and others using whatever local teaching was made available.
The Forster Act of 1870 
The Forster Elementary Education Act 1870 required partially state-funded board schools to be set up to provide primary (elementary) education in areas where existing provision was inadequate. Board schools were managed by elected school boards. The schools remained fee-charging. The previous government grant scheme established in 1833 ended on December 31, 1870.
In the latter part of the 19th century, compulsory attendance at school ceased to be a matter for local option, with the introduction of the Elementary Education Act 1870, a milestone in the British school education system. Children had to attend between the ages of 5 and 10 though with some local discretion such as early leaving in agricultural areas.
The introduction of the Elementary Education Act 1870 (applying to England and Wales), commonly known as Forster's Education Act having been drawn up by William Edward Forster, created the concept of compulsory education for children under thirteen, although it did not insist on compulsory attendance initially, as it only required the provision for education of children up to 10 years of age. In areas where education was considered a problem, elected school boards could be set up. These boards could, at their discretion, create local by-laws, confirmed by Parliament, to require attendance and fine the parents of children who did not attend. There were exemptions for illness, living more than a certain distance (typically one mile) from a school, or certification of having reached the required standard (which varied by board) which were made mandatory across England and Wales by the 1880 Act.
Introduction of compulsory education 
The Elementary Education Act 1880 insisted on compulsory attendance from 5–10 years. For poorer families, ensuring their children attended school proved difficult, as it was more tempting to send them working if the opportunity to earn an extra income was available. Attendance Officers often visited the homes of children who failed to attend school, which often proved to be ineffective. Children under the age of 13 who were employed were required to have a certificate to show they had reached the educational standard. Employers of these children who weren't able to show this were penalised. An act brought into force thirteen years later went under the name of the "Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act 1893", which stated a raised minimum leaving age to 11. Later the same year, the act was also extended for blind and deaf children, who previously had no means of an official education. This act was later amended in 1899 to raise the school leaving age up to 12 years of age.
The Elementary Education (School Attendance) Act 1893 raised the school leaving age to 11 and later to 13. The Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act of the same year extended compulsory education to blind and deaf children, and made provision for the creation of special schools.
In the late Victorian period grammar schools were reorganised and their curriculum was modernised, although Latin was still taught.
Funding of technical colleges 
In 1889, the "Technical Institutes Act" was passed. According to D. Evans, "It gave powers to the County Councils and the Urban Sanitary Authorities to levy a penny tax to support technical and manual instruction. The curricula in technical institutions also had to be approved by the Science and Art Department. In the following year the Local Taxation Act introduced the 'whiskey tax', which made extra money available for technical instruction."
First half of the 20th century 
From April 1900 higher elementary schools were recognised, providing education from the age of 10 to 15.
Balfour Act of 1902 
The Education Act 1902 also known as Balfour's Act was passed by the Conservative Party; it covered England and Wales. The Act provided funds for denominational religious instruction in voluntary elementary schools, owned primarily by the Church of England and Roman Catholics. It brought into a single system that included all the local schools funded by ratepayers and run until now by elected school boards. They were brought together with the 14,000 voluntary schools, funded nationally and operated by the Church of England and the Catholic Church; the voluntary schools educated about a thirs of the students. It shut down the school boards and turned control over to Local Education Authorities, which are still in operation. The sweeping new law was extended in 1903 to cover London. G.R. Searle, like nearly all historians, argues the Act was a short-term political disaster for the Conservative Party because it outraged Methodists, Baptists and other nonconformists. It subsidized religions they rejected. However Searle argues it was long-term success. It standardized and upgraded the entire educational systems of England and Wales, and led to a rapid growth of secondary schools, with over 1000 opening by 1914, including 349 for girls. The Church schools now had solid financing from local ratepayers and had to meet uniform standards. Eventually, the Anglican schools were nationalized. Grammar schools also became funded by the LEA. The act was of particular significance as it allowed for all schools, including denominational schools, to be funded through rates (local taxation), and ended the role of locally elected school boards that often attracted women, non-conformists and labour union men. The Liberals came to power in 1906 on the school issue but their attempt to repeal it was blocked by the House of Lords, setting up a major constitutional confrontation.
