List of Presidents of Portugal

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President of the
Portuguese Republic
Flag of the President of Portugal.svg
Coat of arms of Portugal.svg
Cavaco Silva 2007.jpg
Incumbent
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva

since 9 March 2006
Style His/Her Excellency
Residence Belém Palace
Term length Five years, renewable once; may run for third and final non-consecutive term.
Inaugural holder Manuel de Arriaga
Formation 5 October 1910
Website http://www.presidencia.pt/
Coat of arms of Portugal
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Portugal
Constitution
Foreign relations

The complete list of Presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the October 5, 1910 revolution that installed a republican regime. This list includes not only those persons who were sworn into office as President of Portugal but also those who de facto served as head of state since 1910. This is the case of Teófilo Braga who served as President of the Provisional Government after the republican coup d'état. Also Sidónio Pais, Mendes Cabeçadas, Gomes da Costa, as well as Canto e Castro and Óscar Carmona in their early months, were not sworn into office as the President of the Republic, usually being the President of the Ministry (Prime Minister), but de facto accumulation this functions with that of the Head of State. See the notes for more information.

Presidents[edit]

The numbering reflects the uninterrupted terms in office served by a single man. For example, Jorge Sampaio served two consecutive terms and is counted as the 19th president (not the 19th and 20th). Teófilo Braga served as the first and sole president of the Provisional Government, and therefore is not considered to be the first President, although he would serve again as head of state and be the second president after the resignation of Manuel de Arriaga. However, Bernardino Machado served two non-consecutive terms, and he is counted as both the third and the eighth presidents. Because of this, the list below contains 20 presidencies, but only 19 presidents.

The current President of Portugal is Aníbal Cavaco Silva, the winner of the 2011 presidential election.

The colors indicate the political affiliation of each President.

      No party
      Republican
      Democratic
      National Republican/Sidonist
      Evolutionist Republican/Liberal Republican
      National Union/Popular National Action
      Democratic Renovator
      Socialist
      Social Democratic

Provisional Government of the Republic (1910–1911)[edit]

Term # President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Took office Left office Party
-
-
Teófilo Braga[1]
(1843–1924)
Teofilo Braga.jpg October 5, 1910 August 24, 1911 Republican

First Republic (1911–1926)[edit]

Term # President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Took office Left office Party
1
1
Manuel de Arriaga
(1840–1917)
Manuel de Arriaga.jpg August 24, 1911 May 26, 1915[R] Republican
later Democratic
1
2
Teófilo Braga [2]
(1843–1924)
Teofilo Braga.jpg May 29, 1915 August 5, 1915 Democratic
2
3
Bernardino Machado
(1851–1944)
Bernardino Machado.jpg August 6, 1915 December 5, 1917[C] Democratic
2
4
Sidónio Pais[3]
(1872–1918)
President Paes of Portugal.jpg April 28, 1918 December 14, 1918[A] National Republican
or "Sidonist"
2
5
João do Canto e Castro[4]
(1862–1934)
Canto e Castro.jpg December 14, 1918 October 5, 1919 National Republican
or "Sidonist"
3
6
António José de Almeida
(1866–1929)
Antonio Jose de Almeida.jpg October 5, 1919 October 5, 1923 Evolutionist Republican
later Liberal Republican
4
7
Manuel Teixeira Gomes
(1860–1941)
Marques-oliveira teixeira-gomes-1.jpg October 6, 1923 December 11, 1925[R] Democratic
4
8
Bernardino Machado (2nd time)
(1851–1944)
Bernardino Machado.jpg December 11, 1925 May 31, 1926[C] Democratic

Second Republic (1926–1974)[edit]

Term # President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Took office Left office Party
Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) (1926–1932)
-
9
José Mendes Cabeçadas[5]
(1883–1965)
President José Mendes Cabeçadas.jpg May 31, 1926 June 19, 1926[C] Military officer
-
10
Gomes da Costa[5]
(1863–1929)
Gomes da costa.jpg June 19, 1926 July 9, 1926[C] Military officer
-
11
Óscar Carmona[5][6]
(1869–1951)
ÓscarCarmona(official).jpg July 9, 1926 April 15, 1928 Military officer
Estado Novo – New State (1932–1974)
1
11
Óscar Carmona
(1869–1951)
ÓscarCarmona(official).jpg April 15, 1928 April 26, 1935 Military officer
since 1932, National Union
2 April 26, 1935 April 15, 1942
3 April 15, 1942 April 20, 1949
4 April 20, 1949 April 18, 1951[D]
-
António de Oliveira Salazar (interim)[7]
(1889–1970)
Antonio Salazar-1.jpg April 18, 1951 July 21, 1951 National Union
5
12
Francisco Craveiro Lopes
(1894–1964)
No image.png July 21, 1951 August 9, 1958 National Union
6
13
Américo Tomás
(1894–1987)
Américo Tomás.png August 9, 1958 August 9, 1965 National Union
since 1968 Popular National Action
7 August 9, 1965 August 9, 1972
8 August 9, 1972 April 25, 1974[C]

