Newari language

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Not to be confused with Nepali language. ‹See Tfd›
Newari
Nepal Bhasa
नेपाल भाषा
Native to Nepal
Ethnicity Newars
Native speakers
1.4 million  (2011 census)[1]
Early forms
Dialects
Sindhupalchowk
Lalitpur, Kathmandu
Bhaktapur
Chitlang
Devanagari, formerly various Newari alphabets
Official status
Official language in
   Nepal
Sikkim Sikkim
Regulated by Nepal Bhasa Academy
Nepal Bhasa Parishad
Language codes
ISO 639-2 new
ISO 639-3 Either:
new – Nepal Bhasa, Newari
nwx – Middle Newar
Linguist list
nwx Middle Newar
Glottolog newa1246[2]
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters.
A stone inscription in Newari at Bhaktapur Durbar Square.
Copper plate inscription at Swayambhunath Temple, dated Nepal Era 1072 (1952 AD).

The Newari (Newar) language (नेवाः भाय् Newāh Bhāy), also known as Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा Nepāl Bhāṣā "Nepalese language"),[3] is one of the major languages of Nepal. It was Nepal's administrative language from the 14th to the late 18th centuries. It is spoken today as a native language by the Newars, the indigenous inhabitants of Nepal Mandala, which consists of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions.

Outside Nepal, Newari is spoken in India, particularly in Sikkim state where it is one of eleven official languages; Sikkim separated from Nepal with the Sugauli Treaty.[4] Nepal Bhasa is a Tibeto-Burman language, but it has been greatly influenced by Indo-Aryan languages.

Regardless of the high level of development and rich literature of Classical Nepalese, Newar culture and language are both under threat today.[5] During the period 1952 to 1991, the percentage of the population in the Kathmandu Valley speaking Nepal Bhasa dropped from 74.95% to 43.93%.[6] The language has been listed as being "definitely endangered" by UNESCO.[7]

Name[edit]

Newspaper clipping about Nepal Bhasa.

The earliest occurrences of the name Nepāl Bhāṣā can be found in the manuscripts Narad Sanhita, dated 1380 AD, and Amarkosh, dated 1389 AD.[8][9] Since then, the name has been used widely on inscriptions, manuscripts, documents and books.

In the 1920s, the name of the language known as Khas Kura,[10] Gorkhali or Parbatiya[11] was changed to Nepali,[12] and Nepal Bhasa began to be officially referred to as Newari while the Newars continued using the original term.[13] Similarly, the term Gorkhali in the former national anthem entitled "Shreeman Gambhir" was changed to Nepali in 1951.[14]

On 8 September 1995, following years of lobbying to use the standard name, the government decided that the name Nepal Bhasa should be used instead of Newari.[15] However, the decision was not implemented, and on 13 November 1998, the Minister of Information and Communication issued another directive to use the name Nepal Bhasa instead of Newari language.[16] However, the Central Bureau of Statistics has not been doing so.[17]

Geographic distribution[edit]

Nepal Bhasa is spoken by over a million people in Nepal according to the 2001 census.

With an increase in emigration, various bodies and societies of Nepal Bhasa-speaking people have emerged in countries like the US, the UK, Australia and Japan.

History and development[edit]

Nepal Bhasa words appeared in Sanskrit inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley for the first time in the fifth century. The words are names of places, taxes and merchandise indicating that it already existed as a spoken language during the Licchavi period (approximately 400-750 AD).[21]

Inscriptions in Nepal Bhasa emerged from the 12th century, the palm-leaf manuscript from Uku Bahah being the first example.[22] By the 14th century, Nepal Bhasa had become an administrative language as shown by the official proclamations and public notices written in it. The first books, manuals, histories and dictionaries also appeared during this time. The Gopalarajavamsavali, a history of Nepal, appeared in 1389 AD.[23] From the 14th century onwards, an overwhelming number of stone inscriptions in the Kathmandu Valley, where they are an ubiquitous element at heritage sites, are in Nepal Bhasa.[24]

Nepal Bhasa developed from the 14th to the late 18th centuries as the court and state language of Nepal.[12] It was the definite language of stone and copper plate inscriptions, royal decrees, chronicles, Hindu and Buddhist manuscripts, official documents, journals, title deeds, correspondence and creative writing. Records of the life-cycle ceremonies of Malla royalty and the materials used were written in Nepal Bhasa.[25]

The period 1505-1847 AD was a golden age for Nepal Bhasa literature. Poetry, stories, epics and dramas were produced in great numbers during this time which is known as the Classical Period. Since then it entered a period of decline due to official disapproval and oftentimes outright attempts to stamp it out.

