List of Presidents of Portugal

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For Portuguese heads of state prior to 1910, see list of Portuguese monarchs.
President of the
Portuguese Republic
Flag of the President of Portugal.svg
Coat of arms of Portugal.svg
Cavaco Silva 2007.jpg
Incumbent
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva

since 9 March 2006
Style Excellency
Residence Belém Palace
Term length Five years, renewable once; may run for third and final non-consecutive term.
Inaugural holder Manuel de Arriaga
Formation 5 October 1910
Website http://www.presidencia.pt/
Coat of arms of Portugal
This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
Portugal
Constitution
Foreign relations

The complete list of Presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the October 5, 1910 revolution that installed a republican regime. This list includes not only those persons who were sworn into office as President of Portugal but also those who de facto served as head of state since 1910. This is the case of Teófilo Braga who served as President of the Provisional Government after the republican coup d'état. Also Sidónio Pais, Mendes Cabeçadas, Gomes da Costa, as well as Canto e Castro and Óscar Carmona in their early months, were not sworn into office as the President of the Republic, usually being the President of the Ministry (Prime Minister), but de facto accumulation this functions with that of the Head of State. See the notes for more information.

Presidents[edit]

The numbering reflects the uninterrupted terms in office served by a single man. For example, Jorge Sampaio served two consecutive terms and is counted as the 19th president (not the 19th and 20th). Teófilo Braga served as the first and sole president of the Provisional Government, and therefore is not considered to be the first President, although he would serve again as head of state and be the second president after the resignation of Manuel de Arriaga. However, Bernardino Machado served two non-consecutive terms, and he is counted as both the third and the eighth presidents. Because of this, the list below contains 20 presidencies, but only 19 presidents.

Under the Constitution of Portugal adopted in 1976, in the wake of the 1974 Carnation Revolution, the President is elected to a five-year term; there is no limit to the number of terms a president may serve, but a president who serves two consecutive terms may not serve again in the next five years after the second term finishes.

The official residence of the President of Portugal is the Belém Palace.

The current President of Portugal is Aníbal Cavaco Silva, the winner of the 2011 presidential election.

The colors indicate the political affiliation of each President.

             Republican
             Democratic
             National Republican/Sidonist
             Evolutionist Party/Republican Liberal
             National Union/Popular National Action
             Democratic Renewal
             Socialist
             Social Democratic
             No party

First Republic (1910–1926)[edit]

President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Elected Term of office Political party
President of the Provisional Government of the Republic (1910–1911)
Teófilo Braga[1]
(1843–1924)
Teofilo Braga.jpg October 5, 1910 August 24, 1911 Republican
Presidents of the Republic (1911–1926)
1 Manuel de Arriaga
(1840–1917)
Manuel de Arriaga.jpg 1911 August 24, 1911 May 26, 1915[R] Republican
later Democratic
2 Teófilo Braga[2]
(1843–1924)
Teofilo Braga.jpg May
1915
May 29, 1915 October 5, 1915 Democratic
3 Bernardino Machado
(1851–1944)
Bernardino Machado.jpg August
1915
October 5, 1915 December 5, 1917[C] Democratic
Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: Sidónio Pais
December 12, 1917 April 28, 1918
4 Sidónio Pais[3]
(1872–1918)
President Paes of Portugal.jpg April
1918
April 28, 1918 December 14, 1918[A] National Republican
or "Sidonist"
Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: João do Canto e Castro
December 14, 1918 December 16, 1918
5 João do Canto e Castro[4]
(1862–1934)
Canto e Castro.jpg December
1918
December 16, 1918 October 5, 1919 National Republican
or "Sidonist"
6 António José de Almeida
(1866–1929)
Antonio Jose de Almeida.jpg 1919 October 5, 1919 October 5, 1923 Evolutionist Party
later Republican Liberal
7 Manuel Teixeira Gomes
(1860–1941)
Marques-oliveira teixeira-gomes-1.jpg 1923 October 6, 1923 December 11, 1925[R] Democratic
8 Bernardino Machado
(1851–1944)
2nd time
Bernardino Machado.jpg 1925 December 11, 1925 May 31, 1926[C] Democratic

Second Republic (1926–1974)[edit]

