Holmenkollen Line

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Holmenkollen Line
Vinderen stasjon - 2010-08-07 at 17-50-34.jpg
Overview
Type Rapid transit
System Oslo Metro
Termini Majorstuen
Frognerseteren
Stations 19
Operation
Opening 31 May 1898
Owner Kollektivtransportproduksjon
Operator(s) Oslo T-banedrift
Rolling stock MX3000
Technical
No. of tracks Double
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)
Electrification 750 V DC (third rail)
Operating speed 70 km/h (43 mph)
Highest elevation 469.0 m (1,538.7 ft)
Route map
Tryvandshøidenplanned
14,3 km Frognerseteren1916 469.0 m
13,7 km Voksenkollen1916 460.0 m
12,7 km Lillevann1916 425.0 m
11,9 km Skogen1916 378.0 m
10,8 km Vokenlia1916 330.5 m
9,8 km Holmenkollen1916 277.7 m
9,1 km Besserud1898 242.2 m
8,4 km Midstuen1898 223.3 m
7,9 km Skådalen1898 206.9 m
7,5 km Vettakollen1898 196.7 m
7,0 km Gulleråsen1898 181.7 m
6,6 km Gråkammen1898 170.1 m
5,9 km Slemdal1898 144.6 m
Engerjordet?–1935
5,2 km Ris1898 121.3 m
4,7 km Gaustad1898 101.4 m
4,2 km Vinderen1898 86.6 m
3,8 km Steinerud1900 75.6 m
3,2 km Frøen1898 59.7 m
Kolsås- and Røa Line
Ring- and Sognsvann Line
2.7 km Majorstuen1898 47.7 m
Common Tunnel
Valkyrie plass1928–1985
Homansbyenplanned
0.7 km Nationaltheatret(1928) 5.4 m.
transfer to Drammen Line
0.0 km Stortinget1977 −9 m.

The Holmenkollen Line (Norwegian: Holmenkollbanen) is an 11.4-kilometre (7.1 mi) long line of the Oslo Metro between Majorstuen and Nordmarka in Oslo, Norway. It is served by Line 1 of the metro, and is the line with the least passengers and the only to still have level crossings and short station platforms. The line runs mostly through residential areas with single dwellings, but the upper parts of the line mainly serve the recreational area of Nordmarka. Holmenkollen Station is located close to Holmenkollen National Arena which hosts international Nordic skiing tournaments.

The line is the oldest of the metro, and was opened as a light rail in 1898 by the company Holmenkolbanen. Originally it ran 6.2 kilometers (3.9 mi) from Majorstuen Station to Besserud. In 1916, the line was extended to Tryvann, with the last 1.4 kilometers (0.87 mi) only being used for freight. In 1928, the city terminus was moved 2.0 kilometres (1.2 mi) to the underground Nationaltheatret Station.

Operations[edit]

After the upgrade ahead of the 2011 World Skiing Championship, the Holmenkollen line is powered by third rail and operated by single three-car sets of MX3000 trains. Ruter also considered continued use of the T2000 and T1300, but rejected the T2000 due to unreliability, and the T1300 due to age.[1] The platforms are only long enough to handle two cars, and so the doors in the third car are kept closed. Passengers can however walk between the cars, and therefore enter and leave the third car. There are numerous level crossings along the line.

Since the line does not run through densely populated parts of Oslo, the traffic on the line is usually lighter than on any other line. However, there is a large amount of seasonal tourist traffic. The line itself is a tourist attraction since it climbs to over 400 metres (1,300 ft) providing a view over Oslo, and the Holmenkollen ski jump and Tryvannstårnet are also attractions along the line.

It is the metro line with the least traffic.[2]

History[edit]

Engerjordet was used between 1905 and 1935
The line in 1923, showing the view over the city
HkB 600 tram during the early 1990s
Section of the Holmenkollen Line before the removal of the overhead wires
Frognerseteren is the terminus, and serves the recreational area of Nordmarka
The line has a steep climb all the way from the city to the hilltop

The line was opened on 31 May 1898 as a tram line between Majorstuen and Besserud. The line was extended to Frognerseteren on 16 May 1916, and the tunnel between Majorstuen and Nationaltheatret, now part of the shared downtown subway stretch, was opened 6 June 1928, which was the first subway line in Scandinavia.

On 22 October 1987, the line suffered a fatal accident when a braking system failed in a train causing it to roll down the line, finally tipping over at Midtstuen. The accident killed one person and seriously injured four others. The accident led to scrutiny of the safety of the old teak cars which were used on the line. The old trains were pulled from service, but reintroduced after some refits of the cars until new trains were delivered in 1993.[3][4]

Until 1991, A/S Holmenkolbanen was the company responsible for the operations of the line, but the company was then merged with Oslo Sporveier. In a cost-saving measure between 2002 and 2004, the line was taken off the downtown shared stretch and ran only between Majorstuen and Frognerseteren.