Nepal Bhasa can be classified into the old and new eras. Although there is no specific demarcation between the two, the period 1846-1941 AD during the Rana regime is taken as the dividing period between the two.[26]

Ancient era[edit]

An example of the language of the ancient period is provided by the following line from the palm-leaf manuscript from Uku Bahah which dates from 1114 AD. It is a general discussion of business transactions.

छीन ढाको तृसंघष परिभोग। छु पुलेंग कीत्य बिपार वस्त्र बिवु मिखा तिवु मदुगुन छु सात दुगुनव ल्है
chīna ḍhākō tr̥saṃghaṣa paribhōga, chu pulēṃga kītya bipāra vastra bivu mikhā tivu maduguna chu sāta dugunava lhai

Medieval era[edit]

The language flourished as an administrative and literary language during the medieval period.[12] Noted royal writers include Mahindra Malla, Siddhi Narsingh Malla and Jagat Prakash Malla. An example of the language used during this period is provided by the following lines from Mooldevshashidev written by Jagat Prakash Malla.[27]

धु छेगुकि पाछाव वाहान
dhu chēguki pāchāva vāhāna
तिलहित बिया हिङ लाहाति थाय थायस
tilahita biyā hiŋa lāhāti thāya thāyasa

The verse is a description of Shiva and the use of a tiger skin as his seat.

Dark age[edit]

Nepal Bhasa began to be sidelined after the Gorkha conquest of Nepal and the ouster of the Malla dynasty by the Shah dynasty in the late 18th century. Since then, its history has been one of constant suppression and struggle against official disapproval.[28]

Following the advent of the Shahs, the Gorkhali language became the court language,[29] and Nepal Bhasa was replaced as the language of administration.[30] However, Nepal Bhasa continued to remain in official use for a time as shown by the 1775 treaty with Tibet which was written in it.[12] A few of the new rulers cultivated the language. Kings Prithvi Narayan Shah, Rana Bahadur and Rajendra Bikram Shah composed poetry and wrote plays in it.

Nepal Bhasa suffered heavily under the repressive policy of the Rana dynasty (1846–1951 AD) when the regime attempted to wipe it out.[31][32] In 1906, legal documents written in Nepal Bhasa were declared unenforceable, and any evidence in the language was declared null and void.[33] The rulers forbade literature in Nepal Bhasa, and writers were sent to jail.[34] In 1944, Buddhist monks who wrote in the language were expelled from the country.[35][36]

Moreover, hostility towards the language from neighbors grew following massive migration into the Kathmandu Valley leading to the indigenous Newars becoming a minority.[37] During the period 1952 to 1991, the percentage of the valley population speaking Nepal Bhasa dropped from 74.95% to 43.93%.[38] The Nepal Bhasa movement arose as an effort to save the language.

Nepal Bhasa movement[edit]

Sit-in outside the prime minister's residence to mark Black Day on 1 June 2013.
Main article: Nepal Bhasa movement

Newars have been fighting to save their language in the face of opposition from the government and hostile neighbors from the time of the repressive Rana regime till today.[39] The movement arose against the suppression of the language that began with the rise of the Shah dynasty in 1768 AD, and intensified during the Rana regime (1846–1951) and Panchayat system (1960–1990).[40]

At various times, the government has forbidden literature in Nepal Bhasa, banned official use and removed it from the media and the educational system.[41] Opponents have even petitioned the Supreme Court to have its use barred.

Activism has taken the form of publication of books and periodicals to public meets and protest rallies. Writers and language workers have been jailed or expelled from the country, and they have continued the movement abroad. The struggle for linguistic rights has sometimes combined with the movement for religious and political freedom in Nepal.