The Fisher Act of 1918 
The Fisher Education Act 1918 made secondary education compulsory up to age 14 and gave responsibility for secondary schools to the state. Under the Act, many higher elementary schools and endowed grammar school sought to become state funded central schools or secondary schools. However, most children attended primary (elementary) school until age 14, rather than going to a separate school for secondary education.
The year 1918 saw the introduction of the Education Act 1918, commonly also known as the "Fisher Act" as it was devised by Herbert Fisher. The act enforced compulsory education from 5–14 years, but also included provision for compulsory part-time education for all 14 to 18-year-olds. There were also plans for expansion in tertiary education, by raising the participation age to 18. This was dropped because of the cuts in public spending after World War I. This is the first act which starting planning provisions for young people to remain in education until the age of 18. The 1918 act was not immediately implemented, instead waiting until an act in 1921 before coming into effect.
Spens and Norwood reports 
A report of 1938 of a committee chaired by Will Spens, a former Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge, recommended that entry to grammar and technical schools be based on intelligence testing. This was followed by the Norwood Report of 1943 which advocated the "tripartite" division of secondary education that was embodied in the 1944 Education Act.
The Butler Act of 1944 
The Education Act 1944, relating to England and Wales, was authored by Rab Butler and is sometimes known as "the Butler Act". It defined the modern split between primary education and secondary education at age 11, and provided for the raising of the school leaving age to 15. The Act established the "Tripartite System". It defined the grammar school as the place of education for the academically gifted (with entrance determined by a selection exam. Initially this was the "Scholarship" exam, which was later replaced by a "Grading Test" which was then subsequently replaced by the 11+ examination. Children who did not pass the selection test attended technical schools or secondary modern schools.
Changes in government approaches towards education meant that it was no longer regarded adequate for a child to leave education aged 14, as that is the age when they were seen to really understand and appreciate the value of education, as well as being the period when adolescence was at its height. It was beginning to be seen as the worst age for a sudden switch from education to employment, with the additional year in schooling to only provide benefits for the children when they leave. Although there were concerns about the effects of having less labour from these children, it was hoped that the outcome of a larger quantity of more qualified, skilled workers would eliminate the deficit problem from the loss of unskilled labour.
The post-war period 
Education was made compulsory to age 15 in 1947. The 1944 Act had also recommended compulsory part-time education for all young people until the age of 18, but this provision was dropped so as not to overburden the post-war spending budget (as had happened similarly with the Act of 1918).
The Tripartite System became controversial in the post-war years. Critics condemned it as being elitist and defenders claimed that grammar schools allow pupils to obtain a good education through merit rather than through family income. In some areas, notably that of the London County Council, comprehensive schools had been introduced. They had no entrance test and were open to all children living in the school catchment area. However, despite tentative support for 'multilateralism' in secondaries, and a desire to raise the standard of secondary moderns to that of private institutions, from Minister for Education Ellen Wilkinson, the majority of Labour MPs were more concerned with implementing the 1944 Act; her successor George Tomlinson saw this through, although the secondary technicals remained underdeveloped.
Circular 10/65 
The Labour government in 1965 required all local education authorities to formulate proposals to move away from selection at eleven, replacing the tripartite system with comprehensive schools. This was done by the minister Tony Crosland by means of Circular 10/65 and withholding funding from any school that sought to retain selection. This circular was vehemently opposed by the grammar school lobby. Some counties procrastinated and retained the Tripartite System in all but a few experimental areas. Those authorities have locally administered selection tests.
The Circular also requested consultation between LEAs and the partially state-funded direct grant grammar schools on their participation in a comprehensive system, but little movement occurred. The 1970 report of the Public Schools Commission chaired by David Donnison recommended that the schools choose between becoming voluntary aided comprehensives and full independence. This was finally put into effect by the Direct Grant Grammar Schools (Cessation of Grant) Regulations 1975. Some schools (almost all Catholic) became fully state-funded, while the majority became independent fee-paying schools.
