Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah
|Reign||31 December 1977 – 15 January 2006 (28 years, 15 days on throne)|
|Reign||30 November 1965 – 8 February 1978|
|Predecessor||Sabah Al-Salim Al-Sabah|
|Successor||Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah|
|Reign||17 January 1962 – 2 February 1963|
|Successor||Sabah Al-Salim Al-Sabah|
|Father||Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah|
|Born||29 May 1926|
|Died||15 January 2006(aged 79)|
Jaber III al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah, GCB (Hon), GCMG (Hon) (29 May 1926 - 15 January 2006) (Arabic: جابر الأحمد الجابر الصباح) of the al-Sabah dynasty, was the Emir and thirteenth Sheikh of Kuwait, serving from 31 December 1977 until his death on 15 January 2006. The third monarch to rule Kuwait since its independence from Britain, Jaber had previously served as Minister of Finance and Economy from 1961 until 1965, when he was appointed Prime Minister prior to becoming Kuwait's ruler.
Jaber is most famous for having been monarch of Kuwait during the 1990 Iraqi invasion of his country, which led to the Gulf War in which his country was liberated by an international coalition acting under United Nations sanction, composed of troops from the United States, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom and France, together with forces from several Arab states.
Early life and education
Jaber was born in Kuwait City. Sheikh Jaber (of the Al-Sabah dynasty, which has ruled Kuwait since the 18th century) was the third son of the late Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah, who served as Kuwait's emir from 1921 to 1950.
Sheikh Jaber received his early education at Al-Mubarakiya School, Al-Ahmediya School, and Al-Sharqiya School, and was subsequently tutored privately in religion, English, Arabic, and the sciences.
In 1961, he was appointed as Kuwait's Minister of Finance and Economy. In this position, Sheikh Jaber was tasked with putting the new Kuwaiti dinar into circulation and establishing the Kuwaiti Currency Board, of which he was the chair. As minister, Jaber adopted, and was the first chairman of, the Kuwaiti Fund for Arab Economic Development from 1962–1964. The Fund provides financial and technical assistance to developing countries; currently it is helping 103 countries. The country's oil revenues transformed it from a largely tribal society to a modern, urbanized state with one of the world's largest per capita incomes. During this time, the Fund expanded to aid five countries and gave loans to another eight. The money going into the fund came from oil earnings, with virtually all of it being sent outside Kuwait. 
Kuwait found itself geographically in the middle of the Iran-Iraq War that took place from 1980 to 1988.  In 1985, Kuwait became a direct target in the war when a terrorist group, the Islamic Holy War, attacked Sheikh Jaber’s motorcade, leaving him almost uninjured but killing two bodyguards and a bystander, in addition to the suicide bomber. It was discovered that the group had ties to Iran. The group was demanding the release of seventeen convicted terrorists who were being held in Kuwaiti prison. Throughout the war, Kuwait suffered from many security threats, including a series of bombings. In 1986, one year after the attack on Sheikh Jaber’s motorcade, there was an attack on an oil installation, which almost caused the shutdown of Kuwait’s oil industry. Members of the cabinet grew increasingly angry over the situation, believing that their role was to protect the citizens of Kuwait. They believed that they were not fulfilling their roles as government officials and that more should be done to protect the citizens. Therefore, the entire cabinet resigned as a sign of opposition towards the policies of Sheikh Jaber that had led to the security breeches in Kuwait and to show that they believed that more should be done. Two days later, Sheikh Jaber unconstitutionally dissolved the Parliament (which was not reinstated until 1991) and several articles of the Constitution (including freedom of the press), citing security concerns. Sheikh Jaber then appointed a new cabinet, which included many of the previous members, showing the emir’s faith in the previous officials. 
After much discussion of a border dispute between Kuwait and Iraq, Iraq invaded its smaller neighbor on August 2, 1990 with the stated intent of annexing it. Apparently, the task of the invading Iraqi army was to capture or kill Sheikh Jaber. However, the Iraqi army was never able to accomplish this goal because Sheikh Jaber and his government escaped to Saudi Arabia within hours of the invasion; in Saudi Arabia they ran the Kuwaiti exiled government from in a hotel in Dhahran.
The Kuwaiti government-in-exile was one of the most effective governments to ever operate in exile. From the mountainous city of Taif resort in Saudi Arabia, Sheikh Jaber set up his government so that its ministers were still in control and were in constant communication with the people still in Kuwait. The government was able to direct an underground armed resistance made up of both military and civilian forces and was able to provide public services to the Kuwaiti people who remained, such as emergency care through the funds that it had saved from oil revenues. Sheikh Jaber also received help from a United Nations mandated coalition led by the United States.
Jaber and his government lobbied hard and supported military action against Iraq before and during the Gulf War. When the war ended on February 28, 1991, Sheikh Jaber remained in Saudi Arabia while declaring three months of martial law, causing the accusation that he was trying to monopolize too much power for the small constitutional monarchy.
By declaring martial law, those who were appointed to government positions were able to ensure the safety of the people. By imposing martial law, government officials were able to ensure that there were no Iraqis still in Kuwait who may have attempted to once again overthrow the government. They were also tasked with making sure that the country was safe enough for Sheikh Jaber and his government to return, which they eventually did on 15 March 1991. 
