List of festivals in Nepal
- 1 Main festivals
- 1.1 Bajra Jogini Jatra
- 1.2 Siti Jatra
- 1.3 Gathia Mangal or Ghanta Karn
- 1.4 Panjaran
- 1.5 Janai Purnima
- 1.6 Nag Panchami
- 1.7 Janmashtami
- 1.8 Gai Jatra
- 1.9 Bagh Jatra
- 1.10 Indra Jatra
- 1.11 Dashain
- 1.12 Mohani
- 1.13 Deepawali
- 1.14 Khicha Puja or Gai Puja/Sa Paru
- 1.15 Bhai Tika
- 1.16 Bala Chaturdasi or Satbyu
- 1.17 Kartik Purnima
- 1.18 Ganesh Chauth
- 1.19 Maghe Sankranti
- 1.20 Basant or Sripanchami
- 1.21 Holi
- 1.22 Maghi Purnima
- 1.23 Pāhān Charhe
- 1.24 Ghoday Jatra
- 1.25 Jana Bāhā Dyah Jātrā
- 1.26 Bunga Dyah Jātrā
- 2 Limbu festivals
- 3 Other festivals
- 4 References
Bajra Jogini Jatra
Bajra Jogini was originally celebrated by Buddhists but is also celebrated by Hindus on the 3rd of [Baisakh]. Her temple, Kharg Jogini, is found at Manichur mountain, near Sankhu. During the week long festival, a fire is burned in the vicinity of the temple near an image of a human head. An image of the goddess is placed in a khat (a wooden shrine) and carried through the town by the men.
The Siti Jatra takes place on the 21st of Jeth, on the banks of the Vishnumati, between Kathmandu and Simbhunath. The people feast and afterwards divide into two teams to contest a stone throwing competition. The match was once a serious affair and anybody who was knocked down or captured by the other party was sacrificed to the goddess Kankeshwari. In modern times, however. it is a light hearted affair, mostly among the children.
Gathia Mangal or Ghanta Karn
This festival refers to the celebration of the expulsion of a Rakshasa or demon from the country, held on the 14th of Sawan. The Newars make a straw figure which they beat and drag around the streets. The figures are burned at sunset.
The festival is celebrated twice a year, on the 8th of Sawan and the 13th of Bhadon. The Banras, priests of the Newar Buddhists visit each house and receive a small offering of grain or rice to commemorate their ancestors who were not permitted to trade. The Newars decorate their shops and houses with pictures and flowers and the women sit with large baskets of rice and grain to dispense to the Banras. it is celebrated at late night.
The Rakhi Purnima festival takes place on the last day of Sawan and is celebrated by both Buddhists and Hindus. However the Buddhist bathe in sacred streams and visit their temples and the Brahman priests tie an ornamental thread to the wrists of their followers and in return receive gifts. Many pilgrims visit Gosain Than and bathe at the sacred lake.
Nag Panchani takes place on the 5th of Sawan to commemorate the battle between Nag and Garur. The stone image of Garur at Changu Narayan is said to perspire during the festival and priests are sent to wipe the perspiration off with a handkerchief. They later present it to the king and water is used to make it into a snake bite remedy, despite the fact that there are few snakes inhabiting Nepal. There is a belief that nag panchami is the day of welcoming the other festivals in the Nepal.
This entirely Newar festival is held on the 1st day of Bhadon. Newars who have lost loved ones during the year traditionally disguised themselves as cows and danced around the palace of the king. However, in modern times, the ceremony is performed only as a masked dance with the singing of songs. Gaijatra, the festival of cows, (gai means cow and jatra means festival in Nepali: गाईजात्रा, and Nepal Bhasa: सापारु) is celebrated in Nepal, mainly in Kathmandu valley by the Newar and Tharu community. The festival commemorates the death of people during the year. During the festival, cows are marched in the streets and generally celebrated in the Nepalese month of Bhadra (August–September). It falls on the 1st day of the dark fortnight of Gunla according to the lunar Nepal Era calendar. Peoples also distributes food to others. The festival of cows is one of the most popular festivals of Nepal. The whole complex of Gaijatra festival has its roots in the ancient ages when people feared and worshiped Yamaraj, the god of death. However, the ironic sessions synonymous with the Gaijatra festival entered the tradition in the medieval period of Nepal during the reign of the Malla Kings. Hence, the present form of Gaijatra is a happy blending of antiquity and the medieval era. According to the traditions since time immemorial, every family who has lost one relative during the past year must participate in a procession through the streets of Kathmandu leading a cow. If a cow is unavailable then a young boy dressed as a cow is considered a fair substitute. In Hinduism, a cow is regarded as the most venerated among all the domestic animals. It is believed that the cow, revered as a holy animal by Hindus, will help the deceased relative's journey to heaven. According to the historical evidence, when King Pratap Malla lost his son, his wife, the queen, remained grief-stricken. The king was very sad to see the condition of his beloved queen. The king, in spite of several efforts, could not lessen the grief of his wife. He desperately wanted to see a little smile on the lips of his sweetheart, and so he announced that anyone who made the queen laugh would be rewarded adequately. During the festival of Gaijatra, the cow procession was brought before the grief-stricken queen. Then the participants began ridiculing and be-fooling the important people of the society. Finally, when the social injustices and other evils were highlighted and attacked mercilessly, the queen could not help but smile. The queen laughed and the king instituted a tradition of including jokes, satire, mockery and lampoon into the Gaijatra celebration. After the procession is over, in the afternoon, nearly everyone takes part in another age-old tradition in which the participants dress up and wear masks. The occasion is filled with songs and jokes. Mockery and humor of every kind become the order of the day until late evening. Hence, Gaijatra is a healthy festival which enables the people to accept the reality of death and to prepare themselves for life after death. According to Hinduism, "whatever a man does in his life is a preparation leading to a good life after death".