Raising of the school leaving age to 16 (ROSLA) 
In 1964, preparations began to raise the school leaving age to 16 to be enforced from 1 September 1973 onwards. As well as raising the school leaving age in 1973, the year also saw the introduction of the Education (Work Experience) Act, allowing LEAs to organise work experience for the additional final year school students. In some counties around the country, these changes also led to the introduction of Middle schools in 1968, where students were kept at primary or junior school for an additional year, meaning that the number of students in secondary schools within these areas remained virtually constant through the change. As of 2007[update], there are now fewer than 400 Middle Schools across England, situated in just 22 Local Education Authorities.
This increased the legal leaving age from 15 to 16, leaving a gap year of school leavers who, by law, had to complete an additional year of education from 1973 onwards.
Many secondary schools in areas without a Middle School were unable to accommodate the new 5th year students. The solution to the problem was to construct a new building for these schools (often referred to as "ROSLA Buildings" or "ROSLA Blocks") that needed to extend their capacity, providing them with the capacity to cope with the new generation of ROSLA students. The "ROSLA Buildings" were delivered to schools in self assembly packs and were not intended to stand long-term, though some have proven to have stood much longer than was initially planned. Some are still standing now.
High technology industry (Aerospace, Nuclear, Oil & Gas, Automotive, Power Generation and Distribution etc.) trained its professional engineers via the advanced apprenticeship system of learning - usually a 5 year process. The higher Apprenticeship framework in the 1950s, 60s and 70s was designed to allow young people (16 years) an alternative path to A Levels to achieve an academic qualification at level 4 or 5 NVQ. The Higher Apprenticeship Framework was open to young people who had a minimum of 4 GCE "O" Levels to enroll in an Ordinary National Certificate or Diploma or a City & Guilds technician course. For advanced engineering apprenticeships "O" Levels had to include Mathematics, Physics, and English language. The advanced apprenticeship framework's purpose was to provide a supply of young people seeking to enter work-based learning via apprenticeships by offering structured high value learning and transferable skills and knowledge. These apprenticeships were enabled by linking industry with local technical colleges and professional Engineering Institutions.
The Advanced Apprenticeship Framework offered clear pathways and outcomes that addressed the issues facing the industry. This system was in place since the 1950s. The system provided young people with an alternative to staying in full-time education post- 16/18 to gain pure academic qualifications without work-based learning. The Advanced Apprenticeship's of the 1950s 60s and 70s provided the necessary preparation towards Engineering Technician. Technician Engineer or Chartered Engineer registration. Apprentices undertook a variety of job roles in numerous technical functions to assist the work of engineers, in the design, development, manufacture and maintenance of production system.
In modern times, apprenticeship became less important, especially as employment in heavy industry and artisan trades has declined since the 1980s. Traditional apprenticeships reached their lowest point in the 1980s: by that time, training programmes were rare and people who were apprentices learned mainly by example.
Under Conservative governments from 1979 to 1997 
- New Vocationalism was expanded (Labour had made some small efforts beforehand, but the Conservatives expanded it considerably). This was seen as an effort to reduce the high youth unemployment, which was regarded as one of the causes of the sporadic rioting at the end of the seventies. The Youth Opportunities Programme was the main scheme, offered to 16 to 18 year olds. It had been introduced in 1978 under the Labour government of James Callaghan, was expanded in 1980 under the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher, and ran until 1983 when it was replaced by the Youth Training Scheme.
- The Assisted Places Scheme was introduced in 1980, whereby gifted children who could not afford to go to fee-paying schools would be given free places in those schools if they could pass the school's entrance exam.
In 1986, National Vocational Qualifications (NVQs) were introduced, in an attempt to revitalise vocational training. Still, by 1990, apprenticeship took up only two-thirds of one percent of total employment.
The Education Reform Act of 1988 
The 1988 Education Reform Act made considerable changes to the education system. These changes were aimed at creating a 'market' in education with schools competing with each other for 'customers' (pupils). The theory was that "bad" schools would lose pupils to the "good" schools and either have to improve, reduce in capacity or close.
