List of Latter Day Saint practitioners of plural marriage

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According to a consensus of historians, many adherents in the early Latter Day Saint movement practiced plural marriage, a doctrine that states that polygyny is ordained of God. Although the largest denomination in the movement, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, officially abandoned the practice of plural marriage in 1890, a number of churches in the Mormon fundamentalist movement continue to teach and practice it. Historically, the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (now the Community of Christ), the second largest denomination in the movement, had an anti-polygamy position and denied officially that Smith had taught or practiced it, since Smith denied his involvement during his church leadership.[1][2][3][4]

Pre-succession crisis[edit]

The following notable Latter Day Saints are alleged to have practiced plural marriage prior to the 1844 succession crisis that followed the death of Joseph Smith, Jr..

Joseph Smith, Jr. portrait owned by Joseph Smith III.jpg

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Joseph Smith
(1805-12-23)December 23, 1805
June 27, 1844(1844-06-27) (aged 38)
United States American
1st President of the Church of Christ (later the
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints)[5], April 6, 1830 (1830-04-06) – June 27, 1844 (1844-06-27).
April 5, 1841[6]
33[7]
Founder of the Latter Day Saint movement. Also Mayor of Nauvoo, Illinois (1842–1844)  Though he is alleged to have married more than 30 wives before his death and to have taught the doctrine to his close associates, he denied the practice publicly, as did his wife Emma Smith and son Joseph Smith III. see Origin of Latter Day Saint polygamy

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Hyrum Smith ca 1880-1920.png

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Hyrum Smith
(1800-02-09)February 9, 1800
June 27, 1844(1844-06-27) (aged 44)
United States American
Assistant President of the Church, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., January 24, 1841 (1841-01-24) – June 27, 1844 (1844-06-27).
Latter Day Saint Apostle, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., January 24, 1841 (1841-01-24) – June 27, 1844 (1844-06-27).
2nd Presiding Patriarch, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., September 14, 1840 (1840-09-14) – June 27, 1844 (1844-06-27).
Second Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., November 7, 1837 (1837-11-07) – January 24, 1841 (1841-01-24).
Assistant Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., September 3, 1837 (1837-09-03) – November 7, 1837 (1837-11-07).
August 11, 1843[6]
2[8]
Brother of Joseph Smith  Publicly denied practicing polygamy

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Brigham Young by Charles William Carter.jpg

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Brigham Young
(1801-06-01)June 1, 1801
August 29, 1877(1877-08-29) (aged 76)
United States American
2nd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, April 14, 1840 (1840-04-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
April 5, 1841[6]
55
Succeeded Smith as leader of the LDS church. Was also Governor of Utah Territory from February 3, 1851 to April 12, 1858.  Is probably the most famous Latter Day Saint polygamist with 55 wives.

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Heber Chase Kimball-2.png

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Heber C. Kimball
(1801-06-14)June 14, 1801
June 22, 1868(1868-06-22) (aged 67)
United States American
First Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – June 22, 1868 (1868-06-22).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – June 22, 1868 (1868-06-22).
1842[6]
45  

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Willardrichards.gif

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Willard Richards
(1804-06-24)June 24, 1804
March 11, 1854(1854-03-11) (aged 49)
United States American
Second Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – March 11, 1854 (1854-03-11).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., April 14, 1840 (1840-04-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., April 14, 1840 (1840-04-14) – March 11, 1854 (1854-03-11).
January 18, 1843[6]
14
Richards was incarcerated in Carthage Jail with Joseph Smith, Jr., Hyrum Smith and John Taylor on June 27, 1844 when the jail was attacked by a mob and the Smith brothers were murdered.  

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Williamsmith.gif

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William Smith
(1811-03-13)March 13, 1811
November 13, 1893(1893-11-13) (aged 82)
United States American
Petitioner for Patriarchate (RLDS Church), called by Joseph Smith III, April 6, 1832 (1832-04-06) – November 13, 1893 (1893-11-13).
3rd Presiding Patriarch (LDS Church), May 24, 1845 (1845-05-24) – October 6, 1845 (1845-10-06).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, May 25, 1839 (1839-05-25) – October 6, 1845 (1845-10-06).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, February 15, 1835 (1835-02-15) – May 4, 1839 (1839-05-04).
Latter Day Saint Apostle, called by Joseph Smith Jr., February 15, 1835 (1835-02-15) – October 6, 1845 (1845-10-06).
August 1843[6]
22
Brother of Joseph Smith, Jr.. Was removed from the Quorum due to apostasy May 4, 1839, but readmitted May 25, 1839. Was then excommunicated for apostasy in Oct 1845. Followed James J. Strang for a time, then started his own LDS Church in Covington, Kentucky. In later years he joined the Reorganized LDS Church (now Community of Christ) and was a petitioner for RLDS Patriarchate from April 1872 – 13 November 1893.  Introduced polygamy to the Strangite Mormons. His Church in Covington, Kentucky, which also disintegrated after he introduced spiritual wifery into it. He always denied he and his brother Joseph had ever practiced or taught spiritual wifery or any other form of polygamy

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Thomas Bullock (Mormon).JPG

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Thomas Bullock
(1816-12-23)December 23, 1816
February 10, 1885(1885-02-10) (aged 68)
England English
Reporter and Member of the Council of Fifty[9], called by Brigham Young, December 25, 1846 (1846-12-25) – June 24, 1882 (1882-06-24).
Clerk in the Church Historian's Office, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., c. 1843.
January 23, 1843<[6]
3
Bullock also was a member of the Council of Fifty and a clerk in the Church Historian's Office.[10][11]  

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OrsonPratt.jpg

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Orson Pratt
(1811-09-19)September 19, 1811
October 3, 1881(1881-10-03) (aged 70)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, January 20, 1843 (1843-01-20) – October 3, 1881 (1881-10-03).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, April 26, 1835 (1835-04-26) – August 20, 1842 (1842-08-20).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, April 26, 1835 (1835-04-26) – October 3, 1881 (1881-10-03).
March 10, 1843[6]
10
Younger brother of Parley P. Pratt. Was excommunicated for apostasy Aug 20, 1842, but readmitted Jan 20, 1843. As a result, was given reduced seniority in Jun 1875. Last surviving member of the original Quorum. Under the direction of Brigham Young, he published The Seer.  The Seer was a periodical published to defend the LDS church's practice of polygamy. Despite William Clayton claiming in his journal, first published in 1921, that she had been told of the revelation on polygamy on July 12, 1843,[12] Emma Smith, Joseph Smith's widow, claimed that the very first time she ever became aware of polygamy being attributed to her late husband was 10 years later when she read about it in Pratt's The Seer in 1853.[13]

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William Clayton.jpg

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William Clayton
(1814-07-17)July 17, 1814
December 4, 1879(1879-12-04) (aged 65)
England English
Member and Clerk of the Council of Fifty[9], March 11, 1844 (1844-03-11) – December 4, 1879 (1879-12-04).
April 27, 1843
10
Credited with inventing a version of the modern odometer.  Smith dictated the 1843 revelation on polygamy to Clayton. (See Origin of Latter Day Saint polygamy)

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Orson Hyde.jpg

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Orson Hyde
(1805-01-08)January 8, 1805
November 28, 1878(1878-11-28) (aged 73)
United States American
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – April 10, 1875 (1875-04-10).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, January 14, 1846 (1846-01-14) – November 28, 1878 (1878-11-28).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, June 27, 1839 (1839-06-27) – January 11, 1846 (1846-01-11).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, February 15, 1835 (1835-02-15) – May 4, 1839 (1839-05-04).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, February 15, 1835 (1835-02-15) – November 28, 1878 (1878-11-28).
April 1843[6]
9
Was removed from the Quorum due to apostasy May 4, 1839, but readmitted Jun 27, 1839. As a result, was given reduced seniority on 10 Apr 1875.  His wife Marinda married Joseph Smith in a polyandrous marriage while Hyde was on a mission to Jerusalem.

