Nouri al-Maliki

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Nouri al-Maliki
نوري كامل المالكي
Nouri al-Maliki 2011-04-07.jpg
Vice President of Iraq
Incumbent
Assumed office
9 September 2014
President Fuad Masum
Preceded by Khodair al-Khozaei
74th Prime Minister of Iraq
In office
20 May 2006 – 8 September 2014
President Jalal Talabani
Fuad Masum
Deputy
Preceded by Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Succeeded by Haider al-Abadi
Minister of the Interior
Acting
In office
21 December 2010 – 8 September 2014
Preceded by Jawad al-Bulani
Succeeded by Muhammad Salem al-Ghabban
In office
20 May 2006 – 8 June 2006
Preceded by Baqir Jabr al-Zubeidi
Succeeded by Jawad al-Bulani
Minister of Defence
Acting
In office
21 December 2010 – 17 August 2011
Preceded by Qadir Obeidi
Succeeded by Saadoun al-Dulaimi
Leader of the Islamic Dawa Party
Incumbent
Assumed office
1 May 2007
Preceded by Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Personal details
Born Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki
(1950-06-20) 20 June 1950 (age 64)
Hindiya, Iraq
Political party Islamic Dawa Party
Other political
affiliations
State of Law Coalition
Spouse(s) Faleeha Khalil
Children 4
Alma mater Usul al-Din College
University of Baghdad
Religion Shia Islam

Nouri Kamil Mohammed Hasan al-Maliki (Arabic: نوري كامل محمد حسن المالكي‎; born 20 June 1950), also known as Jawad al-Maliki (جواد المالكي) or Abu Esraa (أبو إسراء), is an Iraqi politician who was Prime Minister of Iraq from 2006 to 2014. He is secretary-general of the Islamic Dawa Party and has been Vice President of Iraq since 2014.

Al-Maliki and his government succeeded the Iraqi Transitional Government. His first Cabinet was approved by the National Assembly and sworn in on 20 May 2006; his second Cabinet, in which he also held the positions of acting Interior Minister, acting Defense Minister, and acting National Security Minister, was approved on 21 December 2010.

Al-Maliki began his political career as a Shia dissident under Saddam Hussein's regime in the late 1970s and rose to prominence after he fled a death sentence into exile for 24 years. During his time abroad, he became a senior leader of the Islamic Dawa Party, coordinated the activities of anti-Saddam guerrillas and built relationships with Iranian and Syrian officials whose help he sought in overthrowing Saddam. Al-Maliki worked closely with United States and coalition forces in Iraq following their departure by the end of 2011. In June 2014, United States officials said that al-Maliki should give up his premiership.[1] On 14 August 2014, he announced his resignation as Prime Minister of Iraq.[2]

Early life and education[edit]

Nouri Al-Maliki was born in Janaja village in Abu Gharaq, a central Iraqi town situated between Karbala and Al Hillah. He is a member of the Al-Ali Tribe, an offshoot of the Bani Malik tribe.[citation needed] He attended school in Al Hindiyah (Hindiya). Al-Maliki received a bachelor's degree at Usul al-Din College in Baghdad, and a master's degree in Arabic literature from Baghdad University.[3] Al-Maliki lived for a time in Al Hillah, where he worked in the education department. He joined the Islamic Dawa Party in the late 1960s while studying at university. His grandfather, Muhammad Hasan Abi al-Mahasin, was a poet and cleric who was the representative of the Revolutionary Council (Al-Majlis Al-Milli) of the Iraqi revolution against the British in 1920, and served as Iraq's Minister of Education under King Faisal I.[4]

Exile and return to Iraq[edit]

On 16 July 1979, al-Maliki fled Iraq after he was discovered to be a member of the outlawed Islamic Dawa Party. According to a brief biography on the Islamic Dawa Party's website, he left Iraq via Jordan in October, and soon moved to Syria, adopting the pseudonym "Jawad". He left Syria for Iran in 1982, where he lived in Tehran until 1990, before returning to Damascus where he remained until U.S. coalition forces invaded Iraq and toppled Saddam's regime in 2003.[5] While living in Syria, he worked as a political officer for Dawa, developing close ties with Hezbollah and particularly with Iran, supporting that country's effort to topple Saddam's regime.[6]