The T2000 trains[edit]

A now retired T2000 train at Holmenkollen

Oslo Sporveier was highly satisfied with the SL79 articulated trams that had been delivered during the 1980s for the tramway. In 1985, work started on the development of a modified version for the western suburban lines. The stock on the Holmenkollen and Kolsås Lines were the first that needed to be replaced. The new stock was considered to be a limited trial. If it met performance expectations, future orders could be made to replace the T1000 stock when the latter reached the end of its economical life in around 2000. The required specification for the new train was published in October 1988.[5] On 22 October 1987, a fatal accident occurred when one of the old HkB 600 units suffered a catastrophic failure of its braking system, and rolled down the Holmenkollen Line, finally tipping over at Midtstuen. One person was killed and four were seriously injured, leading to a safety inspection of the old teak cars used on the line; the HkB 600 units were withdrawn from service, but were reintroduced after some refits.[6]

The initial proposal had called for 22 units, to replace all of the Kolsås and Holmenkollen Line stock. However, the Sognsvann and Røa Line was upgraded to metro standard between 1992 and 1995, and could start using T1000 stock with only third-rail support. At the time, the eastern network used third-rail, while the western network used overhead wire. The upgrade used non-utilized stock, so the order for T2000 was reduced to 12 units.[5] The order was placed with ABB Strømmen and AEG in August 1991. The high development cost was subsidised by the Norwegian government, who saw the project as potentially establishing a new industrial export product. Electrical components were built by AEG in Berlin, while the bogies were built by MAN in Nuremberg. The bodywork was built at Strømmen, with profiles from Alusuisse, and the trains were assembled in Strømmen.[5] The six two-car sets were delivered between 2 November and 22 December 1994. The first official public presentation was made on 8 December, but the units did not enter regular service until April 1995. The cars were numbered 2001–2012.[5] The T2000 class was prone to technical problems, and was not as reliable as the older T1000 stock. It soon became evident that no more would be ordered.[7][8]

Proposed extension[edit]

In 1996, Arkitektskap made a proposal to extend the line from Frognerseteren to Tryvannshøgda, where there is among other things a skiing centre with 200,000 annual visitors.[9] In 2008, Ruter estimated the cost to NOK 150 million, and stated that it would cost the public NOK 1,500 per ticket to extend the line the 1.4 kilometers (0.87 mi) to Tryvann Vinterpark. Both Ruter and the city council have therefore shelved the extension.[10] The bottleneck of the metro is the Common Tunnel, when west of Stortinget can only allow 24 trains per hour per direction. In 2003, Oslo Sporveier started terminating the Holmenkollen Line trains at Majorstuen, thus allowing the other routes of the metro to use the capacity. A year later, running the trains through the Common Tunnel were re-introduced, after ridership on the Holmenkollen Line fell drastically.[11]

Metro upgrade[edit]

The line near Slemdalsveien after it was upgraded to metro standard

On 25 May 2006, Oslo was awarded the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships 2011, which would be held at Holmenkollen National Arena.[12] The running of the tournament was based on that none of the 370,000 spectators during the eleven days would use cars, and all would have to use public transport.[13] In order to allow increased capacity on the line, it would either have to be connected to the street tramway, or upgraded to metro standard. The latter involves installing a third-rail power supply, lengthening platforms and installing a new signalling system.[14]

The proposal for the tramway involved connecting the Holmenkollen Line to the Briskeby Line via Slemdalsveien after Frøen. The overhead wire would be kept and the platforms lowered to suit low-floor trams. They would continue from Majorstuen to the city center via the street tram system. Travel time would be slightly increased, in part because of more stops along the line, including serving the main campus of Oslo University College and the shopping area in Bogstadveien. Connecting to the tramway would also decrease the headway from 15 to 10 minutes. Proponents of the tramway argued that this solution was cheaper, that it would give more travelers. On the other hand, there is an insufficient number of trams to operate the line, which could mean a procurement process for trams would have to be started.[15] For the championships themselves, a metro solution would give 9,000 passengers per hour, compared to 3,000 for a tramway.[16]

While the overhead wire and T1300 trains are gone, level crossings, such as this on at Vinderen, remain.

Ruter recommended converting the line to a tramway. In April, the city council decided to upgrade the line to partial metro standard.[14] The only station to be upgraded was Holmenkollen, which would serve Holmenkollen National Arena during the games. It was rebuilt with 115-metre (377 ft) platforms for six-car trains and cost NOK 55 million.[17] The costs from the renovation was NOK 400 million, which included a new signaling and third rail power supply, in addition to a renovation of the tracks. Stations retained the same length, which is designed for two-car trains. The three-car MX3000 trains will therefore have to operate with the doors in the back car locked while running on the Holmenkollen Line.[18]

In December 2008, Ruter stated that it was considering building a tunnel from the Holmenkollen Line which would run to the area next to the ski jumping hill. Holmenkollen Station is located 1-kilometer (0.62 mi) from the hill, which is also not visible from the station. The proposal would cost an additional NOK 260 million, and involve a new station which would either be built underground or at ground level. The proposal involved closing the line above Holmenkollen and serving the area with a bus. However, this was rejected by the city councilor.[2]