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Parley P Pratt.gif

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Parley P. Pratt
(1807-04-12)April 12, 1807
May 13, 1857(1857-05-13) (aged 50)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, February 21, 1835 (1835-02-21) – May 13, 1857 (1857-05-13).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, February 21, 1835 (1835-02-21) – May 13, 1857 (1857-05-13).
June 24, 1843[6]
11
In 1857, on a farm northeast of Van Buren, Arkansas, Pratt was murdered by Hector McLean, the legal husband of one of Pratt's plural wives.[14] Pratt is buried near Alma, Arkansas.  

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Amasamlyman.png

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Amasa Lyman
(1813-03-30)March 30, 1813
February 4, 1877(1877-02-04) (aged 63)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, October 6, 1845 (1845-10-06) – October 6, 1867 (1867-10-06).
Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., February 4, 1843 (1843-02-04) – June 27, 1844 (1844-06-27).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., August 20, 1842 (1842-08-20) – January 20, 1843 (1843-01-20).
Latter Day Saint Apostle, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., August 20, 1842 (1842-08-20) – October 6, 1867 (1867-10-06).
July 1843[6]
9
Was temporarily removed from the Quorum of the Twelve due to the re-entry of Orson Pratt on January 20, 1843; Lyman was later readmitted on August 12, 1844. Lyman was excommunicated for apostasy on May 6, 1867.  

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John Taylor seated in chair.jpg

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John Taylor
(1808-11-01)November 1, 1808
July 25, 1887(1887-07-25) (aged 78)
England English
3rd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10) – July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25).
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, April 10, 1875 (1875-04-10) – October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., December 19, 1838 (1838-12-19) – October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., December 19, 1838 (1838-12-19) – July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25).
December 12, 1843[6]
9[15]
Was promoted to Quorum President when Orson Hyde was given reduced seniority.  Had 34 children.[16]

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Edwin Dilworth Woolley, Sr.jpg

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Edwin D. Woolley, Sr.
(1807-06-28)June 28, 1807
October 12, 1881(1881-10-12) (aged 74)
United States American
1843[6]
6
Woolley was a member of the Utah Territorial Legislature in 1851.  

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Erastussnow.jpg

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Erastus Snow
(1818-11-09)November 9, 1818
May 27, 1888(1888-05-27) (aged 69)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Brigham Young, February 12, 1849 (1849-02-12) – May 27, 1888 (1888-05-27).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, February 12, 1849 (1849-02-12) – May 27, 1888 (1888-05-27).
April 2, 1844[6]
16
Was also a member of the Council of Fifty  

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John D. Lee.jpg

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John D. Lee
(1812-09-12)September 12, 1812
March 23, 1877(1877-03-23) (aged 64)
United States American
Member of the Council of Fifty[9], called by Brigham Young 14 March and 11 April 1844., 1844 – March 23, 1877 (1877-03-23).
April 19, 1844[6]
19
Was executed for his role in the Mountain Meadows massacre.  

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Ezra Taft Benson (1811).jpg

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Ezra T. Benson
(1811-02-22)February 22, 1811
September 3, 1869(1869-09-03) (aged 58)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Brigham Young, July 16, 1846 (1846-07-16) – September 3, 1869 (1869-09-03).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, July 16, 1846 (1846-07-16) – September 3, 1869 (1869-09-03).
April 27, 1844[6]
8
Great-grandfather of the thirteenth president of LDS church, Ezra Taft Benson  

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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[edit]

The following members of the LDS Church practiced plural marriage:

Presidents of the Church[edit]

Heber J Grant.jpg

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Heber J. Grant
(1856-11-22)November 22, 1856
May 14, 1945(1945-05-14) (aged 88)
United States American
7th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, November 23, 1918 (1918-11-23) – May 14, 1945 (1945-05-14).
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, November 18, 1916 (1916-11-18) – November 23, 1918 (1918-11-23).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by John Taylor, October 16, 1882 (1882-10-16) – November 23, 1918 (1918-11-23).
LDS Church Apostle, called by John Taylor, October 16, 1882 (1882-10-16) – May 14, 1945 (1945-05-14).
May 26, 1884
3
Grant succeeded Joseph F. Smith as president of the LDS Church in November 1918. However, he was not sustained in the position by the general church membership until June 1919, as the influenza pandemic of 1918 forced a delay of the church's traditional springtime general conference.  In 1899, Grant pleaded guilty to unlawful cohabitation and was fined $100.[17] During his tenure as president, Grant enforced the 1890 Manifesto outlawing plural marriage. In 1935, Grant excommunicated members of the church in Short Creek, Arizona that refused to sign the loyalty pledge to the church that included a renunciation of plural marriage.

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JFS First Presidency 1905 large.jpg

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Joseph F. Smith
(1838-11-13)November 13, 1838
November 19, 1918(1918-11-19) (aged 80)
United States American
6th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, October 17, 1901 (1901-10-17) – November 19, 1918 (1918-11-19).
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, October 10, 1901 (1901-10-10) – October 17, 1901 (1901-10-17).
First Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Lorenzo Snow, October 6, 1901 (1901-10-06) – October 10, 1901 (1901-10-10).
Second Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Wilford Woodruff, April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07) – October 6, 1901 (1901-10-06).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25) – April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07).
Second Counselor in the First Presidency, called by John Taylor, October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10) – July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29) – October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10).
Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, July 1, 1866 (1866-07-01) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, July 1, 1866 (1866-07-01) – November 19, 1918 (1918-11-19T1838).
May 6, 1866
6
Son of Hyrum Smith, and nephew of Joseph Smith, Jr.  Issued the Second Manifesto in 1904.

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Lorenzosnow.jpg

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Lorenzo Snow
(1814-04-03)April 3, 1814
October 10, 1901(1901-10-10) (aged 87)
United States American
5th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, September 13, 1898 (1898-09-13) – October 10, 1901 (1901-10-10).
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07) – September 13, 1898 (1898-09-13).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29) – September 13, 1898 (1898-09-13).
Assistant Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, June 8, 1873 (1873-06-08) – May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Brigham Young, February 12, 1849 (1849-02-12) – June 8, 1873 (1873-06-08).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, February 12, 1849 (1849-02-12) – October 10, 1901 (1901-10-10).
1845
11
Brother-in-law of both Joseph Smith, Jr. and Brigham Young through Eliza R. Snow.  Convicted of unlawful cohabitation in 1885 and was imprisoned in 1885 and 1886. Was one of the few Latter-day Saint leaders that ceased cohabiting with his already existing plural wives after the 1890 Manifesto

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John Taylor seated in chair.jpg

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John Taylor
(1808-11-01)November 1, 1808
July 25, 1887(1887-07-25) (aged 78)
England English
3rd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10) – July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25).
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, April 10, 1875 (1875-04-10) – October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., December 19, 1838 (1838-12-19) – October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., December 19, 1838 (1838-12-19) – July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25).
December 12, 1843[6]
9[18]
Was promoted to Quorum President when Orson Hyde was given reduced seniority.  Had 34 children.[19]

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Wilford Woodruff 1889.jpg

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Wilford Woodruff
(1807-03-01)March 1, 1807
September 2, 1898(1898-09-02) (aged 91)
United States American
4th President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07) – September 2, 1898 (1898-09-02).
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10) – April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., April 26, 1839 (1839-04-26) – April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07).
Apostle, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., April 26, 1839 (1839-04-26) – September 2, 1898 (1898-09-02).
December 12, 1843[6]
9
Became Quorum President because Orson Pratt was given reduced seniority.  Had 34 children.

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Brigham Young by Charles William Carter.jpg

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Brigham Young
(1801-06-01)June 1, 1801
August 29, 1877(1877-08-29) (aged 76)
United States American
2nd President of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, April 14, 1840 (1840-04-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
April 5, 1841[6]
55
Succeeded Smith as leader of the LDS church. Was also Governor of Utah Territory from February 3, 1851 to April 12, 1858.  Is probably the most famous Latter Day Saint polygamist with 55 wives.