While in exile during the Persian Gulf War, Sheikh Jaber promised women the right to vote and run for office after Kuwait was liberated. However, it was not until 15 May 2005 that the parliament passed the law allowing women to vote and hold office after long years of pressure was placed on Jaber’s Prime Minister, Sheikh Sabah al-Ahmad al-Sabah. It had taken many tries before the law was passed. The movement started when Sheikh Jaber took the opportunity of having a dissolved parliament to issue a decree allowing women to vote in the 2003 election. He then suffered from a backlash from the parliament when they rejected the 1999 measure that would have given women the right to vote and run for office. Lawmakers claimed that it was not that they opposed the measure rather it was out of protest because it was legislated by decree. Following the passage of the law, women were able to vote and run for office for their first time in June 2006. More than 195,000 women voted and twenty-eight ran for seats in the parliament.
Personal life and death
The people of Kuwait loved Sheikh Jaber to the extent that they referred to him as 'Baba Jaber', meaning Father Jaber. His actual family is quite complex; it is unclear how many wives he had. He had more than forty children. In September 2001, Sheikh Jaber Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah suffered from a stroke and went to the United Kingdom for treatment. Five years later, he died on 15 January 2006, aged 79, from a cerebral hemorrhage that he had suffered since 2001. He was succeeded by the Crown Prince Saad Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah. The government announced a 40-day period of mourning and closed for three days.
- 1926–1937: Sheikh Jabir bin Ahmad Al-Sabah
- 1937–1966: His Excellency Sheikh Jabir bin Ahmad Al-Sabah
- 1966–1977: His Highness Sheikh Jabir bin Ahmad Al-Sabah, Crown Prince of the State of Kuwait
- 1977–1979: His Highness Sheikh Jabir III bin Ahmad Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait
- 1979–1995: His Highness Sheikh Sir Jabir III bin Ahmad Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait, GCMG
- 1995–2006: His Highness Sheikh Sir Jabir III bin Ahmad Al-Sabah, Emir of Kuwait, GCB, GCMG
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George (GCMG)-1979
- Order of the Yugoslav Great Star – 1979
- Collar of the Order of Badr
- Collar of the Order of the Nile
- Collar of the Order of al-Hussein bin Ali of Jordan
- Collar of the Order of Independence
- Collar of the Order of Independence
- Grand Cross of the Legion d'Honneur – 1989
- Grand Cordon of the Order of the Cedars
- Grand Cordon of the Civil Order, 1st Class
- Grand Cordon of the Order of Honour, 1st Class
- Grand Cordon of the Order of Mugunghwa
- Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum – 1995
- Star of the Republic, 1st Class
- Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (GCB) – 1995
- Sash of the Order of the Star of Romania - 1999
- Collar of the Order of Muhammadiya – 2004
- Hassan, Hamdi A. (1999), The Iraqi Invasion of Kuwait: Religion, Identity and Otherness in the Analysis of War and Conflict (Series: Critical Studies on Islam); New York: Pluto (UK).
- and the first son of the famous Bibi al salem alsabah who was the daughter of amir the salim alsabah) wife of the amir ahmed aljaber alsabah and the grand daughter for the amir Mubarak alsabah and a sister of two amirs sabah alsalim alsabah and abdullah alsalim alsabah and a mother for the emir jaber alahmad alsabah The Royal Ark
- Zahlan, Rosemarie Said. "Making of the Modern A Arabian Gulf states Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman". London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. Print. p. 81
- "Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development – Timeline. Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development. Kuwait Fund for Arab Economic Development – Timeline", 2009. Retrieved on 30 November 2009.
- United Press International. "Car Bomber Fails in Attempt to Kill Leader of Kuwait", "The New York Times", 26 May 1985.
- Zahlan, Rosemarie Said. "Making of the Modern Persian Gulf states Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, and Oman". London: Unwin Hyman, 1989. Print. p. 44
- Kifner, John. "Kuwait Dissolves its Parliament." "The New York Times", 4 July 1986 p. 16.
- Ibrahim, Youssef M. "Confrontation in the Gulf: Man in the News; The Exiled Emir: Sheik Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah", "The New York Times", 26 September 1996. Retrieved 16 November 2009
- Ibrahim, Youssef M. "After the War: Kuwait City; Nagging Question Lies Beneath Kuwait's Rejoicing: When Is the Emir Coming Home?","The New York Times", 4 March 1997.
- Ibrahim, Youssef M. "After the War: Kuwait; Kuwaiti Emir, Tired and Tearful, Returns to His Devastated Land", "The New York Times", 15 March 1997.
- Fattah, Hassan M. 'Kuwait Grants Political Rights to Its Women', 'The New York Times', 17 May 2005. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- Halliday, Fred. “Letter From Kuwait”, "Middle East Report", No. 215 (Summer, 2000): p. 44
- Fattah, Hassan M. ""Kuwait Women Join the Voting After a Long Battle for Suffrage", "The New York Times", 30 June 2006. Retrieved 17 November 2009.
- "Emir of Kuwait dies". Daily Record. 16 January 2006. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Slackman, Michael, and Neil MacFarquhar. "Sheik Jaber al-Ahmad al-Sabah, the Leader of Kuwait for 28 Years, Is Dead at 79", "The New York Times", 16 January 2006. Retrieved on 30 November 2009.
Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-SabahBorn: 29 June 1926 Died: 15 January 2006
Sabah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah
|Emir of Kuwait
Saad I Al-Abdullah Al-Salim Al-Sabah