While living in Damascus, al-Maliki edited the party newspaper Al-Mawqif and rose to head the party's Damascus branch. In 1990, he joined the Joint Action Committee and served as one of its rotating chairman. The committee was a Damascus-based opposition coalition for a number of Hussein's opponents.[5] The Dawa Party participated in the Iraqi National Congress between 1992 and 1995, withdrawing because of disagreements over who should head it.[7] Upon his return to his native Iraq after the fall of Saddam in April 2003, al-Maliki became the deputy leader of the Supreme National Debaathification Commission of the Iraqi Interim Government, formed to purge former Baath Party officials from the military and government. He was elected to the transitional National Assembly in January 2005. He was a member of the committee that drafted the new constitution that was passed in October 2005.

Premiership[edit]

Further information: Government of Iraq from 2006
Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki shakes hands with U.S. President Barack Obama in Baghdad

In the December 2005 parliamentary elections, the United Iraqi Alliance won the plurality of seats, and nominated Ibrahim al-Jaafari to be Iraq's first full-term post-war prime minister. In April 2006, amid mounting criticism of ineffective leadership and favoritism by Kurdish and Sunni Arab politicians in parliament, al-Jaafari was forced from power. On 22 April 2006, following close U.S. involvement in the selection of a new prime minister, al-Maliki's name arose from the four that had been interviewed by the CIA on their connections to Iran (the others including Hussein al-Shahristani and Ali al-Adeeb).[citation needed] United States Ambassador to Iraq Zalmay Khalilzad said that "[Maliki's] reputation is as someone who is independent of Iran." Khalilzad also maintained that Iran "pressured everyone for Jaafari to stay".[8] More recently, however, it has been claimed that al-Maliki was the preferred candidate of Qasem Soleimani, the commander of the Quds Force, and that it was Soleimani who brokered the deal between senior Shiite and Kurdish leaders that lead to his election as Prime Minister.[9] On 20 May 2006, al-Maliki presented his Cabinet to Parliament, minus permanent ministers of Defense and of Interior. He announced that he would temporarily handle the Interior Ministry himself, and Salam al-Zobaie would temporarily act as Defense Minister. "We pray to God almighty to give us strength so we can meet the ambitious goals of our people who have suffered a lot", al-Maliki told the members of the assembly.[10] In May 2007, Dawa removed Jaafari and elected al-Maliki as Secretary-General of the Dawa Party.[11]

During his first term, al-Maliki vowed to crack down on insurgents who he called "organized armed groups who are acting outside the state and outside the law". He had been criticized for taking too long to name permanent interior and defense ministers, which he did on 8 June 2006,[12] just as al-Maliki and the Americans announced the killing of Al Qaeda in Iraq leader Abu Musab al-Zarqawi.[13][14] Meanwhile, al-Maliki criticized coalition armed forces as reports of allegedly deliberate killings of Iraqi civilians (at Haditha and elsewhere) became known. He has been quoted as saying, "[t]his is a phenomenon that has become common among many of the multinational forces. No respect for citizens, smashing civilian cars and killing on a suspicion or a hunch. It's unacceptable." According to Ambassador Khalilzad, al-Maliki had been misquoted, but it was unclear in what way.[15]

On 30 December 2006, al-Maliki signed the death warrant of Saddam Hussein and declined a stay of execution, saying there would be "no review or delay" in the event. Citing the wishes of relatives of Hussein's victims, he said, "Our respect for human rights requires us to execute him."[16] Hussein's execution was carried out on 30 December 2006 (notably, the first Muslim day of the feast of Eid ul-Adha). After only two years, the al-Malki government had witnessed improvements in the security situation in many parts of the country. In Baghdad, a peace deal signed between Moqtada al-Sadr's Mahdi Army and the government had eased tensions, though sporadic sectarian incidents continued, as did occasional fighting between U.S. forces and Shiite militiamen, particularly in Sadr City.[17] Al-Maliki's job was complicated by the balance of power within parliament, with his position relying on the support of two Shiite blocs, that of Sadr and the Supreme Islamic Iraqi Council of Abdul Aziz al-Hakim, that his Dawa party has often been at odds with.[18] Progress was also frequently blocked by Sunni Arab politicians who alleged that the dominant Shiite parties were pursuing sectarian advantage. Al-Maliki had some success in finding compromise. In July 2008, al-Maliki, who earlier in the year fought off a recall effort in parliament, convinced Sunni politicians to end a year-long boycott of the chamber and appointed some of them to cabinet positions. Analysts said the return of the Sunnis was made possible by the security gains under al-Maliki and by apparent progress in negotiations with the United States over American military withdrawal.[19] Early in his term, al-Maliki was criticized by some for alleged reluctance to tackle Shiite militias. In 2006, he complained about an American raid against a Shiite militia leader because he said it had been conducted without his approval.[20] In 2007, unnamed U.S. military officers alleged al-Maliki was replacing Iraqi commanders who had cracked down on Shiite militias with party loyalists. An al-Maliki spokesman denied the allegation.[21]