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Members of the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve Apostles[edit]

Ezra Taft Benson (1811).jpg

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Ezra T. Benson
(1811-02-22)February 22, 1811
September 3, 1869(1869-09-03) (aged 58)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Brigham Young, July 16, 1846 (1846-07-16) – September 3, 1869 (1869-09-03).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, July 16, 1846 (1846-07-16) – September 3, 1869 (1869-09-03).
April 27, 1844[6]
8
Great-grandfather of the thirteenth president of LDS church, Ezra Taft Benson  

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Abraham H. Cannon.jpg

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Abraham H. Cannon
(1859-03-12)March 12, 1859
July 19, 1896(1896-07-19) (aged 37)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Wilford Woodruff, October 7, 1889 (1889-10-07) – July 19, 1896 (1896-07-19).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Wilford Woodruff, October 7, 1889 (1889-10-07) – July 19, 1896 (1896-07-19).
First Seven Presidents of the Seventy, called by John Taylor, October 8, 1882 (1882-10-08) – October 7, 1889 (1889-10-07).
Oct 15, 1879
3
Was a member of the Council of Fifty. Son of apostle George Q. Cannon.  Convicted of unlawful cohabitation in 1886 and imprisoned for six months.

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George Q. Cannon - Brady-Handy.jpg

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George Q. Cannon
(1827-01-11)January 11, 1827
April 12, 1901(1901-04-12) (aged 74)
England English
First Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Lorenzo Snow, September 13, 1898 (1898-09-13) – April 12, 1901 (1901-04-12).
First Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Wilford Woodruff, April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07) – September 2, 1898 (1898-09-02).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25) – April 7, 1889 (1889-04-07).
First Counselor in the First Presidency, called by John Taylor, October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10) – July 25, 1887 (1887-07-25).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29) – October 10, 1880 (1880-10-10).
Assistant Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, June 8, 1873 (1873-06-08) – May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Brigham Young, August 26, 1860 (1860-08-26) – June 8, 1873 (1873-06-08).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, August 26, 1860 (1860-08-26) – April 12, 1901 (1901-04-12).
October 15, 1879
3[6]
Convicted of unlawful cohabitation in 1886 and imprisoned for six months.  

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Albert Carrington2.jpg

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Albert Carrington
(1813-01-08)January 8, 1813
September 19, 1889(1889-09-19) (aged 76)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29) – November 7, 1885 (1885-11-07).
Assistant Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, June 8, 1873 (1873-06-08) – May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Brigham Young, July 3, 1870 (1870-07-03) – June 8, 1873 (1873-06-08).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, July 3, 1870 (1870-07-03) – November 7, 1885 (1885-11-07).
c. 1842
2
Also served as an official Church Historian (1871–1874), as a members of the Council of Fifty and in the Utah Territorial Legislature (1869). Was excommunicated for adultery November 7, 1885, and later rebaptized on November 1, 1887; however, he was not reinstated as an apostle or as a general authority.  

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Rudgerclawson.gif

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Rudger Clawson
(1857-03-12)March 12, 1857
June 21, 1943(1943-06-21) (aged 86)
United States American
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, March 17, 1921 (1921-03-17) – June 21, 1943 (1943-06-21).
Acting President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, November 23, 1918 (1918-11-23) – March 17, 1921 (1921-03-17).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, October 10, 1901 (1901-10-10) – June 21, 1943 (1943-06-21).
Second Counselor in the First Presidency, October 6, 1901 (1901-10-06) – October 10, 1901 (1901-10-10).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, October 10, 1898 (1898-10-10) – October 6, 1901 (1901-10-06).
LDS Church Apostle, October 10, 1898 (1898-10-10) – June 21, 1943 (1943-06-21).
March 29, 1883
3
Clawson served in the quorum for a total of 45 years. The town of Clawson, Utah is named after him.  Clawson first person convicted of unlawful cohabitation under the Edmunds Act.[20] He was sentence to 3½ years imprisonment and fined $1,500.[20]

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Matthias F. Cowley.jpg

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Matthias F. Cowley
(1858-08-25)August 25, 1858
June 16, 1940(1940-06-16) (aged 81)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Wilford Woodruff, October 7, 1897 (1897-10-07)[21] – October 28, 1905 (1905-10-28).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Wilford Woodruff, October 7, 1897 (1897-10-07)[21] – May 11, 1911 (1911-05-11)[22].
September 22, 1889
3
The town of Cowley, Wyoming is named after him. Cowley resigned from the Quorum October 28, 1905. He remained an ordained apostle of the church until his priesthood was suspended in on May 11, 1911, and later restored on April 3, 1936.  Reports of Cowley's continuing involvement in new plural marriages led to his priesthood being suspended, and he continued to be linked with plural marriage over the next several years.

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Jedediahmgrant.gif

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Jedediah M. Grant
(1816-02-21)February 21, 1816
December 1, 1856(1856-12-01) (aged 40)
United States American
Second Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, April 7, 1854 (1854-04-07) – December 1, 1856 (1856-12-01).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, April 7, 1854 (1854-04-07) – December 1, 1856 (1856-12-01).
First Seven Presidents of the Seventy, called by Brigham Young, December 2, 1845 (1845-12-02) – April 7, 1854 (1854-04-07).
February 11, 1849
7
He was known for his fiery speeches during the Reformation of 1856, earning the nickname, "Brigham's Sledgehammer". He was a member of the Council of Fifty and Mayor of Salt Lake City (1851–1856). He is the father of Heber J. Grant, who later served as President of the Church.  

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Orson Hyde.jpg

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Orson Hyde
(1805-01-08)January 8, 1805
November 28, 1878(1878-11-28) (aged 73)
United States American
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – April 10, 1875 (1875-04-10).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, January 14, 1846 (1846-01-14) – November 28, 1878 (1878-11-28).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, June 27, 1839 (1839-06-27) – January 11, 1846 (1846-01-11).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, February 15, 1835 (1835-02-15) – May 4, 1839 (1839-05-04).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, February 15, 1835 (1835-02-15) – November 28, 1878 (1878-11-28).
April 1843[6]
9
Was removed from the Quorum due to apostasy May 4, 1839, but readmitted Jun 27, 1839. As a result, was given reduced seniority on 10 Apr 1875.  His wife Marinda married Joseph Smith in a polyandrous marriage while Hyde was on a mission to Jerusalem.

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Heber Chase Kimball-2.png

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Heber C. Kimball
(1801-06-14)June 14, 1801
June 22, 1868(1868-06-22) (aged 67)
United States American
First Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – June 22, 1868 (1868-06-22).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, February 14, 1835 (1835-02-14) – June 22, 1868 (1868-06-22).
1842[6]
45  

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Amasamlyman.png

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Amasa Lyman
(1813-03-30)March 30, 1813
February 4, 1877(1877-02-04) (aged 63)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, October 6, 1845 (1845-10-06) – October 6, 1867 (1867-10-06).
Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., February 4, 1843 (1843-02-04) – June 27, 1844 (1844-06-27).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., August 20, 1842 (1842-08-20) – January 20, 1843 (1843-01-20).
Latter Day Saint Apostle, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., August 20, 1842 (1842-08-20) – October 6, 1867 (1867-10-06).
July 1843[6]
9
Was temporarily removed from the Quorum of the Twelve due to the re-entry of Orson Pratt on January 20, 1843; Lyman was later readmitted on August 12, 1844. Lyman was excommunicated for apostasy on May 6, 1867.  