President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Elected Term of office Political party
Ditadura Nacional (National Dictatorship) (1926–1932)
9 José Mendes Cabeçadas[5]
(1883–1965)
President José Mendes Cabeçadas.jpg May 31, 1926 June 17, 1926[C] Military officer
Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: Manuel Gomes da Costa
June 17, 1926 June 29, 1926
10 Manuel Gomes da Costa[5]
(1863–1929)
Gomes da costa.jpg June 29, 1926 July 9, 1926[C] Military officer
Ministry
(Head of State ex officio)
President: Óscar Carmona
July 9, 1926 November 29, 1926
11 Óscar Carmona[5][6]
(1869–1951)
ÓscarCarmona(official).jpg November 29, 1926 April 15, 1928 Military officer
Estado Novo – New State (1932–1974)
11 Óscar Carmona
(1869–1951)
ÓscarCarmona(official).jpg 1928 April 15, 1928 April 26, 1935 Military officer
from 1932
National Union
1935 April 26, 1935 April 15, 1942
1942 April 15, 1942 April 20, 1949
1949 April 20, 1949 April 18, 1951[D]
António de Oliveira Salazar[7]
(1889–1970)
(interim)
Antonio Salazar-1.jpg April 18, 1951 July 21, 1951 National Union
12 Francisco Craveiro Lopes
(1894–1964)
No image.png 1951 July 21, 1951 August 9, 1958 National Union
13 Américo Tomás
(1894–1987)
AmericoThomaz.png 1958 August 9, 1958 August 9, 1965 National Union
from 1970
People's National Action
1965 August 9, 1965 August 9, 1972
1972 August 9, 1972 April 25, 1974[C]

Third Republic (1974–Present)[edit]

President
(Birth–Death)
Portrait Elected Term of office Political party
Presidents appointed in the aftermath of the Carnation Revolution (1974–1976)
National Salvation Junta[8]
President: António de Spínola
April 25, 1974 May 15, 1974
14 António de Spínola
(1910–1996)
DuartePimentel04.jpg May 15, 1974 September 30, 1974[R] Military officer
15 Francisco da Costa Gomes
(1914–2001)
Costa Gomes (official).jpg September 30, 1974 July 13, 1976 Military officer
Presidents elected under the Constitution of the Republic (1976–present)
16 António Ramalho Eanes
(1935–)
António Ramalho Eanes.jpg 1976 July 14, 1976 March 9, 1981 Military officer
from 1985
Democratic Renewal
1980 March 9, 1981 March 9, 1986
17 Mário Soares
(1924–)
Mário Soares (2003) portrait.jpg 1986 March 9, 1986 March 9, 1991 Socialist
1991 March 9, 1991 March 9, 1996
18 Jorge Sampaio
(1939–)
Jorge Sampaio 3.jpg 1996 March 9, 1996 March 9, 2001 Socialist
2001 March 9, 2001 March 9, 2006
19 Aníbal Cavaco Silva
(1939–)
Cavaco Silva 2007.jpg 2006 March 9, 2006 March 9, 2011 Social Democratic
2011 March 9, 2011 Incumbent
  • Left office early:
[A] Assassinated.
[D] Died in office of natural causes.
[R] Resigned.
[C] Forced to resign due to a coup d'état'.

Timeline[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Teófilo Braga served as President of the Provisional Government, the de facto head of government and head of state, from the republican revolution of 1910 to the election of Manuel de Arriaga, the 1st President of Portugal.
  2. ^ Teófilo Braga's biography in the "official page of the Presidency of the Portuguese Republic". Retrieved February 17, 2008. 
  3. ^ After leading a coup d'état, Sidónio Pais became President of the Revolutionary Junta and later Prime Minister (President of the Ministry). He abolished the post of President of the Republic, assuming himself as the head of state as Prime Minister. He was assassinated in 1918.
  4. ^ Canto e Castro was head of the Council of Ministers that served as the head of state of Portugal after the assassination of Sidónio Pais in 1918, from December 14 to December 16. He then became interim president until the election of António José de Almeida.
  5. ^ a b c Mendes Cabeçadas, Gomes da Costa and Óscar Carmona were the heads of the revolutionary provisional governments during the year of 1926. Although not called Presidents, they were de facto heads of state.
  6. ^ Óscar Carmona served initially as head of the revolutionary government after a counter-coup deposed Gomes da Costa. He was de facto head of state between July 9 and November 16, 1926. However he officially took office as President of the Republic on November 16, 1926. Six years later, in 1932, the Estado Novo was proclaimed and the National Union, the only legal party, was formed by António de Oliveira Salazar. Carmona joined the party and was the party's candidate for every presidential election (that were considered fraudulent) until 1951, when he died.
  7. ^ António de Oliveira Salazar, the dictatorial President of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister) occupied the post of president interim between the death of Óscar Carmona and the election of Francisco Craveiro Lopes.
  8. ^ Between the Carnation Revolution on April 25, 1974 and May 15 of the same year, António de Spínola was the head of the National Salvation Junta, being the de facto head of state and government. After May 15 Adelino da Palma Carlos became the Prime Minister, and Spínola continued as de jure head of state as President of the Republic.

References[edit]

  • Jornal de Notícias (January–May 2006). Museu da Presidência da República/Jornal de Notícias, ed. Presidents de Portugal - Fotobiografias (1st ed ed.). Porto. 
  • "Portal da História". Biografias dos Presidentes. Retrieved February 8, 2006.