Iraqi police officers carry posters of Iraq's President Jalal Talabani and Prime Minister al-Maliki in Najaf, 20 December 2006

His relationship with the press was often contentious. On 24 August 2006, for example, he banned television channels from broadcasting images of bloodshed in the country and warned of legal action against those violating the order. Major General Rashid Flayah, head of a national police division added "...We are building the country with Kalashnikovs and you should help in building it with the use of your pen".[22] The international Committee to Protect Journalists wrote to al-Maliki complaining of a "disturbing pattern of restrictions on the press" and of the "imprisonment, intimidation, and censorship of journalists".[23]

Maliki talked about the need to make a secure and sustainable environment for investment in order for successful reconstruction and has enacted new investment laws to try to achieve this. He also acknowledged Iraq's unfortunate reliance on oil to finance reconstruction thus far, although the revenue began to be spent on other possible revenue sources including agriculture and energy.[24] On 2 January 2007, the Wall Street Journal published an interview with al-Maliki in which he said he wished he could end his term before it expires in 2009.[25] But by late 2008, al-Maliki started to stop transparency efforts by firing inspector generals. [26] He also started using sections of the armed forces against his political rivals. [27]

On 21 December 2010, al-Maliki's government was unanimously approved by parliament more than 9 months after the 2010 parliamentary election. On 5 February 2011, a spokesperson for al-Maliki said he would not run for a third term in 2014 limiting himself in the name of democracy in a nod to the Arab Spring.[28] In December 2011, al-Maliki was embroiled in a deep political crisis with Sunni opponents including Tariq al-Hashemi.[29]

By August 2014 al-Maliki was still holding on to power tenaciously despite Iraq's President Fuad Masum nominating Haidar al-Abadi to take over. Al-Maliki referred the matter to the federal court claiming the president's nomination was a "constitutional violation." He said: "The insistence on this until the end is to protect the state." [30] On 14 August 2014, however, in the face of growing calls from world leaders and members of his own party the embattled prime minister announced he was stepping down.

Sunni friction[edit]

The reign of al-Maliki has been described as sectarian by both Sunnite Iraqis and western analysts; something which helped fuel a Sunni uprising in the country in 2014.[31] During the Northern Iraq offensive, beginning in June 2014, ISIS vowed to take power away from al-Maliki, who called upon Kurdish forces to help keep Iraq out of the hands of ISIS, as well as air support from American drones in order to eliminate dangerous jihadist elements in the country, which was refused by the United States, as "administration spokesmen have insisted that the United States is not actively considering using warplanes or armed drones to strike [jihadist havens]." During this crisis, al-Maliki was the target of a propaganda campaign by ISIS, whom they called an "underwear salesman," stating he "lost a historic opportunity for your people to control Iraq, and the Shiites will always curse you for as long as they live."[32]

Relationship with U.S.[edit]

U.S. President George W. Bush and al-Maliki shake hands during the press conference.