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Francis M. Lyman.jpg

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Francis M. Lyman
(1840-01-12)January 12, 1840
November 18, 1916(1916-11-18) (aged 76)
United States American
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, October 6, 1903 (1903-10-06) – November 18, 1916 (1916-11-18).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by John Taylor, October 27, 1880 (1880-10-27) – November 18, 1916 (1916-11-18).
LDS Church Apostle, called by John Taylor, October 27, 1880 (1880-10-27) – November 18, 1916 (1916-11-18).
October 4, 1869
2
Member of the Council of Fifty. Son of Amasa M. Lyman  

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Richard R. Lyman 1939.JPG

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Richard R. Lyman
(1870-11-23)November 23, 1870
December 31, 1963(1963-12-31) (aged 93)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Joseph F. Smith, April 7, 1918 (1918-04-07) – November 12, 1943 (1943-11-12).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Joseph F. Smith, April 7, 1918 (1918-04-07) – November 12, 1943 (1943-11-12).
c. 1925
2
Son of Francis M. Lyman and grandson of Amasa M. Lyman. In 1925, Lyman had begun what he called a polygamous relationship without the knowledge of his first wife. Lyman was excommunicated on November 12, 1943. The Quorum of the Twelve provided the newspapers with a one-sentence announcement, stating that the ground for excommunication was violation of the law of chastity.  

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Marriner Wood Merrill.jpg

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Marriner W. Merrill
(1832-09-25)25 September 1832
6 February 1906(1906-02-06) (aged 73)
England English (United Kingdom Pre-Confederation New Brunswick-born)
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Wilford Woodruff, 7 October 1889 (1889-10-07) – 6 February 1906 (1906-02-06).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Wilford Woodruff, 7 October 1889 (1889-10-07) – 6 February 1906 (1906-02-06).
5 June 1856
8
Merrill was also the Postmaster of Richmond in 1866, a County Selectman from 1872 to 1879 and a member of the territorial legislature for two terms.[23]  Merrill married his eighth wife after the 1890 Manifesto announced the discontinuation of polygamy. He is alleged also to have advocated and performed post-Manifesto plural marriages.[24][25] Merrill was summoned twice as a witness before the Smoot investigation before the United States Congress, but declined citing poor health.

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Charles W. Nibley 1931.JPG

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Charles W. Nibley
(1849-02-05)February 5, 1849
December 11, 1931(1931-12-11) (aged 82)
Scotland Scottish
Second Counselor in the First Presidency, May 28, 1925 (1925-05-28) – December 11, 1931 (1931-12-11).
Presiding Bishop, December 4, 1907 (1907-12-04) – May 28, 1925 (1925-05-28).
30 March 1880
3
Nibley was also the fifth presiding bishop of the LDS Church between 1907 and 1925. He is one of the few individuals to serve in the First Presidency without having been ordained to the priesthood office of apostle.  

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OrsonPratt.jpg

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Orson Pratt
(1811-09-19)September 19, 1811
October 3, 1881(1881-10-03) (aged 70)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, January 20, 1843 (1843-01-20) – October 3, 1881 (1881-10-03).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, April 26, 1835 (1835-04-26) – August 20, 1842 (1842-08-20).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, April 26, 1835 (1835-04-26) – October 3, 1881 (1881-10-03).
March 10, 1843[6]
10
Younger brother of Parley P. Pratt. Was excommunicated for apostasy Aug 20, 1842, but readmitted Jan 20, 1843. As a result, was given reduced seniority in Jun 1875. Last surviving member of the original Quorum. Under the direction of Brigham Young, he published The Seer.  The Seer was a periodical published to defend the LDS church's practice of polygamy. Despite William Clayton claiming in his journal, first published in 1921, that she had been told of the revelation on polygamy on July 12, 1843,[26] Emma Smith, Joseph Smith's widow, claimed that the very first time she ever became aware of polygamy being attributed to her late husband was 10 years later when she read about it in Pratt's The Seer in 1853.[27]

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Parley P Pratt.gif

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Parley P. Pratt
(1807-04-12)April 12, 1807
May 13, 1857(1857-05-13) (aged 50)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Three Witnesses, February 21, 1835 (1835-02-21) – May 13, 1857 (1857-05-13).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Three Witnesses, February 21, 1835 (1835-02-21) – May 13, 1857 (1857-05-13).
June 24, 1843[6]
11
In 1857, on a farm northeast of Van Buren, Arkansas, Pratt was murdered by Hector McLean, the legal husband of one of Pratt's plural wives.[28] Pratt is buried near Alma, Arkansas.  

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Charles C. Rich 1875.jpg

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Charles C. Rich
(1809-08-21)August 21, 1809
November 17, 1883(1883-11-17) (aged 74)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Brigham Young, February 12, 1849 (1849-02-12) – November 17, 1883 (1883-11-17).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, February 12, 1849 (1849-02-12) – November 17, 1883 (1883-11-17).
January 6, 1845
6
Was also a member of the Council of Fifty.  

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Franklin D. Richards (Mormon apostle).gif

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Franklin D. Richards
(1821-04-02)April 2, 1821
December 9, 1899(1899-12-09) (aged 78)
United States American
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, September 13, 1898 (1898-09-13) – December 9, 1899 (1899-12-09).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Brigham Young, February 12, 1849 (1849-02-12) – December 9, 1899 (1899-12-09).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, February 12, 1849 (1849-02-12) – December 9, 1899 (1899-12-09).
October 13, 1849
11  

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Willardrichards.gif

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Willard Richards
(1804-06-24)June 24, 1804
March 11, 1854(1854-03-11) (aged 49)
United States American
Second Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27) – March 11, 1854 (1854-03-11).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., April 14, 1840 (1840-04-14) – December 27, 1847 (1847-12-27).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., April 14, 1840 (1840-04-14) – March 11, 1854 (1854-03-11).
January 18, 1843[6]
14
Richards was incarcerated in Carthage Jail with Joseph Smith, Jr., Hyrum Smith and John Taylor on June 27, 1844 when the jail was attacked by a mob and the Smith brothers were murdered.  

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GeorgeAlbertSmith.jpg

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George A. Smith
(1817-06-26)June 26, 1817
September 1, 1875(1875-09-01) (aged 58)
United States American
First Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, October 7, 1868 (1868-10-07) – September 1, 1875 (1875-09-01).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., April 26, 1839 (1839-04-26) – October 7, 1868 (1868-10-07).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Joseph Smith, Jr., April 26, 1839 (1839-04-26) – September 1, 1875 (1875-09-01).
November 29, 1844
7
Cousin of Joseph Smith, Jr. During The Utah War, Smith visited southern Utah communities, after learning of the imminent arrival of U.S. troops into Utah Territory. Scholars have asserted that Smith’s tour, speeches, and personal actions may have contributed to the fear and tension in these communities, which lead to the Mountain Meadows massacre. George A. Smith's grandson, George Albert Smith, later became president of the church in 1945.  

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John Henry Smith.jpg

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John Henry Smith
(1848-09-18)September 18, 1848
October 13, 1911(1911-10-13) (aged 63)
United States American
Second Counselor in the First Presidency, April 7, 1911 (1911-04-07) – October 13, 1911 (1911-10-13).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, October 27, 1880 (1880-10-27) – April 7, 1911 (1911-04-07).
LDS Church Apostle, October 27, 1880 (1880-10-27) – October 13, 1911 (1911-10-13).
April 4, 1877
2
Son of George A. Smith. After being elected a member of the Utah Territorial Legislature in 1882, he played an important role in the process whereby Utah made the transition from a territory to a state of the United States.  

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Johnwtaylor.gif

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John W. Taylor
(1858-05-15)May 15, 1858
October 10, 1916(1916-10-10) (aged 58)

United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by John Taylor, May 15, 1884 (1884-05-15) – April 1905.
LDS Church Apostle, called by John Taylor, May 15, 1884 (1884-05-15) – 1911[29].
September 25, 1888
6
Son of John Taylor. Resigned from the Quorum in October 1905 and was excommunicated in 1911.  Due to his staunch belief in the doctrine of plural marriage, Taylor continued to privately marry additional wives even after the church officially forbade the practice with the 1890 Manifesto. When discovered, Taylor resigned from the Quorum of the Twelve.</noinclude>
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George Teasdale.jpg

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George Teasdale
(1831-12-08)8 December 1831
9 June 1907(1907-06-09) (aged 75)
England English
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by John Taylor, 16 October 1882 (1882-10-16) – 9 June 1907 (1907-06-09).
LDS Church Apostle, called by John Taylor, 16 October 1882 (1882-10-16) – 9 June 1907 (1907-06-09).