This festival takes place on the 2nd of Bhadon. Dancers once dressed up in tiger costumes but today it is merely a repetition of the Gai Jatra festival.
The Indra Jatra festival begins on the 26th of Bhadon and lasts for eight days. On the first day a lofty wooden post is erected before the king's palace and dancers from all across Nepal perform with masks. If an earthquake ever occurred on the opening day of the festival this was considered a bad omen and the festival would have to be restarted. On the third day, young virgins are brought before the king and worshipped and then carried through Kathmandu, mounted on oars.
This festival takes place on the 26th of Kuar. It lasts for 10 days and buffaloes and goats are sacrificed. On the initial festival day, the Brahmans sow barley at the place where they worship and ritualistically sprinkle it with sacred water on a daily basis. On the tenth day they pull it up and present it in bunches to their followers.
Deepawali takes place on the 15th of Kartik as part of the Tihar Festival to worship Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth. People illuminate their houses and gambling is permitted for three days and nights. During the celebrations gamblers are found in the streets and some gamblers are known to make extreme bets such as staking their own wives and even their own hands .
Khicha Puja or Gai Puja/Sa Paru
Khicha Puja is a Newar festival held on the 15th of Kartik in late autumn as part of the Tihar Festival. Dog, crows and cows are especially prominent during this festival and dogs are commonly seen with wreaths of flowers around their necks. Crows are worshipped by offerings of sweets and dishes. The cawing of the crows symbolises sadness and grief in the Hindu mythology, so the devotees offer the crows food to avert grief and deaths in their homes. Cows are commonly celebrated on the third day of Tihar, as they are regarded as the mothers of the universe in Hinduism, where after weaning by the birth mother, the cow acts as the surrogate mother to humans, providing milk for the rest of the human life. A tika is placed on the forehead of the cow and a flower garland is placed on the neck. The cow festival is known as Gai Puja in Nepali but commonly referred to as Sa Paru.
On the 17th of Kartik, as part of the Tihar Festival, men visit the house of their sister's, where sister put a tika or mark on his forehead and a garland around his neck. The men then touches the feet of their sisters and whereby grand meal (shelroti (nepali roti),sweetmeats and other eatable things to eat) is served by sisters to brothers in their house . In return she receives a gift of money, clothes or ornaments etc.
Bala Chaturdasi or Satbyu
On the first day of the month of Kartik, many women go to the temple of Pashupati. There they remain for an entire month, fasting and drinking only water. Some women have died during the fasting but the majority generally survive and on the last day of the month, known as the purnima, the night is spent rejoicing the success of the fasting by singing and dancing into the night.
Maghe sankranti is observed in the month of January on the first day of the month of Magh, bringing an end to the ill-omened month of Poush when all religious ceremonies are forbidden.On this day, the sun leaves its southernmost position and takes off for its northward journey, so Maghe Sankranti is similar to solstice festivals in many other traditions. People participate in holy bathing in this festival and auspicious foods like laddoo, ghee, sweet potatoes etc. are distributed. The mother of the house wishes good health to all family members. According to Mahabharata, king Bhisma, who had the power to control his own death, happened to choose to die on the day of Maghe Sakranti. Therefore it is believed that to die on this day might achieve Moksha, a release from the rebirth cycle.
Basant or Sripanchami
This festival takes place on the 20th of Magh in the honor of Saraswati, the goddess of learning.
The festival takes place on the last day of Phagun. In Nepal, a wooden post, known as a chir is adorned with flags and erected in front of the palace. It is burned at night, representing the burning of the body of the old year.
The bathing festival where Newars bathe in the Bagmati River. during Magh. On the last day of the month, bathers are carried in a procession in ornamented dolis, lying on their backs with lighted lamps (known as chirags) on their chests, arms and legs. Other bathers bear earthen water pots on their heads, perforated with straws, through which water seeps down to sprinkle passers by. Traditionally the bathers wear green spectacles to protect their eyes from the sparks of the lamps they are in contact with.
During Pahan Charhe which is one of the most important festivals in Kathmandu, Luku Māhādev (meaning Mahadev enshrined in the ground) is worshipped and portable shrines containing images of mother goddesses are paraded through the streets.
Traditionally on the 15th of Chait, all horses and ponies belonging to government servants were assembled at the grand parade ground and entered into a race in front of the king and top officials who are stationed around a central monument. The monument bore Sir Jang Bahadur's statue. After the event, gambling is allowed for two days and nights and the festival ends with an illumination of the monument. In 1875, Bahadur's statue and four dragon monuments were moved into a newly built temple in his honor, hence the location of the festival moved.
Jana Bāhā Dyah Jātrā
Jana Bāhā Dyah Jātrā is the chariot procession of Jana Baha Dyah, the Bodhisattva of compassion, which is held annually in Kathmandu. During the festival, the image of Jana Bāhā Dyah is removed from his temple at Jana Baha and installed in a car built in the shape of a tower on wheels. The chariot is drawn through the center of Kathmandu for three days.
Bunga Dyah Jātrā
Some festivals may be practiced within ethnic groups in Nepal. Here are notable Limbu festivals:
- Chasok Tangnam
- Kakphekwa Tangnam
- Yakwa Tangnam
- Sisekwa Tangnam
- Walihang Tangnam - The Limbu version of the Tihar festival
- Kusang Tangnam
Chhechu is a ceremony of the Tamang communities that takes place to the northwest of the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal over the course of ten days. It contains sportive plays (tsema), exorcisms, and rituals. There are eleven tsema performed, and three exorcisms.