The line is the metro's only section with level crossings, as the other lines had theirs removed when they were upgraded. Locals have been opposed to this solution, stating that they fear children will run into the tracks and get a lethal current through them, and that the municipality chose to take a shortcut to get the line finished in time for the World Championships.[19] The upgrade was also criticized by representatives for disabled people. The city council decision from 2008 stated that all the stations were to be universally accessible, but lack of time during the upgrade meant that none of the stations, except Holmenkollen, were touched. Because of this, the stations remain inaccessible for people with wheelchairs.[20] Gulleråsen Station was closed in the direction towards the city. The station is located in a sharp curve and would receive a 54-centimeter (21 in) gap between the platform and the train. In comparison, the T2000 trains had a 40-centimeter (16 in) gap at the station.[21]

In 2009, the Holmenkollen Line closed for construction and all twelve T2000 units were taken out of service, before the last of the much older T1300.[22] Demonstrations against the closing of Gulleråsen Station took place during the reopening on 6 December 2010.[23] The upgrade to metro standard allowed the T2000 trains to be retired, so the entire metro would be only operating MX3000 trains.[24] Kollektivtransportproduksjon stated that procuring spare parts was becoming nearly impossible and that the small size of the series forced high maintenance costs. The initial orders for MX3000 trains did not call for sufficient numbers to replace the T2000. Kollektivtransportproduksjon has estimated the cost of renovating the units so they can run for 15 more years at NOK 50 million. Alternatively, the city council has been recommended by Kollektivtransportproduksjon to purchase five new MX3000 three-car trains for NOK 250 million.[25] Following the World Championships, Ruter plans to decide which stations will be kept and which will be closed, and subsequently rebuild those which will be kept.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fremtidig vogntype for Holmenkollbanen" (in Norwegian). Ruter. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2010. 
  2. ^ a b Halvorsen, Bjørn Egil (12 December 2008). "Endeholdeplass: Holmenkollen?". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  3. ^ Report from meeting in the Oslo City Council regarding the disaster
  4. ^ Entry on the T2000 trains
  5. ^ a b c d Johansson, Erik W. (1995). "T2000 – AS Oslo Sporveiers nye T-banevogner". På Sporet 81: 44–6. 
  6. ^ Municipality of Oslo (1987). "Report from meeting in the Oslo City Council regarding the disaster" (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  7. ^ "Sporveiens nye vognsett stopper stadig". Aftenposten Aften (in Norwegian). 26 April 1995. p. 4. 
  8. ^ Solli, Berit (29 October 1997). "65 av 192 vogner er ute av drift i dag Må ha 30 mill. til vedlikehold av slitte vogner". Aftenposten Aften (in Norwegian). p. 6. 
  9. ^ Halvorsen, Bjørn Egil (2 May 2007). "Vil spleise på T-bane til Tryvann". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  10. ^ Juven, Olav (3 May 2008). "Vil droppe bane til Tryvann". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  11. ^ Lier, Hanne Waaler (2 September 2005). "Nekter å kutte i Holmenkollbanen". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). 
  12. ^ "Stolte og lettet over at Oslo fikk ski-VM" (in Norwegian). Norwegian News Agency. 25 May 2006. 
  13. ^ Synstad, Alexander (18 April 2008). "Målet er å lage en knirkefri folkefest". Akersposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  14. ^ a b Bakken, Vidar (29 April 2008). "Holmenkollbanen får full T-banestandard". Akersposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 
  15. ^ Synstad, Alexander (15 May 2008). "750 volt – uten sikring". Akersposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  16. ^ "T-bane med tredobbel kapasitet!". Oslo 2011 (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  17. ^ "AF bygger om Holmenkollen stasjon". Byggeindustrien (in Norwegian). 27 October 2009. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  18. ^ "Skal frakte 9.000 passasjerer i timen under ski-VM" (in Norwegian). Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. 21 November 2010. Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  19. ^ Bakken, Vidar (3 December 2010). "750 volt – uten sikring". Akersposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 
  20. ^ Skaret, Pernille Storholm (22 October 2009). "Forlatt på stasjonen". Akersposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 4 December 2010. Retrieved 4 December 2010. 
  21. ^ Bakken, Vidar (24 November 2010). "Krever åpning av Gulleråsen stasjon". Akersposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  22. ^ Pedersen, Pia Beathe (30 April 2010). "T-banen har for få vogner". Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  23. ^ Bakken, Vidar (6 December 2010). "Kongen møtt av demonstranter". Akersposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  24. ^ Valle, Vegard (22 October 2009). "Endeholdeplass: Holmenkollen?". Fagbladet (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 
  25. ^ Velle, Vegard (2 September 2009). "Vil reparere falleferdige t-banevogner". Fri Fagbevegelse (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 1 May 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  26. ^ Halvorsen, Bjørn Egil (12 November 2010). "Holmenkollbanen amputeres". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Archived from the original on 6 December 2010. Retrieved 6 December 2010. 

External links[edit]