9
Was also a member of the Council of Fifty.  

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Daniel H. Wells2.jpg

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Daniel H. Wells
(1814-10-27)October 27, 1814
March 24, 1891(1891-03-24) (aged 76)
United States American
Counselor to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by John Taylor, October 6, 1877 (1877-10-06) – March 24, 1891 (1891-03-24).
Second Counselor in First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, January 4, 1857 (1857-01-04) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, January 4, 1857 (1857-01-04) – March 24, 1891 (1891-03-24).
February 15, 1849
7
Wells was a member of the Council of Fifty, Mayor of Salt Lake City (1866–1876), president of the Manti Utah Temple (1888–1891), and presided over the continuing construction of the Salt Lake Temple as the superintendent of public works for the LDS Church (1848–1863). On April 6, 1877, Wells, on behalf of Brigham Young, dedicated the St. George Utah Temple.  

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John R. Winder.jpg

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John R. Winder
(1821-12-11)December 11, 1821
March 27, 1910(1910-03-27) (aged 88)
England English
First Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Joseph F. Smith, October 17, 1901 (1901-10-17) – March 27, 1910 (1910-03-27).
Second Counselor in the Presiding Bishopric, called by William B. Preston, April 8, 1887 (1887-04-08) – October 17, 1901 (1901-10-17).
September, 30 1855
4
Winder was a figure in politics and the militia in the territory. He led the Nauvoo Legion to stop the advance of Johnston's Army in the Utah War of 1857. In the Black Hawk War (Utah), he fought as Adjutant General. Having never been a member of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles prior to his call to the First Presidency, a rarity, there has been some dispute as to whether or not Winder was ordained an Apostle at the time of his appointment as first counselor. The LDS Church has no record of Winder being ordained to the office of Apostle.  

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Abraham O. Woodruff.jpg

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Abraham O. Woodruff
(1872-11-23)November 23, 1872
June 20, 1904(1904-06-20) (aged 31)
United States American
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Wilford Woodruff, October 7, 1897 (1897-10-07)[21] – June 20, 1904 (1904-06-20).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Wilford Woodruff, October 7, 1897 (1897-10-07)[21] – June 20, 1904 (1904-06-20).
November 1, 1900
2
Son of Wilford Woodruff. He was ordained an apostle at the young age of 23, but served less than 8 years due to his death of smallpox.  Married his second wife ten years after his father had issued the 1890 Manifesto.

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Brigham Young, Jr.jpg

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Brigham Young, Jr.
(1836-12-18)December 18, 1836
April 11, 1903(1903-04-11) (aged 66)
United States American
President of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, October 17, 1901 (1901-10-17) – April 11, 1903 (1903-04-11).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29) – April 11, 1903 (1903-04-11).
Assistant Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, June 8, 1873 (1873-06-08) – May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09).
Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by Brigham Young, October 9, 1868 (1868-10-09) – June 8, 1873 (1873-06-08).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, February 4, 1864 (1864-02-04) – April 11, 1903 (1903-04-11).
March, 15, 1857
6
Son of Brigham Young. Was ordained an apostle in 1864, but did not become member of the Quorum until 1868. Also served several terms in the Utah Territorial Legislature.[30]  

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John W Young.gif

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John Willard Young
(1844-10-01)October 1, 1844
February 12, 1924(1924-02-12) (aged 79)
United States American
Counselor to the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, called by John Taylor, October 6, 1877 (1877-10-06) – October 3, 1891 (1891-10-03).
First Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, October 8, 1876 (1876-10-08) – August 29, 1877 (1877-08-29).
Assistant Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09) – October 8, 1876 (1876-10-08).
Counselor in the First Presidency, called by Brigham Young, June 8, 1873 (1873-06-08) – May 9, 1874 (1874-05-09).
LDS Church Apostle, called by Brigham Young, November 22, 1855 (1855-11-22) – February 12, 1924 (1924-02-12).
c. 1844
6
Served as member of the Council of Fifty. In 1888, Joseph F. Smith accused Young of unethically using church funds to maintain a lavish lifestyle.[31] By April 1889, the First Presidency and Quorum of the Twelve Apostles were discussing Young’s release. In response, Young resigned from his position on October 3, 1891.[31] For another 33 years, Young remained a church apostle, but never again served as a general authority.  

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Other church general authorities[edit]

Titus Billings Large.jpg

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Titus Billings
(1793-03-25)March 25, 1793
February 6, 1866(1866-02-06) (aged 72)
United States American
January 20, 1854
2  

 

Robert T. Burton.jpg

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Robert T. Burton
(1821-10-25)October 25, 1821
November 11, 1907(1907-11-11) (aged 86)
United Kingdom Upper Canada
First Counselor in the Presiding Bishopric, October 5, 1884-November 11, 1907.
Second Counselor in the Presiding Bishopric, October 9, 1874-October 16, 1883.
February 6, 1856
3
Member of the presiding bishopric of from 1874 until his death. He was also one of the principal officers in the Nauvoo Legion during its Utah reconstitution (including the Utah War)[32] and led the territorial militia against the Morrisites during the 1862 Morrisite War.  

 

Levi W. Hancock.jpg

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Levi W. Hancock
(1803-04-07)April 7, 1803
June 10, 1882(1882-06-10) (aged 79)
United States American
First Seven Presidents of the Seventy, March 1, 1835-April 6, 1837.
First Seven Presidents of the Seventy, September 3, 1837-June 10, 1882.
February 24, 1849
5
Served as member of the Council of Fifty (1846) and the 1st Utah Territorial Legislature.  

 

Leonard W. Hardy.jpg

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Leonard W. Hardy
(1805-12-31)December 31, 1805
July 31, 1884(1884-07-31) (aged 78)
United States American
First Counselor in the Presiding Bishopric, October 6, 1856-July 31, 1884.
Nov 28, 1850
5
Served as member of the Council of Fifty.  

 

Name:
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George Miller
(1794-12-25)December 25, 1794
1856 (aged 61 or 62)
United States American
Second Counselor in the Presiding Bishopric, October 7, 1844-latter end of 1846.
January 25, 1846
3
Served as member of the Council of Fifty. Served as member of the Council of Fifty. Disfellowshipped from the church on 3 December 1848 due to his opposition of Brigham Young's leadership, however, he was never formally excommunicated.  

 

JohnMorganSouthernStar.jpg

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John Hamilton Morgan
(1842-08-08)August 8, 1842
August 14, 1894(1894-08-14) (aged 52)
United States American
First Seven Presidents of the Seventy, October 5, 1884-August 14, 1894.
January 25, 1884
3
An early educator in Utah Territory  

 

Isaac Morley.jpg

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Isaac Morley
(1786-03-11)March 11, 1786
June 24, 1865(1865-06-24) (aged 79)
United States American
First Counselor in the Presiding Bishopric, June 6, 1831-May 27, 1840.
1844
7
Mosley was one of the first converts to Smith's Church of Christ. Morley was present at many of the early events of the Latter Day Saint movement, and served as a church leader in Ohio, Missouri and Utah Territory. Served as a member of the Council of Fifty.  