The reforms included the following:
- The National Curriculum was introduced, which made it compulsory for schools to teach certain subjects and syllabuses. Previously the choice of subjects had been up to the school.
- National curriculum assessments were introduced at the Key Stages 1 to 4 (ages 7, 11, 14 and 16 respectively) through what were formerly called Standard Assessment Tests (SATS). At Key Stage 4 (age 16), the assessments were made from the GCSE exam.
- League tables began showing performance statistics for each school. These are regularly published in newspapers and on the internet, so parents and the public can see results for schools in each area of the country.
- Formula funding was introduced, which meant that the more children a school could attract to it, the more money the school would receive.
- Open Enrollment and choice for parents was brought back, so that parents could choose or influence which school their children went to.
- Schools could, if enough of their pupils' parents agreed, opt out of local government control, becoming grant maintained schools and receiving funding direct from central government. The government offered more money than the school would get usually from the local authority as an enticement. This was seen as a political move given that, often, local authorities were not run by the governing Conservative Party whereas central government was.
Apprenticeship reform 
In 1994, the government introduced Modern Apprenticeships (since renamed 'Apprenticeships'), based on frameworks devised by Sector Skills Councils. These frameworks contain a number of separately certified elements:
- a knowledge-based element, typically certified through a qualification known as a 'Technical Certificate';
- a competence-based element, typically certified through an NVQ; and
- Key Skills (literacy and numeracy).
Education Act 1996 
Between 1976 and 1997, the minimum school leaving arrangements were:
- A child whose sixteenth birthday falls in the period 1 September to 31 January inclusive, may leave compulsory schooling at the end of the Spring term (the following Easter).
- A child whose sixteenth birthday falls in the period 1 February to 31 August, may leave on the Friday before the last Monday in May.
Under section 8(4) of the Education Act 1996, a new single school leaving date was set for 1998 and all subsequent years thereafter. This was set as the last Friday in June in the school year which the child reaches the age of 16.
From 1997 
During the 1997 General Election, the Labour party mantra was "Education, Education, Education", a reference to their conference slogan. Winning the election returned them to power, but New Labour's political ideology meant that many of the changes introduced by the Conservatives during their time in power remained intact.
They began changing the structure of the school and higher education systems. The following changes took place:
- The previous Labour focus on the Comprehensive system was shifted to a focus on tailoring education to each child's ability. Critics see this as reminiscent of the original intentions of the Tripartite system.
- Grant-maintained status was abolished, with GM schools being given the choice of rejoining the local authority as a maintained community school, or becoming a Foundation school.
The Government run 11 plus selection exam has now been abolished in the UK, and no longer do all children sit for it as used to be the case. However, voluntary selection tests are still conducted in certain areas of the UK, where some of the original grammar schools have been retained. These areas include: Northern Ireland and some English counties and districts including Devon, Dorset, Kent, Buckinghamshire, Essex, Birmingham, Trafford, Wiltshire, North Yorkshire, Calderdale, Kirklees, Wirral, Warwickshire, Gloucestershire, Lincolnshire and some London boroughs such as Bexley, Kingston-upon-Thames and Redbridge. There have been various so far unsuccessful attempts by campaigners to accomplish the abolition of all remaining grammar schools. The remaining grammar schools are now thus still selective, typically taking the top 10-25% of those from the local catchment area. Some of the still-existing grammar schools in the United Kingdom can trace their history back to earlier than the 16th century.
- Labour expanded a policy started by the Conservatives of creating specialist schools. This new type of secondary school teaches the National Curriculum subjects plus a few specialist branches of knowledge (e.g. business studies) not found in most other schools. These schools are allowed to select 10% of their pupils.
- Numbers: In 1997 there were 196 of these schools. In August 2002 there were 1000. By 2006 the plan is to have 2000, and the goal is to make all secondary schools specialist eventually.
- The Beacon Schools programme was established in England in 1998. Its aim was to identify high performing schools, in order to help them form partnerships with each other and to provide examples of effective practice for other schools. The programme was replaced in August 2005 with more broadly based programmes; the Leading Edge Partnership programme (for secondary schools) and Primary Strategy Learning Networks (PSLNs) (at the primary level).