Renaissance era[edit]

Cover of Buddha Dharma wa Nepal Bhasa ("Buddhism and Nepalese") magazine dated 1929.
'Aesop's Fables' in Nepal Bhasa by Jagat Sundar Malla, first published in 1915.

The period between 1909 to 1941 is considered as the renaissance era of Nepal Bhasa.[42] During this period, a few authors braved official disapproval and started writing, translating, educating and restructuring the language. Writers Nisthananda Bajracharya, Siddhidas Mahaju, Jagat Sundar Malla and Yogbir Singh Kansakar are honored as the Four Pillars of Nepal Bhasa. Shukraraj Shastri and Dharmaditya Dharmacharya were also at the forefront of the renaissance.

In 1909, Bajracharya published the first printed book using movable type. Shastri wrote a grammar of the language entitled Nepal Bhasa Vyakaran, the first one in modern times. It was published from Kolkata in 1928. His other works include Nepal Bhasa Reader, Books 1 and 2 (1933) and an alphabet book Nepali Varnamala (1933).[43]

Mahaju's Ramayan and books on morals and ethics, Malla's endeavors to impart education in the mother tongue and other literary activities marked the renaissance. Dharmacharya published the first magazine in Nepal Bhasa Buddha Dharma wa Nepal Bhasa ("Buddhism and Nepalese") from Kolkata in 1925. Also, the renaissance marked the beginning of the movement to get official recognition for the name "Nepal Bhasa" in place of the Khas imposed term "Newari".

Some of the lines of Mahaju read as follows:

सज्जन मनुष्या संगतनं मूर्ख नापं भिना वै
sajjana manuṣyā saṃgatanaṃ mūrkha nāpaṃ bhinā vai
पलेला लपते ल वंसा म्वति थें ल सना वै
palēlā lapatē la vaṃsā mvati thēṃ la sanā vai

The verse states that even a moron can improve with the company of good people just like a drop of water appears like a pearl when it descends upon the leaves of a lotus plant.

Modern Nepal Bhasa[edit]

Jail years[edit]

The years 1941-1945 are known as the jail years for the large number of authors who were imprisoned for their literary or political activities. They were a productive period and resulted in an outpouring of literary works.

Chittadhar Hridaya, Siddhicharan Shrestha and Phatte Bahadur Singh were among the prominent writers of the period who were jailed for their writings. While in prison, Hridaya produced his greatest work Sugata Saurabha,[44] an epic poem on the life of the Buddha.[34] Shrestha wrote a collection of poems entitled Seeswan ("Wax Flower", published in 1948) among other works. Singh (1902–1983) was sentenced to life imprisonment for editing and publishing an anthology of poems by various poets entitled Nepali Bihar.[45]

The efforts of Nepal Bhasa authors coincided with the revival of Theravada Buddhism in Nepal, which the rulers disliked equally. In 1946, the monks who had been exiled by the Ranas in 1944 for teaching Buddhism and writing in Nepal Bhasa were allowed to return following international pressure. Restrictions on publication were relaxed, and books could be published after being censored. The monks wrote wide-ranging books on Buddhism and greatly enriched the corpus of religious literature.[46][47]

Outside the Kathmandu Valley in the 1940s, poets like Ganesh Lal Shrestha of Hetauda composed songs and put on performances during festivals.[48]

The 1950s[edit]

Nepal Bhasa Patrika daily newspaper dated 5 November 1960.

Following the overthrow of the Rana dynasty and the advent of democracy in 1951, restrictions on publication in Nepal Bhasa were removed. Books, magazines and newspapers appeared. A daily newspaper Nepal Bhasa Patrika began publication in 1955.[49] Textbooks were published and Nepal Bhasa was included in the curriculum. Nepal Rastriya Vidhyapitha recognized Nepal Bhasa as an alternative medium of instruction in the schools and colleges affiliated to it.