 

George Reynolds (LDS).JPG

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George Reynolds
(1842-01-01)January 1, 1842
August 9, 1909(1909-08-09) (aged 67)
United States American
First Council of the Seventy, April 5, 1890-August 9, 1909.
August 3, 1874
3  

 

Brigham Henry Roberts2.jpg

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B. H. Roberts
(1857-03-13)March 13, 1857
September 27, 1933(1933-09-27) (aged 76)
United Kingdom United Kingdom
First Council of the Seventy, October 7, 1888-September 27, 1933.
October 2, 1884
3  

 

John Smith (nephew)1895.JPG

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John Smith
(1832-09-22)September 22, 1832
November 6, 1911(1911-11-06) (aged 79)
United States American
February 18, 1857
2
Nephew of Joseph Smith, Jr. (father was Hyrum Smith).  

 

John Smith (uncle of Joseph Smith, Jr).jpg

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John Smith
(1781-07-16)July 16, 1781
May 23, 1854(1854-05-23) (aged 72)
United States American
Presiding Patriarch, January 1, 1849-May 23, 1854.
Assistant Counselor in the First Presidency, September 3, 1837-June 27, 1844.
1843
10[citation needed]
Younger brother of Joseph Smith, Sr. and uncle of Joseph Smith, Jr. Served as a member of the Council of Fifty, as a counselor in the First Presidency(1837–1844), and as the Presiding Patriarch(1849–1854).  

 

Zerubbabel Snow.jpg

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Zerubbabel Snow
(1809-03-29)March 29, 1809
September 27, 1888(1888-09-27) (aged 79)
United States American
First Quorum of the Seventy, 1835-unknown.
August 25, 1841
3
Was elected Attorney General of the Territory of Utah in 1869.  

 

Edward Stevenson.jpg

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Edward Stevenson
(1820-05-01)May 1, 1820
January 27, 1897(1897-01-27) (aged 76)
United Kingdom United Kingdom (GibraltarGibraltar-born)
First Council of the Seventy, October 7, 1894-January 27, 1897.
October 28, 1855
7
He is also notable for writing a memoir of Joseph Smith in 1893, which ended up being the earliest surviving documentary source supporting the story of Joseph Smith having taught prior to 1836 that he had seen God and Jesus Christ as two separate beings in his First Vision.  

 

WmWhitTaylor.JPG

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William W. Taylor
(1853-09-11)September 11, 1853
August 1, 1884(1884-08-01) (aged 30)
United States American
First Seven Presidents of the Seventy, April 7, 1880-August 1, 1884.
March 29, 1884
2
Was a member of the Utah Territorial Legislature  

 

John Van Cott 1846.jpg

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John Van Cott
(1814-09-07)September 7, 1814
February 18, 1883(1883-02-18) (aged 68)
United States American
First Seven Presidents of the Seventy, October 8, 1862-February 18, 1883.
May 02, 1849
5
Served as member of the Council of Fifty.  

 

Newel K. Whitney.jpg

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Newel K. Whitney
(1795-02-05)February 5, 1795
September 24, 1850(1850-09-24) (aged 55)
United States American
Presiding Bishop, June 6, 1847-September 23, 1850.
First Bishop of the Church, October 7, 1844-June 6, 1847.
February 14, 1845
up to 8
Served as member of the Council of Fifty.  

 

Joseph Young.jpg

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Joseph Young
(1797-04-07)April 7, 1797
July 16, 1881(1881-07-16) (aged 84)
United States American
First Seven Presidents of the Seventy, March 1, 1835-July 16, 1881.
January 16, 1846
6
Was the elder brother of Brigham Young and a member of the Council of Fifty.  

 

Other notable members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[edit]

Milo Andrus 1890.jpg

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Milo Andrus
(1814-03-06)March 6, 1814
June 19, 1893(1893-06-19) (aged 79)
United States American
January 1, 1848
11
Andrus was one of the members of Zion's Camp, and helped build the Kirtland, Nauvoo, Salt Lake, and Saint George Temples.  

 

Gilbert Belnap.jpg

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Gilbert Belnap
(1821-12-22)December 22, 1821
February 26, 1899(1899-02-26) (aged 77)
United Kingdom Upper Canada
June 26, 1852
2
Belnap was a Mormon pioneer, early bishop, missionary, Weber County sheriff, and colonizer. He married first cousins; his first wife was the daughter of Martha McBride Knight, one of Joseph Smith's plural wives. He was issued a recommend in 1857 to take a third wife which was never used.  

 

John Milton Bernhisel.jpg

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John Milton Bernhisel
(1799-06-23)June 23, 1799
September 28, 1881(1881-09-28) (aged 82)
United States American
c.1845
7
Bernhisel was elected as Utah Territory's first delegate to Congress in 1851  

 

Hugh Findlay.jpg

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Hugh Findlay
(1822-06-09)June 9, 1822
March 2, 1900(1900-03-02) (aged 77)
Scotland Scottish
c. 1857
2
Findlay was one of the first two Mormon missionaries to enter India and initiated Mormon missionary work in the Shetland Islands.  

 

William J. Flake.jpg

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William J. Flake
(1839-07-03)July 3, 1839
August 10, 1932(1932-08-10) (aged 93)
United States American
c. 1868
2
Flake helped settle parts of Arizona  

 

David Fullmer (Latter Day Saint).jpg

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David Fullmer
(1803-07-07)July 7, 1803
October 21, 1879(1879-10-21) (aged 76)
United States American
January 21, 1846
2
David Fullmer was a members of the Council of Fifty and the Nauvoo City Council.  

 

John S. Fullmer.JPG

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John S. Fullmer
(1807-07-21)July 21, 1807
October 8, 1883(1883-10-08) (aged 76)
United States American
January, 21, 1846
3
John Fullmer was a members of the Council of Fifty and the Utah Territorial House of Representatives.  

 

AGardner.jpg

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Archibald Gardner
(1814-09-02)September 2, 1814
February 8, 1902(1902-02-08) (aged 87)
Scotland Scottish
April 19, 1849
11
Prominent business man and bishop for 32 years  

 

Ephraim K. Hanks.jpg

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Ephraim Hanks
(1826-03-21)March 21, 1826
June 9, 1896(1896-06-09) (aged 70)
United States American
March 27, 1856
4
Hanks was a prominent member of the 19th-century Latter Day Saint movement, a Mormon pioneer and a leader in the early settlement of Utah. Hanks played a role in the rescue of the Martin handcart company, although he wasn't present during the famous Sweetwater crossing.[33] Hanks also led a militia company in scouting expeditions during the Utah War in 1857 and 1858.  

 

Abraham Lucas Hoagland.jpg

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Abraham Hoagland
(1797-03-24)March 24, 1797
February 14, 1872(1872-02-14) (aged 74)
United States American
c. 1847
4
Hoagland was an early Mormon leader, pioneer, and one of the founders of Royal Oak, Michigan, and Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.  

 

Jacobhamblin.jpg

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Jacob Hamblin
(1819-04-02)April 2, 1819
August 31, 1886(1886-08-31) (aged 67)
United States American
September 30, 1849
2
Hamblin was a Western pioneer, Mormon missionary, and diplomat to various Native American Tribes of the Southwest and Great Basin.  

 

Charles Sreeve Peterson.jpg

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Charles S. Peterson
(1818-07-28)July 28, 1818
September 26, 1889(1889-09-26) (aged 71)
United States American
c. 1849
4
Peterson was the first settler of Utah's Morgan Valley,[34] a member of the Utah Territorial Legislature, and one of the first settlers in the Mormon colonies in Mexico.  

 

Lot Smith.jpg

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Lot Smith
(1830-03-15)March 15, 1830
June 21, 1892(1892-06-21) (aged 62)
United States American
c. 1851
8
Lot was an officer in the Nauvoo Legion. He was sent on a special mission by Young to delay the United States Army from reaching Utah in 1857.  

 

Orson Spencer.jpg

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Orson Spencer
(1802-03-14)March 14, 1802
October 15, 1855(1855-10-15) (aged 53)
United States American
c. 1835
6
Spencer was a member of the Council of Fifty and was named the first chancellor of the University of Deseret in 1850.  