- A new grade of Advanced Skills Teacher was created, with the intention that highly skilled teachers would be paid more if they accepted new posts with outreach duties beyond their own schools.
- City Academies were introduced. These are new schools, built on the site of, or taking over from existing failing schools. A city academy is an independent school within the state system. It is outside the control of the local education authority and set up with substantial funding from interested third parties, which might be businesses, charities or private individuals.
- Education Action Zones were introduced, which are deprived areas run by an action forum of people within that area with the intention of making that area's schools better.
- Vocational qualifications were renamed/restructured as follows:
- GNVQs became Vocational GCSEs and AVCEs.
- NVQs scope expanded so that a degree-equivalent NVQ was possible.
- The New Deal was introduced, which made advisors available to long-term unemployed (in the UK this is defined as being unemployed for more than 6 months) to give help and money to those who want to go back into Education.
- Introduced Literacy and Numeracy Hours into schools, and set targets for literacy and numeracy.
- Set Truancy targets.
- Set a maximum class size of 30 for 5-7 year olds.
- Introduced the EMA, (Education Maintenance Allowance), which is paid to those between 16 and 18 as an enticement to remain in full-time education and get A-Levels/AVCEs.
- A Performance Threshold was introduced in 2000 to allow experienced teachers access to higher rates of pay on meeting a set of performance standards, including a standard of pupil attainment. The performance-related pay changes have been bitterly opposed by teaching unions, most notably the National Union of Teachers which challenged the Threshold scheme by legal action.
- Introduced Curriculum 2000, which reformed the Further Education system into the current structure of AS levels, A2 levels and Key Skills.
- Abolished the Assisted Places Scheme.
- A report was commissioned, led by the former chief-inspector of schools, Mike Tomlinson, into reform of the curriculum and qualifications structure for 14–19 year-olds. The report was published on October 18, 2004 and recommended the introduction of a diploma that would bring together both vocational and academic qualifications and ensure that all pupils had a basic set of core skills. It is proposed that the current qualifications would evolve into this diploma over the next decade, whether the government will follow the recommendations is yet to be seen — the Conservative Party have already introduced alternative proposals to return to norm-referencing in A-levels rather than the current system of criterion-referencing.
- In 2003 a green paper entitled Every Child Matters was published. It built on existing plans to strengthen children's services and focused on four key areas:
- Increasing the focus on supporting families and carers as the most critical influence on children's lives
- Ensuring necessary intervention takes place before children reach crisis point and protecting children from falling through the net
- Addressing the underlying problems identified in the report into the death of Victoria Climbié - weak accountability and poor integration
- Ensuring that the people working with children are valued, rewarded and trained
- The green paper prompted a wide debate about services for children, young people and families. There followed a wide consultation with those working in children's services, and with parents, children and young people. The Government published Every Child Matters: the Next Steps in November 2004, and passed the Children Act 2004, providing the legislative spine for developing more effective and accessible services focused around the needs of children, young people and families.
- In January 2007 Education Secretary Alan Johnson announced plans to extend the school leaving age in England to eighteen by 2013. This would raise the leaving age for the first time since the last raise in 1972, when compulsory education was extended until sixteen. This change will include training such as apprenticeships and work based training rather than exclusively offering continued academic learning.
21st century 
Reports were published in November 2006 to suggest that England's Education Secretary Alan Johnson was exploring ways to raise the school leaving age in England and Wales to 18, pointing to the decline in unskilled jobs and the need for young people to be equipped for modern day employment. Such proposals are expected to become effective from 2013 onwards.
See also 
- "Research, education & online exhibitions > Family history > In depth guide to family history > People at work > Apprentices". The National Archives. Retrieved 2008-06-16.
- Dunlop, O. J. (1912). "iv". English Apprenticeship and Child Labour, a History. London: Fisher Unwin.
- Aldrich, Richard (2005) [1997 in A. Heikkinen and R. Sultana (eds), Vocational Education and Apprenticeships in Europe]. "13 - Apprenticeships in England". Lessons from History of Education. Routledge. pp. 195–205. ISBN 0-415-35892-2. Retrieved 2008-06-15.