In an interview published by the German magazine Der Spiegel in June 2008, al-Maliki said that a schedule for a withdrawal of U.S. troops from the country of "about 16 months... would be the right time-frame for a withdrawal, with the possibility of slight changes". In the interview, he said the U.S. government has been reluctant to agree to a timetable "because they feel it would appear tantamount to an admission of defeat. But that isn't the case at all... it is not evidence of a defeat, but of a victory, of a severe blow we have inflicted on Al Qaeda and the militias." He said U.S. negotiators were coming around to his point of view.[33] Hillary Clinton and Carl Levin were two of several U.S. politicians who called for him to be removed from office in 2007. Senator Clinton urged Iraq's parliament to select a "less divisive and more unifying figure" and implied she felt al-Maliki was too concerned about Iraq's Shiite majority and not enough with national reconciliation. "During his trip to Iraq last week, Senator Levin ... confirmed that the Iraqi government is nonfunctional and cannot produce a political settlement because it is too beholden to religious and sectarian leaders", she said.[34] Al-Maliki hit back and said the Democratic senators were acting as if Iraq were "their property" and that they should "come to their senses" and "respect democracy".[35] After 17 Iraqis were shot and killed by Blackwater USA security guards al-Maliki called on the U.S. embassy to stop working with the company and said: "What happened was a crime. It has left a deep grudge and anger, both inside the government and among the Iraqi people."[36]

Maliki's friendly gestures towards Iran have sometimes created tension between his government and the United States but he has also been willing to consider steps opposed by Tehran, particularly while carrying out negotiations with the United States on a joint-security pact. A June 2008 news report noted that al-Maliki's visit to Tehran seemed to be "aimed at getting Iran to tone down its opposition and ease criticism within Iraq". Al-Maliki said an agreement reached with the U.S. won't preclude good relations with neighbors like Iran.[37] In August 2007, CNN reported that the firm of Barbour, Griffith & Rogers had "begun a public campaign to undermine the government of Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki". The network described BGR as a "powerhouse Republican lobbying firm with close ties to the White House".[38] CNN also mentioned that Ayad Allawi is both al-Maliki's rival and BGR's client, although it did not assert that Allawi had hired BGR to undermine al-Maliki.[38]

In late 2014, Vice President Al-Maliki accused the United States of using ISIL as a pretext to maintain its military presence in Iraq. He stated that "the Americans began this sedition in Syria and then expanded its dimensions into Iraq and it seems that they intend to further stretch this problem to other countries in their future plans."[39]

Relationship with Saudi Arabia[edit]

King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia was described in a leaked March 2009 diplomatic cable:

The King said he had "no confidence whatsoever in (Iraqi PM) Maliki, and the Ambassador (Fraker) is well aware of my views." The King affirmed that he had refused former President Bush's entreaties that he meet with al-Maliki. The King said he had met al-Maliki early in al-Maliki's term of office, and the Iraqi had given him a written list of commitments for reconciliation in Iraq, but had failed to follow through on any of them. For this reason, the King said, al-Maliki had little credibility. "I don't trust this man," the King stated, "He's an Iranian agent." The King said he had told both Bush and former Vice president Cheney "how can I meet with someone I don't trust?" Al-Maliki has "opened the door for Iranian influence in Iraq" since taking power, the King said, and he was "not hopeful at all" for al-Maliki, "or I would have met with him."[40]

Official visits[edit]

The celebration ceremony of Iraq's national sovereignty was attended by Iraq's Prime Minister, Nouri al-Maliki, left, and the Minister of Defense, Abd al-Qadir, right, Baghdad, 30 June 2009.

On 13 June 2006, U.S. President George W. Bush paid a visit to Baghdad to meet with al-Maliki and President of Iraq Jalal Talabani, as a token of support for the new government.[41] During this visit, they announced the Iraqi Leaders Initiative, in which students from Iraq would go to the United States to build a personal connection between the two countries.[42] On 25 June, al-Maliki presented a national reconciliation plan to the Iraqi parliament. The peace plan sets out to remove powerful militias from the streets, open a dialogue with rebels, and review the status of purged members of the once dominant Ba'ath party. Some viewed this as a bold step towards rebuilding Iraq and reaching out to Sunnis.[43]

By July 2006, when al-Maliki visited the United States, violence had continued and even escalated, leading many to conclude that the reconciliation plan was not working or was moving too slowly. On 26 July 2006, al-Maliki addressed a joint meeting of the U.S. Congress.[44] Several New York Democrats boycotted the speech after Al-Maliki condemned Israel's attack on Lebanon. Howard Dean, the DNC chairman, accused Al-Maliki of being an "anti-Semite" and said the United States shouldn't spend so much on Iraq and then hand it over to people like al-Maliki.[45]