 

David King Udall.jpg

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David K. Udall
(1851-09-07)September 7, 1851
February 18, 1938(1938-02-18) (aged 86)
United States American
c. 1882
3
Udall married last wife in 1903, 13 years after the 1890 Manifesto  

 

Johnlyon2.jpg

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John Lyon
(1803-03-04)March 4, 1803
November 28, 1889(1889-11-28) (aged 86)
Scotland Scottish
March 28, 1856
2
Lyon was a Scottish Latter Day Saint poet and hymn writer.  

 

Other sects within the Latter Day Saint movement[edit]

Mormon fundamentalists sects[edit]

The following are notable members of the Mormon fundamentalist movement who have practiced plural marriage:

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Owen A. Allred
(1914-01-14)January 14, 1914
February 14, 2005(2005-02-14) (aged 91)
United States American
1942
8
Owen Allred became leader of the Apostolic United Brethren following the murder of his brother Rulon Allred.  

 

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Rulon C. Allred
(1906-03-29)March 29, 1906
May 10, 1977(1977-05-10) (aged 71)
United States American (Mexico Mexican-born)
c. 1926
at least 12
Leader of the Apostolic United Brethren. On May 10, 1977, Allred was shot and killed by two women in his office in Murray, Utah. One of the women was later identified as Rena Chynoweth, one of Ervil LeBaron's wives. Although acquitted of the charges, Chynoweth later confessed to the crime in her memoir, The Blood Covenant.  

 

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John Y. Barlow
(1874-03-04)March 4, 1874
December 29, 1949(1949-12-29) (aged 75)
United States American
1902
4
While serving as a missionary for The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Barlow defended his polygamous views and was dishonorably released.[35] Later, LDS Church apostle Melvin J. Ballard, the president of the Northwest States Mission during Barlow's service there, served as witness in the disciplinary council that resulted in Barlow's excommunication.[36]  

 

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J. Leslie Broadbent
(1891-06-03)June 3, 1891
March 16, 1935(1935-03-16) (aged 43)
United States American
June 1915
4
In 1927, Broadbent published a pamphlet Celestial Marriage advocating the practice of plural marriage. This was one of the first Mormon fundamentalist tracts and was a factor in his subsequent excommunication by the LDS Church in July 1929.  

 

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Born:
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Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Tom Green (polygamist)
1948
United States American
1980s
7
  Green and his lifestyle were the subject of the British-made documentary One Man, Six Wives and Twenty-Nine Children. He and his wives have appeared on various television programmes and have a higher level of media exposure than many other contemporary polygamists.

 

Name:
Born:
Nationality:
Date entered polygamy:
Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

James D. Harmston
November 1940
United States American
c. 1990
at least 8[37]
Raised in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, James D. Harmston and his wife broke away from the Church in the 1980s and founded the True and Living Church of Jesus Christ of Saints of the Last Days.  

 

Name:
Born:
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Date entered polygamy:
Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Rulon Jeffs
(1909-12-06)December 6, 1909
September 8, 2002(2002-09-08) (aged 92)
United States American
March 2, 1909[40]
As many as 75[41]
Rulon Jeffs was a leader of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. It was reported that at the time of Jeffs' death at age 92 that he may have had as many as 75 wives and 65 children;[38] however, conflicting sources indicate that Jeffs may have been survived by 19 or 20 wives and "about 60 children," including 33 sons.[39]  

 

Jeffs ws1.jpg

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Warren Jeffs
(1955-12-03) December 3, 1955 (age 58)
United States American

78[44]
Current leader of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. On September 25, 2007, Jeffs was found guilty of two counts of rape as an accomplice and was sentenced to imprisonment for 10 years to life.[42] However, on July 27, 2010, his conviction was reversed by Utah's Supreme Court because of incorrect jury instructions.[43] Subsequently on August 9, 2011, Jeffs was tried on two other counts of sexual assault of a child, convicted and imprisoned for life.[citation needed]  

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Leroy S. Johnson2.jpg

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Leroy S. Johnson
(1888-06-12)June 12, 1888
November 25, 1986(1986-11-25) (aged 98)
United States American
c. 1928
6[45]
Leader of the Fundamentalist Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Johnson became acquainted with fundamentalist ideas in 1928 after his brother Price introduced him to John Woolley in Centerville, Utah.  

 

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Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Alex Joseph
1936
September 27, 1998
United States American
c. 1969
up to 20[46]
Founder of the Confederate Nations of Israel and mayor of Big Water, Utah. Joseph was the first Libertarian mayor of a community in the United States.  

 

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Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Charles E. Kingston
1909
1947
United States American

5[48]
Kingston co-foundered the Latter Day Church of Christ, also known as the Kingston Clan and the Davis County Cooperative.[47]  

 

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Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Ervil LeBaron
(1925-02-22)February 22, 1925
August 16, 1981(1981-08-16) (aged 56)
United States American
c. 1944
at least 13 wives
Founder of the Church of the Lamb of God and using the religious doctrine of blood atonement as justification, ordered the killings of many of his opponents, including Rulon C. Allred. In 1980, He was sentenced to prison for orchestrating the murder of an opponent, and died in prison.  

 

Name:
Born:
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Nationality:
Date entered polygamy:
Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Joel LeBaron
(1923-06-09)June 9, 1923
August 20, 1972(1972-08-20) (aged 49)
United States American
c. 1944

In 1955, Joel LeBaron and two of his brothers established the Church of the Firstborn of the Fulness of Times in Salt Lake City, Utah with Joel as President of the Church. In 1967, Joel's brother, Ervil LeBaron, was removed from leadership in the church when he began to preach that he, and not Joel, was the proper leader of the church. Then on 20 August 1972 Daniel Jordan, one of Ervil's followers, shot and killed Joel.  

 

Name:
Born:
Died:
Nationality:
Date entered polygamy:
Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Joseph W. Musser
(1872-03-08)March 8, 1872
1954
United States American
March 1902
5
Musser is known for his Mormon fundamentalist books, pamphlets and magazines, as well as being considered a prophet by many Mormon fundamentalists.  

 

John W. Woolley2.jpg

Name:
Born:
Died:
Nationality:
Date entered polygamy:
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Notes:

John W. Woolley
(1831-12-30)December 30, 1831
December 1928
United States American
March 20, 1851
3
Woolley was sealed to only one woman during his lifetime, and experienced plural marriage for only six years between 1886 and 1892. However, Woolley is known as the father of Mormon fundamentalism and amongst most fundamentalists is considered an apostle, prophet, and president of the priesthood.  

 

Lorin C. Woolley2.jpg

Name:
Born:
Died:
Nationality:
Date entered polygamy:
Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Lorin C. Woolley
(1856-10-23)October 23, 1856
September 19, 1934(1934-09-19) (aged 77)
United States American
by 1915
at least 4
In 1912, Woolley gave the first written account of the background to the 1886 Revelation and of a subsequent meeting in which Taylor stated that plural marriage must and would continue. It is estimated that up to ninety percent of polygamists across the Wasatch Front today trace their sealing authority through this priesthood line.[49]  

 

Name:
Born:
Died:
Nationality:
Date entered polygamy:
Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Charles Zitting
(1884-03-30)March 30, 1884
July 14, 1954(1954-07-14) (aged 70)
United States American
pre. April 1, 1931
5
Zitting was a Mormon fundamentalist leader and member of The Council of Friends, in the community of Short Creek, Arizona.  

 

Name:
Born:
Nationality:
Date entered polygamy:
Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

Brian David Mitchell
(1953-06-10)June 10, 1953
United States American
June 5, 2002
2 (see note)
Mitchell married three times legally, two of the marriages ending in divorce. Elizabeth Smart was kidnapped and forcibly "married" to him, while he was legally married to his third wife Wanda Barzee.  