Literary societies like Nepal Bhasa Parisad were formed and Chwasa Pasa returned from exile.[28] In 1958, Kathmandu Municipality passed a resolution that it would accept applications and publish major decisions in Nepal Bhasa in addition to the Nepali language.[50]

Second dark age[edit]

Democracy lasted for a brief period, and Nepal Bhasa and other languages of Nepal entered a second dark age with the dissolution of parliament and the imposition of the Panchayat system in 1960. Under its policy of "one nation, one language", only the Nepali language was promoted, and all the other languages of Nepal were suppressed as "ethnic" or "local" languages.[51]

In 1963, Kathmandu Municipality's decision to recognize Nepal Bhasa was revoked. In 1965, the language was also banned from being broadcast over Radio Nepal.[52] Those who protested against the ban were put in prison, including Buddhist monk Sudarshan Mahasthavir.

The New Education System Plan brought out in 1971 eased out Nepal's other languages from the schools in a bid to diminish the country's multi-lingual traditions.[53] Students were discouraged from choosing their mother tongue as an elective subject as it was lumped with technical subjects.[39] Nepal's various languages began to stagnate as the population could not use them for official, educational, employment or legal purposes.

Birat Nepal Bhasa Sahitya Sammelan Guthi (Grand Nepal Bhasa Literary Conference Trust), formed in 1962 in Bhaktapur, and Nepal Bhasa Manka Khala, founded in 1979 in Kathmandu, are some of the prominent organizations that emerged during this period to struggle for language rights. The names of these organizations also annoyed the government which, on one occasion in 1979, changed the name of Brihat Nepal Bhasa Sahitya Sammelan Guthi in official media reports.[54]

Some lines by the famous poet Durga Lal Shrestha of this era are as follows:[55]

घाः जुयाः जक ख्वइगु खः झी
स्याःगुलिं सः तइगु खः
झी मसीनि ! झी मसीनि !
धइगु चिं जक ब्वैगु खः
We are crying because we are wounded
We are shouting because of the pain
All in all, we are demonstrating
That we are not dead yet.

Post-1990 People's Movement[edit]

After the 1990 People's Movement that brought the Panchayat system to an end, the languages of Nepal enjoyed greater freedom.[56] The 1990 constitution recognized Nepal as a multiethnic and multilingual country. The Nepali language in the Devanagari script was declared the language of the nation and the official language. Meanwhile, all the languages spoken as mother tongues in Nepal were named national languages.[57]

In 1997, Kathmandu Metropolitan City declared that its policy to officially recognize Nepal Bhasa would be revived. The rest of the city governments in the Kathmandu Valley announced that they too would recognize it. However, critics petitioned the Supreme Court to have the policy annulled, and in 1999, the Supreme Court quashed the decision of the local bodies as being unconstitutional.[58] Nepal Bhasa was thus pushed out once again.

Post-2006 People's Movement[edit]

A second People's Movement in 2006 ousted the Shah dynasty and Nepal became a republic which gave the people greater linguistic freedom. The 2007 Interim Constitution states that the use of one's mother tongue in a local body or office shall not be barred.[59] However, this has not happened in practice. Organizations with names in Nepal Bhasa are not registered, and municipality officials refuse to accept applications written in the language.[60][61]

The restoration of democracy has been marked by the privatization of the media. Various concerned people and organizations are working for the development of Nepal Bhasa by themselves. Nepal Bhasa has several newspapers, a primary level curriculum, several schools, several FM stations (selected time for Nepal Bhasa programs), regular TV programs and News (on Image TV Channel), Nepal Bhasa Music Award (a part of Image Award) and several websites (including Nepal Bhasa wikipedia).

The number of schools teaching Nepal Bhasa has increased, and it is being offered in schools outside the Kathmandu Valley too.[62]

Outside Nepal Mandala[edit]

Inscriptions written in Nepal Bhasa occur across Nepal Mandala and outside.

