|Regions with significant populations|
|Nepal||±35% total population, Total population Around 8500000 (2011)|
|Maithali, Bhojpuri, Urdu, Awadhi, Tharu, Bajjika, Nepali, Rana-Tharu, Rajbanshi Magahi etc.|
|Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam|
|Related ethnic groups|
The Madheshi (Madhesī, Devnagri: मधेशी) are Nepali people inhabitants of Terai of Nepal geographically a southern strip of the country stretching from Southeast to Northwest boarding Indian territory to the south east and west. Madhesi is a collection of different communities, and madhesi people doesn't represent a single ethinicity. The term Madhesh implies to the Gangetic plain and the Inner valley between Siwalik and the higher Mountain. The Terai region, which is mostly a flatland, is geographically and culturally distinct from the hills. According to the population census in 2011, it occupies 17 per cent of total area and 51per cent of the total population of Nepal.
Area and population
The total land area of Terai is less than 34,109 km2 and it comprise 20 Districts which accounts for 23.1% of the country's total area but it includes Inner Terai regions and Sivalik Hills also. In 2001, 48.4% of the country's total population of 23.2 million lived in Terai districts with a density of 329 persons/km2. While in 2011 more than 50% of the total population was reported to be living in Terai plain and Bhitri (inner) Madhesh together cover 20%-25% of the country's total area.
The word madhesi or madheshi is the adjectival form of madhesh, which usually refers to the only Terai region within Nepalese territory. Madhesh (मधेश) derives from the Sanskrit words Madhya Desh (मध्य देश), meaning "middle country."
Indigeneous Madhesi (Nepali:आदिवासी मधेशी ) are the original Nepali inhabitants of Terai-Madhesh such as Nepali Maithil, Nepali Muslims and Tharu people. They are native to Nepal and not the migrants from neighbouring countries.  
Non-Madhesi (Nepali:गैर मधेशी) refers to immigrants from Indian states of Bihar and Uttar pradesh who settled in Terai-Madhesh of Nepal. These immigrants people claim themeselves to be Madhesi although they are considered to be Nepalese people of Indian origin by Indigeneous Madhesi people. Non-Madhesi have 60% lexial similarity in culture to that of Indigeneous madhesi but they were neither born in Nepal nor the original inhabitants of Madhesh. Constitution of Nepal 2063 declared these immigrants as Nepali people of Madhesi ethnicity although Indigeneous Madhesi doesn't consider these immigrants as Madhesi ethnic groups as they were migrants of Indian origin not born in Madhesh of Nepal. Since, the government has already accepted these immigrants as Madhesi , they comprises about One-third of total Madhesi population.  
While the majority of Madhesis are caste-observant Hindus, there is great cultural and religious diversity in the Madhesh. Two closely synchronized religious groups – Hindus -and Buddhists – live there. The social structure of Madhesi caste Hindus is somewhat similar to that of Terai immgrants Pahadi Hindus from hills of Nepal.
Maithili and Tharu is the mother languages of Maithili and Tharu people respectively. Maithili is the most spoken language of Madhesi people at around 53% of them. At around 12% of the total Nepali people are Maithili speakers. most Other Significant mother tongue languages includes Nepali, Bhojpuri, Awadhi, Urdu and Bajika and although lingua franca language of Nepali people is Nepali language, in Terai particularly and among Madhesi people, it is Maithali, which is official language of Terai-Madhesh. Hindi-Urdu was a lingua franca before monarchy in Nepal mainly spoken by Nepali Muslims and Newar Muslim.
Jana Adhikar Forum, Nepal|MJF Nepal]]
The following are notable people of Madhesi ethnicity.
- Dr. Ram Baran Yadav, (President and Head of State of Nepal) was born in Dhanusa District of Mithila region in Nepal. He is the current and first President of Nepal. He was elected in July 2008 and is the country's first President. He previously served as Minister of Health and as General Secretary of the Nepali Congress party.
- Anita Yadav, First Lady of Nepal and First Daughter of Nepal.
- Bishow Sharma, Nepali actor and Black-belt in Taikowndo
- Buddha (Light of Asia and founder of Buddhism)
- King Janak (King of Videha ruling from Capital city of Janakpur in Nepal)
- Sita (Nepali Princess of Madhesi ethnicity, also a wife of Indian Prince Rama)
- Durgananda Jha (Social Activist)
- Bijay Kumar Gachchhadar (Nepalese politician)
- Udit Narayan was born in Saptari District is a Nepali playback singer in commercial Nepali language, Maithili, Kannada, Hindii, Urdu, Bhojpuri, Garhwali, Sindhi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Oriya, Assamese, and Bengali language cinema. Narayan has sung in 32 different languages. He has won three National Film Awards and five Filmfare Awards. In 2001, he was awarded the Prabal Gorkha Dakshin Bahu by the late King of Nepal 'Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev' and declared the King of Melody.
- Upendra Yadav : (Nepalese Madhesi Janaadhikar Forum Nepal's politician)
- Parmananda Jha : First Vice president of Nepal
- Ram Raja Prasad Singh : Nepalese politician
- Anil Mandal : Nepalese cricketer
- Mehboob Alam : Nepalese cricketer
- Gajendra Narayan Singh : Nepalese politician. He founded the Nepal Sadbhawana Party (NSP) in 1985
- Rajendra Mahato : Nepalese politician of Nepal Sadbhavana Party
- Baban Singh : Nepalese member of parliament and politician
- C. K. Raut : former US-based computer scientist, author and social activist from Saptari district, Nepal
- "Madhesi are 38% of total population - Nepal Census Bureau of Statistics, 2001 A.D".
- "Social Classes and Stratification". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Shrestha, Manesh (2008-03-19). "Three Nepali Madhesi killed in pre-election violence in Nepal". CNN online. Retrieved 2011-05-07.
- "Ethnic Groups". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "History on Madheshi people of Nepali origin indigeneous to Terai (Madhesh) - Madhesh.org".
- "Report on Indigeneous Madhesh people are native to Nepal. Author: Krishna H. Pushkar Issued by: secretery of Government of Nepal".
- "Madhesi people especially indigeneous one are of Nepali origin as they were born or have descendents in Terai-Madhesh of Nepal".
- Non-Madhesis are immigrants of Indian origin
- "Madhesi of Indian origin (Non-Madhesi)".
- "Non-Madhesi and Indigeneous madhesi both protested for One Madhesi title".
- "Many Madhesis are of Indian origin so called Non-Madhesis".
- "Religion and Society". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Hinduism". Nepal: A country study (Savada, Andrea Matles, ed.). Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress of the USA (1991). This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- Lawoti, Mahendra (2005). Towards a democratic Nepal: inclusive political institutions for a multicultural society. SAGE. pp. 91–98, 126. ISBN 0-7619-3318-2.
- Yadava, Yogendra P. "Linguistic Diversity in Nepal Perspectives on Language Policy". Tribhuvan University, Centre for Nepal and Asian Studies. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "Madhesi Jana Adhikar Nepali Forum - Popular in Nepali Politics".
- Ram Baran Yadav
- Buddha who was born in Madhesh of Nepal becames the light of Asia
- Nepali King of Madhesi ethnicity
- Nepali Princess of Madhesi ethnicity
- Madhesi social activist
- Gachhedar a Madhesi politician
- Suhasini, Lalitha (19 July 2005). "Destiny’s child". The Indian Express. Retrieved 2009-01-26.
Deepak Chaudhary. 2011. Tarai/Madhesh of Nepal; An Anthropological Study. Kathmandu: Ratna Pustak Bhandar.