In September 2006, Al-Maliki made his first official visit to neighbouring Iran, whose alleged influence on Iraq is a matter of concern for Washington, D.C. He discussed with Iranian officials, including president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, the "principle of no interference in internal affairs" during his visit on 11 and 12 September 2006, i.e., political and security issues. His visit closely followed an incident in which Iran detained Iraqi soldiers it accused of having illegally crossed the border. Ibrahim Shaker, Iraqi defence ministry spokesman, said the five soldiers, one officer and one translator involved had simply been doing "their duty".[46] During his visit al-Maliki called the Islamic Republic of Iran "a good friend and brother." A press conference given by al-Maliki and U.S. President George Bush on 14 December 2008, was disrupted when Iraqi journalist Muntadhar al Zaidi threw his shoes at Bush.[47]

Personal life[edit]

On 26 April 2006, al-Maliki stopped using the pseudonym Javad which he had used since moving to Syria in the early 1980s.[48] However, the pseudo- or code name "Abu Esraa" (father of Esraa – his eldest daughter) is still heard on Iraqi satellite media every now and then, because it is very common in Arabic culture (and in Iraqi culture in particular) to call someone by his eldest son/daughter's name, especially among his close friends and followers. Al-Maliki is married to Faleeha Khalil, with whom he had three daughters and one son.

Rejected "Third Term" Law[edit]

On 26 January 2013 al-Maliki's opponents passed a law[49] which prohibited al-Maliki from running for a third term but an Iraqi court later rejected it.[50]