In Gorkha, the Bhairav Temple at Pokharithok Bazaar contains an inscription dated Nepal Sambat 704 (1584 AD), which is 185 years before the conquest of the Kathmandu Valley by the Gorkha Kingdom. The Palanchowk Bhagawati Temple situated to the east of Kathmandu contains an inscription recording a land donation dated Nepal Sambat 861 (1741 AD).[63]

In Bhojpur in east Nepal, an inscription at the Bidyadhari Ajima Temple dated Nepal Sambat 1011 (1891 AD) records the donation of a door and tympanum. The Bindhyabasini Temple in Bandipur in west Nepal contains an inscription dated Nepal Sambat 950 (1830 AD) about the donation of a tympanum.[64]

Outside Nepal, Nepal Bhasa has been used in Tibet. Official documents and inscriptions recording votive offerings made by Newar traders have been found in Lhasa.[65] A copper plate dated Nepal Sambat 781 (1661 AD) recording the donation of a tympanum is installed at the shrine of Chhwaskamini Ajima (Tibetan: Palden Lhamo) in the Jokhang Temple.[66]

Literature[edit]

'Malakha' (Dragon), a collection of poems by RRN 'Syasya', published in 1955.

Nepal Bhasa literature has a long history. It has the one of the oldest literature of the Sino-Tibetan languages (together with Chinese, Tibetan, Tangut, Burmese, Yi, etc.)

Drama[edit]

Dramas are traditionally performed in open Dabu (stage). Most of the traditional dramas are related to deities and demons. Masked characters are central to such dramas. Music forms an important part of drama. Most of them are narrated with the help of songs sang at intervals. The drama as such resembles dance in many cases. The theme of most of the drama is to create a social wellbeing with morals illustrating the rise, turbulence and fall of evil. There are fixed dates in the Nepal Sambat (Nepal Era) calendar for performance of specific drama. Most of the dramas are carried out by specific Guthis.

Poetry[edit]

Poetry writing constituted a pompous part of medieval Malla aristocracy. Many of the kings were well renowned poets. Siddhidas Mahaju and Chittadhar Hridaya are two great poets in the language.

Prose fiction[edit]

This is a relatively new field of literature compared to other fields. Most of the fiction were written in poetry form till the medieval era. So, almost all of prose fiction belong to the modern Nepal Bhasa. Collective short stories in Nepal Bhasa are more popular than novels.

Story[edit]

The art of verbal story telling is very old in Nepal Bhasa. There are a variety of mythical and social stories that have aided in establishing the norm of Kathmandu valley. Stories ranging from the origin of Kathmandu valley to the temples of the valley and the important monuments have been passed down verbally in Nepal Bhasa and very few are present in written form. However, with an increase in literacy rate and an awareness amongst the people, those stories have been penned down. Stories on other topics have also taken root.

Dialects[edit]

The main dialects of Nepal Bhasa are:

Dolkhali (Dolakha)[edit]

Main article: Dolakhae newari

This is the most preserved form of the language and resembles the old Nepal Bhasa.

Sindhupalchowk Pahri (Pahri, Pahari)[edit]

This dialect has similar vocabulary as the Yala subdialect of Yen-Yala-Kyepu dialect. However, the language is spoken with a Tamang language tone. Now-a-days, in this district the Tamang caste lives more than other castes. In the new Nepal's constitutional assembly, the largest party of Nepal proposed in Tamsaling Rajya for this district in their federation module.

Chitlang[edit]

This dialect is used in Chitlang, a place south of Kathmandu valley in Makawanpur district. This is one of the biggest Newar bastions at Chitlang. Balami caste predominates there. Recently a new committee named "Balami Samaaj" has been established to give an identity rather than Newar but as the government has categorized Balami as Newar, this attempt fails.

Kathmandu[edit]

Kathmandu dialect is one of the dominant form of language and very close to the standard form of language used in academics and media. It is also ta widely used dialect. It is especially spoken in Kathmandu. It is very similar to the Lalitpur dialect.

Lalitpur[edit]

Lalitpur dialect is the most dominant form of language and is the standard form of language used in academics and media. It is also very widely used dialect. It is especially spoken in Lalitpur.

Bhaktapur[edit]

Also known as Khvapa Bhāy ख्वप: भाय्, this dialect is more archaic than the standard. Variations exist in the use of this form of language in Bhaktapur, Banepa, Panauti and Dhulikhel.