 

Other Latter Day Saint sects[edit]

James Strang daguerreotype (1856).jpg

Name:
Born:
Died:
Nationality:
Positions:
Date entered polygamy:
Eventual No. of wives:
Notes:

James J. Strang
(1813-03-21)March 21, 1813
July 9, 1856(1856-07-09) (aged 43)
United States American
Founder and Prophet of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Strangite), ca. June 1844 – July 9, 1856 (1856-07-09).
July 13, 1849
5
  Originally, Strang was strenuously opposed to the practice of polygamy;[50] however, in 1849, Strang reversed course and become one of its strongest advocates. Since many of his early disciples had looked to him as a monogamous counterweight to Brigham Young's polygamous version of Mormonism, Strang's decision to embrace plural marriage proved costly to him and his church.

edit

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Whitmer 1887
  2. ^ Times and Seasons, Volume 5, page 474
  3. ^ Times and Seasons, Volume 5, page 423
  4. ^ The Latter-Day Saints' Millennial Star 4 [January 1844]: 144
  5. ^ Church of Christ was the official name on April 6, 1830: Shields, Steven (1990), Divergent Paths of the Restoration (Fourth ed.), Independence, Missouri: Restoration Research, ISBN 0942284003 . In 1834, the official name was changed to Church of the Latter Day Saints and then in 1838 to Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints: "Minutes of a Conference", Evening and Morning Star, vol. 2, no. 20, p. 160. The spelling "The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints" was adopted by the LDS Church in Utah in 1851, after Joseph Smith's death, and is today specified in Doctrine and Covenants 115:4 (LDS Church edition).
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa Smith, George D (Spring 1994), Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841-46: A Preliminary Demographic Report, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 27 (1), retrieved May 5, 2007 
  7. ^ As believed by Todd Compton, "A Trajectory of Plurality: An Overview of Joseph Smith's Thirty-three Plural Wives", Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 1–38.
  8. ^ As believed by George D. Smith (Smith, George D (Spring 1994), Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841-46: A Preliminary Demographic Report, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 27 (1), retrieved May 5, 2007 )
  9. ^ a b c Quinn, D. Michael (1980). "The Council of Fifty and Its Members, 1844 to 1945" (.pdf). BYU Studies (Provo, UT: Brigham Young University): 22–26. Retrieved October 4, 2011. 
  10. ^ Arrington, Leonard J. (Summer 1968). "The Search for Truth and Meaning in Mormon History". Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 3 (2): 56–66.  - Bullock worked in the Church Historian's Office, but was not an official "Assistant Church Historian". The first "Assistant Church Historian" was Wilford Woodruff called in 1856, after Bullock left in 1854.
  11. ^ Lund, Anthon H. (1917-10-05). "Remarks". "88th Semi-annual General Conference". Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
  12. ^ Journal of William Clayton - excerpts online at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/3750/Clayton_intro.html[unreliable source?]
  13. ^ Saints' Herald 65:1044–1045
  14. ^ Smith, George D (Spring 1994), Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841-46: A Preliminary Demographic Report, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 27 (1): 16, retrieved May 5, 2007 
  15. ^ B. H. Roberts, The Life of John Taylor (Salt Lake City, Utah: George Q. Cannon & Sons, 1897).
  16. ^ Richard L. Jensen, “The John Taylor Family,” Ensign, February 1980, pp. 50–51.
  17. ^ Salt Lake Daily Tribune, 1899-09-09, p. 1.
  18. ^ B. H. Roberts, The Life of John Taylor (Salt Lake City, Utah: George Q. Cannon & Sons, 1897).
  19. ^ Richard L. Jensen, “The John Taylor Family,” Ensign, February 1980, pp. 50–51.
  20. ^ a b Richard S. Van Wagoner (1989, 2d ed.). Mormon Polygamy: A History (Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books) p. 119
  21. ^ a b c d "Members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in the Dispensation of the Fulness of Times". Church History in the Fulness of Times Student Manual. LDS Church. 2003. p. 656. Retrieved 2014-10-12. 
  22. ^ Cowley resigned from the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles on 1905-10-28; however, he remained an ordained apostle of the church until his priesthood was suspended in 1911.
  23. ^ Merrill, Melvin Clarence (1937), Utah Pioneer and Apostle: Marriner Wood Merrill and His Family, pp. 62–66 
  24. ^ Alexander, Thomas G. (1986), Mormonism in Transition, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, p. 12 
  25. ^ Flake, Kathleen (2004), The Politics of American Religious Identity: The Seating of Senator Reed Smoot, Mormon Apostle, Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, p. 71 
  26. ^ Journal of William Clayton - excerpts online at http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Delphi/3750/Clayton_intro.html[unreliable source?]
  27. ^ Saints' Herald 65:1044–1045
  28. ^ Smith, George D (Spring 1994), Nauvoo Roots of Mormon Polygamy, 1841-46: A Preliminary Demographic Report, Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought 27 (1): 16, retrieved May 5, 2007 
  29. ^ Taylor resigned from the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles in April 1905; however, he remained an ordained apostle of the church until his excommunication in 1911.
  30. ^ Jenson, Andrew (1901–1936), Biographical Encyclopedia of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 1, Salt Lake City, Utah: Deseret Book and A. Jenson Historical Co, p. 121 
  31. ^ a b Compton, "John Willard Young", p. 124.
  32. ^ Grampa Bill's G.A. Pages: Robert T. Burton
  33. ^ Orton, Chad M. (2006). BYU Studies 45 (3): 13 http://byustudies.byu.edu/shop/pdfsrc/45.3Orton.pdf |url= missing title (help). Retrieved 2009-02-03. [dead link]
  34. ^ "The Settlements of Morgan County". Morgan County Utah Historical Society. [1]. Accessed 23 April 2007.
  35. ^ Morris Q. Kunz, Reminiscences on Priesthood, 21
  36. ^ LSJ Sermons 1:61
  37. ^ The True & Living Church of Jesus Christ of Saints of the Last Days
  38. ^ NPR report on Warren Jeffs and the FLDS Church - Last accessed Sept 07, 2007
  39. ^ Mormon Leader Is Survived by 33 Sons and a Void (New York Times)
  40. ^ Rulon Jeffs. Biography of Rulon Jeffs located at www.fldstruth.org (official FLDS website)
  41. ^ Wade Goodwyn, Howard Berkes and Amy Walters, "Warren Jeffs and the FLDS Church", NPR, 2005-05-03.
  42. ^ Winslow, B. (2007, November 22). Jeffs is now an inmate at Utah State Prison. Deseret Morning News. Retrieved 29 November 2007 from http://deseretnews.com/article/1,5143,695229917,00.html
  43. ^ "Utah Supreme Court reverses Warren Jeffs conviction - ABC 4.com - Salt Lake City, Utah News". ABC 4.com. Retrieved 2010-07-28. 
  44. ^ Whitehurst, Lindsay (9 August 2011), Warren Jeffs gets life in prison for sex with underage girls, Salt Lake Tribune 
  45. ^ http://www.mormonfundamentalism.com/Photos/LeroyJohnson.htm
  46. ^ Brandon Burt, "Utah's Gay Mayor", Salt Lake Metro : article contains background information on Joseph, his adoption of Libertarianism, and the founding of Big Water, Utah
  47. ^ Utah Attorney General’s Office and Arizona Attorney General’s Office. The Primer, Helping Victims of Domestic Violence and Child Abuse in Polygamous Communities. Updated June 2006. Page 23.
  48. ^ http://www.mormonfundamentalism.com/ChartLinks/CharlesEldenKingston.htm
  49. ^ D. Michael Quinn, "Plural Marriage and Mormon Fundamentalism," in Martin E. Marty and R. Scott Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms and Society: Reclaiming the Sciences, Education, and the Family, Vol. 2 of the Fundamentalism Project of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993), 244.
  50. ^ (August 12, 1847). Voree Herald as quoted in Fitzpatrick, pp. 74–5. See also Apostle John E. Page at this same source, on his conversations with Strang on the subject.

References[edit]