Third Republic (Democracy) (1974–Present)[edit]

Term # President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Took office Left office Party
Presidents appointed in the aftermath of the Carnation Revolution (1974-1976)
-
14
António de Spínola[8]
(1910–1996)
DuartePimentel04.jpg May 15, 1974 September 30, 1974[R] Military officer
-
15
Francisco da Costa Gomes
(1914–2001)
No image.png September 30, 1974 July 13, 1976 Military officer
Presidents elected under the Constitution of the Republic (1976-present)
1
16
António Ramalho Eanes
(1935–)
António Ramalho Eanes.jpg July 14, 1976 March 9, 1981 Military officer
2 March 9, 1981 March 9, 1986 Military officer
later Democratic Renewal
3 17 Mário Soares
(1924–)
Mário Soares (2003) portrait.jpg March 9, 1986 March 9, 1991 Socialist
4 March 9, 1991 March 9, 1996
5 18 Jorge Sampaio
(1939–)
Jorge Sampaio 3.jpg March 9, 1996 March 9, 2001 Socialist
6 March 9, 2001 March 9, 2006
7 19 Aníbal Cavaco Silva
(1939–)
Cavaco Silva 2007.jpg March 9, 2006 March 9, 2011 Social Democratic
8 March 9, 2011 Incumbent
  • Left office early:
[A] Assassinated.
[D] Died in office of natural causes.
[R] Resigned.
[C] Forced to resign due to a coup d'état'.

Timeline[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Teófilo Braga served as President of the Provisional Government, the de facto head of government and head of state, from the republican revolution of 1910 to the election of Manuel de Arriaga, the 1st President of Portugal.
  2. ^ Teófilo Braga's biography in the "official page of the Presidency of the Portuguese Republic". Retrieved February 17, 2008. 
  3. ^ After doing a coup d'état, Sidónio Pais became President of the Revolutionary Junta and later Prime Minister (President of the Ministry). He abolished the post of President of the Republic, assuming himself as the head of state as Prime Minister. He was assassinated in 1918.
  4. ^ Canto e Castro was head of the Council of Ministers that served as the head of state of Portugal after the assassination of Sidónio Pais in 1918, from December 14 to December 16. He then became interim president until the election of António José de Almeida.
  5. ^ a b c Mendes Cabeçadas, Gomes da Costa and Óscar Carmona were the heads of the revolutionary provisional governments during the year of 1926. Although not called Presidents, they were de facto heads of state.
  6. ^ Óscar Carmona served initially as head of the revolutionary government after a counter-coup deposed Gomes da Costa. He was de facto head of state between July 9 and November 16, 1926. However he officially took office as President of the Republic on November 16, 1926. Six years later, in 1932, the Estado Novo was proclaimed and the National Union, the only legal party, was formed by António de Oliveira Salazar. Carmona joined the party and was the party's candidate for every presidential election (that were considered fraudulent) until 1951, when he died.
  7. ^ António de Oliveira Salazar, the dictatorial President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) occupied the post of president interim between the death of Óscar Carmona and the election of Francisco Craveiro Lopes.
  8. ^ Between the Carnation Revolution on April 25, 1974 and May 15 of the same year, António de Spínola was the head of the National Salvation Junta, being the de facto head of state and government. After May 15 Adelino da Palma Carlos became the Prime Minister, and Spínola continued as de jure head of state as President of the Republic.

References[edit]

  • Jornal de Notícias (January–May 2006). Museu da Presidência da República/Jornal de Notícias, ed. Presidents de Portugal - Fotobiografias (1st ed ed.). Porto. 
  • "Portal da História". Biografias dos Presidentes. Retrieved February 8, 2006.