Religious registers[edit]

Religions play a register-like role in dialectical diversity though they are minor. It has been recorded from the Malla period. Hinduism and Buddhism were present at that age and few words in Hinduism and Buddhism of Nepal Bhasa differs. The step towards Christianity, Islam, other religions, and atheism the diversity has more extended. Especially the word "dhya|द्यः|god" is removed after the gods name by people except of Hinduism and Buddhism.

For example, Lord Ganesha is said as "ganedya|गनेद्यः" by Hindus and Buddhists but only "गने|gane" by other.

Writing systems[edit]

Detail of King Pratap Malla's inscription at Kathmandu Durbar Square of 1654 AD written in Nepal Lipi.
Prayer wheels with the mantra "Om mani padme hum" in Ranjana script at Swayambhu, Kathmandu.
Main article: Nepal alphabets

Nepal is now almost always written in the Devanagari script. The script originally used for writing it, Nepal Lipi or Nepalese script, fell into disuse at the beginning of the 20th century when writing in the language and the script was banned.[67]

Nepal Lipi, also known as Nepal Akha,[68] emerged in the 10th century. Over the centuries, a number of variants of Nepali Lipi have appeared.

Nepal has been written in a variety of abugida scripts:

Devanagari is the most widely used script at present, as it is common in Nepal and India. Ranjana script was the most widely used script to write Classical Nepalese in ancient times. It is experiencing a revival due to recent rise of cultural awareness. The Prachalit script is also in use. All used to write Nepal but Devanagari are descended from a script called the Nepal script.

Ranjana alphabet[edit]

Lots of Classical Nepalese materials written in Ranjana can be seen in present-day Nepal, East Asia, and Central Asia.

Consonants[edit]

Special consonant in Nepal omitted.

Ranjana k.svg k क Ranjana kh.svg kʰ ख Ranjana g.svg g ग Ranjana gh.svg gʱ घ Ranjana ng.svg ŋ ङ
Ranjana c.svg t͡ɕ च Ranjana ch.svg t͡ɕʰ छ Ranjana j.svg d͡ʑ ज Ranjana jh.svg d͡ʑʱ झ Ranjana ny.svg ȵ ञ
Ranjana tt.svg ʈ ट Ranjana tth.svg ʈʰ ठ Ranjana dd.svg ɖ ड Ranjana ddh.svg ɖʱ ढ Ranjana nn.svg ɳ ण
Ranjana t.svg t त Ranjana th.svg tʰ थ Ranjana d.svg d द Ranjana dh.svg dʱ ध Ranjana n.svg n न
Ranjana p.svg p प Ranjana ph.svg pʰ फ Ranjana b.svg b ब Ranjana bh.svg bʱ भ Ranjana m.svg m म
Ranjana y.svg y य Ranjana r.svg r र Ranjana l.svg l ल Ranjana v.svg v व
Ranjana sh.svg ś श Ranjana ss.svg ʂ ष Ranjana s.svg s स Ranjana h.svg h ह
Ranjana ksh.svg kʂ क्ष Ranjana tr.svg t͡r̥ त्र Ranjana jny.svg d͡ʑȵ ज्ञ

Vowels[edit]

Vowel diacritics applied to [ka]
Vowel diacritics applied to [ɡa]
Vowel diacritics applied to [ba]

There are 3 series of vowel diacritics - the [ka]-like system, the [ɡa]-like system, and the [ba]-like system.

  • Use the [ka]-like system when applying to [ka], [d͡ʑa], [m̥a], [hʲa], [kʂa], and [d͡ʑȵa]
  • Use the [ɡa]-like system when applying to [ɡa], [kʰa], [ȵa], [ʈʰa], [ɳa], [tʰa], [dʱa], and [ɕa]
  • Use the [ba]-like system when applying to [ba], [ɡʱa], [ŋa], [t͡ɕa], [t͡ɕʰa], [d͡ʑʱa], [ʈa], [ɖa], [ɖʱa], [ta], [da], [na], [n̥a], [pa], [pʰa], [ba], [bʱa], [ma], [ja], [ra], [hra], [la], [l̥a], [va], [vʱa], [ʂa], [sa], [ha], [t͡r̥a]

Note that many of the consonants mentioned above (e.g. [bʱa], [ɖʱa], [ɡʱa], etc.) occur only in loan words and mantras.