By August 2014, al-Maliki lost all his chances to win a third term in office. [51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ JAY SOLOMON and CAROL E. LEE (19 June 2014). "U.S. Signals Iraq's Maliki Should Go". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 13 December 2014. 
  2. ^ Al Jazeera English (14 August 2014). "Maliki steps down as Iraqi prime minister". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  3. ^ Cole, Juan (1998). "Saving Iraq: Mission impossible". Salon. Retrieved 8 June 2006. 
  4. ^ The Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri Kamel al-Maliki Biography, iraqigovernment.org
  5. ^ a b "Leader Description". Islamic Dawa Party. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  6. ^ New Iraqi Leader Seeks Unity at the Wayback Machine (archived November 25, 2011) Christian Science Monitor
  7. ^ The Iraqi Shiites at the Wayback Machine (archived December 14, 2003) Boston Review, Juan Cole
  8. ^ David Ignatius, "In Iraq's Choice, A Chance For Unity", The Washington Post, 26 April 2006.
  9. ^ Filkins, Dexter. "The Shadow Commander" The New Yorker, 30 September 2013
  10. ^ "Iraq's new unity government sworn in". CNN. 20 May 2006. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  11. ^ Sawt al-Iraq, writing in Arabic, Informed Comment, 14 May 2007
  12. ^ "Bombs kill 7, wound dozens in Iraq". CNN. 2 June 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2006. 
  13. ^ "Iraq appoints security ministers". CNN. 8 June 2006. Retrieved 8 June 2006. 
  14. ^ Sally Buzbee, Associated Press (8 June 2006). "For Iraq's prime minister, a good-news day". Raleigh News and Observer. Retrieved 8 June 2006. 
  15. ^ "White House Says Iraqi Leader Misquoted". Forbes. Associated Press. 2 June 2006. Archived from the original on 2 October 2007. Retrieved 2 June 2006. 
  16. ^ Saddam hanged by Times Online
  17. ^ Thousands of Sadr Supporters Mourn Lawmaker | AP
  18. ^ Semple, Kirk (20 October 2006). "Attack on Iraqi City Shows Militia's Power". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  19. ^ Zavis, Alexandra; Salman, Raheem (20 July 2008). "Sunni bloc returns to Iraq Cabinet". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 12 December 2011. 
  20. ^ "Doubts Grow Over Iraq's Prime Minister". Time. 25 October 2006. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  21. ^ "Shadowy Iraq office accused of sectarian agenda". CNN. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  22. ^ Iraq PM bans TV from showing attacks at the Wayback Machine (archived October 21, 2006), The Sunday Times, 24 August 2006
  23. ^ "CPJ Protest Letter". CPJ. 6 June 2006. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  24. ^ "Nouri al-Maliki Interview". The Diplomat. 7 May 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  25. ^ "Iraq's PM longs to leave office". BBC. 3 January 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  26. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/18/world/middleeast/18maliki.html?=&_r=0
  27. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/20/world/africa/20iht-20iraq.15446434.html?_r=0
  28. ^ "Eye on unrest, Iraq PM says he won't seek 3rd term". Associated Press. 5 February 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  29. ^ The US Exits, Iraq Teeters Global Bearings, 22 December 2011.
  30. ^ "Iraq's Incumbent PM Nouri Al-Maliki Grows More Isolated As He Clings To Power". Huffington Post. 13 August 2014. Retrieved 14 August 2014. 
  31. ^ http://www.spectator.co.uk/features/9287832/defeat-isis-yes-we-can/
  32. ^ Martel, Frances (12 Jun 2014). "ISIS Spokesman: Nouri al-Maliki an Incompetent 'Underwear Salesman'". Breitbart.com. Retrieved 17 August 2014. 
  33. ^ "Special Interview with Iraqi Leader Nouri al-Maliki". Der Spiegel. 19 July 2008. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  34. ^ "Clinton urges ouster of Iraq's Al-Maliki". MSNBC. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  35. ^ "Maliki returns fire at U.S. critics". BBC News. 26 August 2007. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  36. ^ Wire Reports (20 September 2007). "Iraqi leader suggests U.S. Embassy cut ties with Blackwater". USA Today. Retrieved 7 October 2007. 
  37. ^ "al-Maliki Assures Tehran that U.S.-Iraq security pact will not harm Iran". International Herald Tribune. 29 March 2009. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  38. ^ a b "Major Republican Firm Lobbying To Undermine Maliki". CNN. 23 August 2007. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  39. ^ http://english.farsnews.com/newstext.aspx?nn=13930822000553
  40. ^ American Embassy Riyadh (22 March 2009). "COUNTERTERRORISM ADVISER BRENNAN'S MEETING WITH". 
  41. ^ Abramowitz, Michael (13 June 2006). "Bush Makes Surprise Visit to Iraq". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 June 2006. 
  42. ^ "President Bush and Prime Minister Maliki of Iraq Participate in Press Availability". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. 
  43. ^ "Al al-Maliki's Reconciliation Plan Ready". Gulf News. 25 June 2006. Retrieved 25 June 2006. 
  44. ^ "Iraqi PM to Congress: Baghdad wants to be regional stabilizer". CNN. 26 June 2006. Archived from the original on 21 September 2006. Retrieved 26 2006.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  45. ^ Trish Turner and Molly Hooper (26 July 2006). "Dean Calls Iraqi Prime Minister Anti-Semite, Criticizes Bush For U.S. Visit". Fox News Channel. Retrieved 26 November 2006. 
  46. ^ "Iraq PM will visit Iran Monday". Iraq updates. 9 September 2006. Retrieved 2 December 2011. 
  47. ^ "Iraqis demand shoe-thrower be freed". Al Jazeera. 15 December. Retrieved 2 December 2011.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  48. ^ "New prime minister resorts to old name". Chicago Tribune. Associated Press. 27 April 2006. Retrieved 29 April 2006. [dead link]
  49. ^ H Al Researcher (11 February 2013). "Al-Maliki Does Not Get a Third Term in Iraq, so what? | eSPecial View". Especialview.wordpress.com. 
  50. ^ "Iraq court rejects law that would impose term limits on prime minister". Fox News Channel. 27 August 2013. 
  51. ^ http://mashable.com/2014/08/13/maliki-iraqs-lonely-leader/

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Prime Minister of Iraq
2006–2014
Succeeded by
Haider al-Abadi
Preceded by
Khodair al-Khozaei
Vice President of Iraq
2014–present
Succeeded by
Incumbent
Party political offices
Preceded by
Ibrahim al-Jaafari
Leader of the Islamic Dawa Party
2007–present
Incumbent