- Langford, Paul (1984). "7 - The Eighteenth Century". In Kenneth O. Morgan. The Oxford Illustrated History of Britain. Oxford: OUP. p. 382. ISBN 0-19-822684-5.
- "Robert Raikes, 1736-1811, Sunday School Movement". Believer's Web. Retrieved 2006-06-27.
- Power, John Carroll (1863). The Rise and Progress of Sunday Schools: A Biography of Robert Raikes and William Fox. New York: Sheldon & Company.
- Moses, Montrose J. (1907). Children's Books and Reading. New York: Mitchell Kennerley.
- Casey, Christopher (October 30, 2008). ""Grecian Grandeurs and the Rude Wasting of Old Time": Britain, the Elgin Marbles, and Post-Revolutionary Hellenism". Foundations. Volume III, Number 1. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
- A. Green, Education and State Formation: The Rise of Education Systems in England, France and the USA. Macmillan, 1990
- Lincolnshire School Resources Genuki.org.uk
- School leaving age may be raised news.bbc.co.uk, 10 November 2006
- History of Mount St Mary's
- School Attendance FAQ DfES.gov.uk
- Key dates in British Education (1000-1899) ThePotteries.org
- Evans, Dick. The History of Technical Education: A Short Introduction. Cambridge: TMag. Web. http://www.tmag.co.uk/.
- Elie Halevy (1951). History of the English People in the 19th Century: Imperialism & Rise of Labour. Vol 5. pp. 139–210.
- G. R. Searle (2005). A New England?: Peace and War, 1886-1918. Oxford University Press. pp. 333–34.
- Elie Halevy, (1952). History of the English People in the 19th Century: Rule of Democracy 1905-1914. Book 1. Vol 6. pp. 64–93.
- Under-18s who leave school to be fined education.independent.co.uk, 23 March 2007
- Education in England - 3 www.educationengland.org.uk
- Politics.co.uk: School Leaving Age Brief
- Raising the School-Leaving Age in Britain links.jstor.org, November 1947
- David Kynaston (2008). Austerity Britain 1945–51. Bloomsbury. pp. 150–154. ISBN 978-0-7475-9923-4.
- Sampson, Anthony (1982). The Changing Anatomy of Britain. London: Hodder & Stoughton. p. 114. ISBN 978-0-340-20964-6.
- Education in England - Timeline dg.dial.pipex.com
- School achievement and attainment tables on government department website
- World Class Apprenticeships. The Government's strategy for the future of Apprenticeships in England. DIUS/DCSF, 2008
- Appendix III - Public Schooling Statistics for Wales
- Department for Education and Skills Website, Beacon Schools page. Accessed 2007-04-14.
- School leaving age set to be eighteen BBC News, retrieved 12 January 2007
<^ School leaving age set to be eighteen BBC News, retrieved 12 January 2007>
- Curtis, S.J. (1965). History of education in Great Britain. University Tutorial Press.
- Gillard, D (2011). "Education in England: a brief history". Gillard. Retrieved 9 December 2011.
- Halevy, Elie (1951). History of the English People in the 19th Century: Imperialism & Rise of Labour. Vol 5. pp. 139–210.
- Halevy, Elie (1952). History of the English People in the 19th Century: Rule of Democracy 1905-1914. Book 1. Vol 6. pp. 64–93.
- Kelly, Thomas. History of Adult Education in Great Britain from the Middle Ages to the Twentieth Century (1962)
- John Lawson; Harold Silver (1973). A social history of education in England. Methuen.
- O'Day, Rosemary. Education and Society, 1500-1800: The Social Foundations of Education in Early Modern Britain (Themes in British Social History) (1982)
- Richmond, W.K.R. History of Education: Education in Britain Since 1944 (2007)
- Sanderson, Michael. Education and Economic Decline in Britain, 1870 to the 1990s (New Studies in Economic and Social History) (1999)
- Stephens, W. B. Education in Britain 1750-1914 (Social History in Perspective) (1999)