Consonant-free vowels[edit]

Numerals[edit]

Main article: Newari numerals
  • The numerals used in Ranjana script are as follows (from 0 to 9):
Ranjana 0.svg 0 Ranjana 1.svg 1 Ranjana 2.svg 2 Ranjana 3.svg 3 Ranjana 4.svg 4 Ranjana 5.svg 5 Ranjana 6.svg 6 Ranjana 7.svg 7 Ranjana 8.svg 8 Ranjana 9.svg 9

Devanagari orthography[edit]

Modern Nepal Bhasa is written generally with the Devanagari script, although formally it was written in the Ranjana and other scripts. The letters of the Nagari alphabet are traditionally listed in the order vowels (monophthongs and diphthongs), anusvara and visarga, stops (plosives and nasals) (starting in the back of the mouth and moving forward), and finally the liquids and fricatives, written in IAST as follows (see the tables below for details):

a ā i ī u ū ṛ ṝ ḷ ḹ ; e ai o au
ṃ ḥ
k kh g gh ṅ; c ch j jh ñ; ṭ ṭh ḍ ḍh ṇ; t th d dh n; p ph b bh m
y r l v; ś ṣ s h

Kathamandu Newar does not use ñ for the palatal nasal but instead writes this sound with the ligature ny as for example in the word nyā 'five'. Orthographic vowel length represents a difference of vowel quality, and in fact vowel length is indicated with the visarga after the vowel a (e.g. khāḥ 'ís') and with other vowels is written with the independent vowel letter (which would not be permitted e.g. in Sanskrit), for example mhiiga 'day after tomorrow'.

Vowels[edit]

The vowels, called mā ākha (माआखः) used in Nepal Bhasa are

Orthography अः आः अँ अं अय् आय् एय्
Roman a a: aa aa: i ii u uu ri rii lri lrii e ai o au an aN ay aay ey

Even though ऋ, ॠ, ऌ, ॡ are present in Nepal Bhasa, they are rarely used. Instead, some experts suggest including अय् (ay) and आय् (aay) in the list of vowels.[69]

Consonants[edit]

The consonants, called bā ākha (बाआखः), meaning "father alphabets" used in Nepal Bhasa are:

ङ्ह
ka kha ga gha /ŋ/a /ŋ/ha
cha chh ja or za jha or zha /ɲ/ya
ta tha /ɖ/a dha /ɳ/a
न्ह
ta tha /d̪/a /d̪ʱ/a na nha
म्ह
pa pha or fa ba bha ma mha
ह्य ह्र ल्ह व्ह
ya hya ra hra la lha va or wa wha
/ɕ/a /ʃ/a sa ha
क्ष त्र ज्ञ
ksha tra} /ɡɲ/a

ङ्ह, न्ह, म्ह, ह्य, ह्र, ल्ह and व्ह are sometimes included in the list of consonants as they have a specific identity in Nepal.

The use of ङ and ञ was very common in the old form of language. However, in the new form, specially in writing, the use of these characters has diminished. The use of ण, त, थ, द, ध, न, श, ष, क्ष, त्र, ज्ञ are limited by the new grammar books to the loan words only.

Complex/compound consonants[edit]

Besides the consonants mentioned above, combined consonants called chinā ākha (चिना आखः) are used.

Numerals[edit]

Main article: Newari numerals
  • The same numericals in Devnagari are:
In Devanāgarī
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Grammar[edit]

Sentence structure[edit]

Statement sentence-
This language is a SOV (subject–object–verb) language. For instance, "My name is Bilat (Birat)" is "Jigu Na'aa Bilat Khaa'a " which word by word translation becomes, "My (Jigu) Name (Na'aa) Bilat is (Khaa'a)".

Interrogative sentence-
Wh-question:
In case of Newar language, Wh-questions are rather "G-questions" with "when/which" being replaced by "Gublay/Gugu" respectively. There is an additional "Guli" which is used for "How much/How many". A S-word "Soo" is used for "who". "Chhoo/Schoo (with a silent 's')" is used for "What", and "Gathey" is used for "How".

Affixes[edit]

Suffix- "Chaa" and "Ju" are two popular suffixes. "Chaa" is added to signify "junior" or "lesser". But when added to a name, it is used derogatorily. For example, kya'ah-chaa means nephew where "chaa" is being added to kya'ah(son). When added to name like Birat for "Birat-chaa", it is being used derogatorily. The suffix "ju" is added to show respect. For example, "Baa-ju" means "father-in-law" where "ju" is added to "Baa(father)". Unlike "chaa", "ju" is not added to a first/last name directly. Instead, honorific terms like "Bhaaju" is added for males and "Mayju" for females. Example, "Birat bhaaju" for a male name (Birat) and "Suja Mayju" for a female name (Suja).

Prefix – "Tap'ah" is added to denote "remote" or "distant" relative ('distance' in relationship irrespective of spatial extent). A distant (younger) brother (kija) becomes "tap'ah-kija". "Tuh" is added to denote "higher". Father (baa)'s senior brother is referred to as "Tuh-baa".

Indo-Aryan loan-words[edit]

Nepal is one of the most Aryanized Sino-Tibetan languages. Below are some basic words in Nepal loaned from Indo-Iranian languages.[70]

Words Origin (orig. word) Meaning
La:h (ल:) Pali (Jala:h) Water
Kaa:sa Pali Bronze
Kaji Arabic leader
Khaapaa (खापा) Pali Door (Original meaning in Pali was "door panel")
Kimi (कीमी) Sanskrit (Krmi) Hookworm
Adha:vata Persian Malice
Ka:h Pali (Kana) Blind (Original meaning in Pali was "one-eyed")
Dya:h Pali (Dev) Deity
Nhya:h Pali (Na:sika) Nose
Mhu:tu Pali (Mukhena) Mouth
Khicha: (खिचा) Pali (Kukkura) Dog

Nepal Bhasa and Newar community[edit]

A wall slogan of Maoists using Nepal Bhasa

Nepal Bhasa is the mother tongue of Newars. Newars form a very diverse community with people from Tibeto-Burman, ASI and ANI origin.[71] Newars follow Hinduism and Buddhism, and are subdivided into 64 castes. The language therefore plays a central unifying role in the existence and perpetuation of Newar community. The poet Siddhidas Mahaju concluded that the Newar community and its rich culture can only survive if Nepal Bhasa survives (भाषा म्वासा जाति म्वाइ).

Relative to many other languages of Nepal, Nepal Bhasa enjoyed promotions in various areas since Kathmandu become the capital of the country, as the Newar community rose in ranks throughout the government, royal courts and businesses.

Nepal Bhasa faced a decline during the Shah era when this language was replaced by Khas Kura (later renamed Nepali) as the national language and after the introduction of the "One nation, one language" policy of King Mahendra. The then Royal Nepalese Government spent a lot for Sanskrit education and a Sanskrit University was approved during those times—although Sanskrit is virtually not spoken by anyone in Nepal—because Khas Kura's roots lie in Sanskrit. There were very few resources available then for even primary-level education in Nepal Bhasa. There were no programs broadcast in Nepal Bhasa in the state radio, Radio Nepal. Even after programs in Nepal Bhasa began to be broadcast, the language was referred to as "Newari", a term considered derogatory by Newars. Even today, there are no programs in Nepal Bhasa in the state television, Nepal Television, although it broadcasts a Bollywood Hindi movie every Saturday (although it is used as lingua franca in Terai, Hindi is mother tongue of less than 1% population in Nepal) and often Pakistani serials (in Urdu) as well. The Supreme Court of Nepal has also banned any use of Nepal Bhasa even for trivial matters in official purposes of any part of Nepal. These factors have led to a resentment among Newar community and a feeling of "second class" citizen in one's own state.

This fact has been used for political advantages by many parties of Nepal. Many slogans are translated into Nepal Bhasa, although very few important documents of political parties are ever translated into Nepal Bhasa.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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    Middle Newar at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
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External links[edit]