List of instrument-resolved minor planets

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The following list of instrument-resolved minor planets consists of minor planets whose disks have been resolved, whether by telescope, a visit by an unmanned spacecraft, or by observing the occultation of a background star from multiple sites. Disk resolution allows the density of an body to be computed, providing useful information about the internal composition. It can also be used to determine the shape of the object, to search for albedo features, and to look for companions.[1]

Techniques[edit]

Radar imaging of (136617) 1994 CC from Goldstone during a 2009 flyby

Because of their distance from the Earth and their small dimension, minor planets such as asteroids represent a challenge for astronomical instruments to resolve. Even two of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, 2 Pallas and 4 Vesta, have maximum angular diameters of less than an arcsecond. With a ground-based optical telescope, resolution of these objects through the Earth's thick atmosphere can require techniques such as speckle interferometry or adaptive optics.[2][3]

Radio telescopes such as Arecibo or Goldstone have been used to observe asteroids. This technique can be used to measure the Doppler shifts and radar cross-sections of the bodies, while more detailed studies allow three-dimensional shape models to be built.[4] The first radar detection of a minor planet was 1566 Icarus by JPL astronomer Richard M. Goldstein in June 1968. This was followed by 1685 Toro in 1972.[5] A regular program of radar observation of the asteroid belt asteroids was begun in 1980 at Arecibo. Goldstone joined the effort in 1990. Together, they observed 37 main-belt asteroids between 1980–1997.[6]

A more direct approach to asteroid study, allowing the object to be examined greater detail, is to send a spacecraft to either perform a fly-by maneuver or go into orbit. The first such asteroid to be imaged in this manner was 951 Gaspra in 1991 by the Galileo spacecraft. In 2000, the NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft went into orbit around 433 Eros after performing a fly-by of 253 Mathilde in 1997.[7]

Objects[edit]

The tables below list selected orbital elements and physical properties of radar-detected minor planets listed by region of the Solar System: asteroid belt, near-Earth objects, or trans-Neptunian objects. The semi-major axis (a), orbital eccentricity (e), inclination (i) to the ecliptic, and orbital period (P) is shown. Where possible, the number of decimals in maintained to the same limited level of significance in each column. This is because further detail is not needed for comparison purposes, and because the values can slightly change over time due to new measurements or gravitational perturbations. Where the SMASS spectral type is not available, the Tholen spectral type is listed in square brackets. For more detailed information on these objects, see their respective articles.

Asteroid belt[edit]

Designation JPL Data[8] Notes
Orbital Elements Rotation
Period

(hours)
Maximum
Diameter
(km)
Albedo
(geometric)
SMASSII
Spectral
Type
a
(AU)
e i
(Ecliptic)
P
(years)
1 Ceres 2.765 0.079 10.587° 4.60 9.07 952 0.090 C [3][9][10]
2 Pallas 2.772 0.231 34.841° 4.62 7.81 582 0.159 B [2][9]
3 Juno 2.671 0.255 12.981° 4.37 7.21 234 0.238 Sk [11]
4 Vesta 2.362 0.089 7.134° 3.63 5.34 529 0.423 V [2][3][9]
5 Astraea 2.574 0.190 5.367° 4.13 16.80 119 0.227 S [6]
6 Hebe 2.425 0.202 14.750° 3.78 7.27 185 0.268 S [6]
7 Iris 2.386 0.231 5.523° 3.69 7.14 200 0.277 S [6][12]
8 Flora 2.201 0.156 5.888° 3.27 12.87 136 0.243 [S] [6]
9 Metis 2.386 0.123 5.575° 3.68 5.08 190 0.118 [S] [1][13]
10 Hygiea 3.139 0.116 3.841° 5.56 27.62 407 0.072 C [11]
12 Victoria 2.335 0.221 8.367° 3.57 8.66 113 0.177 L [14]
13 Egeria 2.577 0.085 16.546° 4.14 7.05 208 0.083 Ch [15]
15 Eunomia 2.644 0.189 11.735° 4.30 6.08 255 0.209 S [15]
16 Psyche 2.921 0.137 3.099° 4.99 4.20 253 0.120 X [6][16]
17 Thetis 2.921 0.151 9.431° 4.63 12.27 90 0.172 Sl [17]
18 Melpomene 2.296 0.218 10.127° 3.48 11.57 141 0.223 S [1][6][13]
19 Fortuna 2.443 0.158 1.573° 3.82 7.44 200 0.037 Ch [1][6][13]
20 Massalia 2.410 0.142 0.708° 3.74 8.10 146 0.210 S [6]
21 Lutetia 2.435 0.163 3.064° 3.80 8.17 96 0.221 Xk [6][18][19]
22 Kalliope 2.910 0.101 13.717° 4.96 4.15 162 0.142 X [19]
23 Thalia 2.626 0.235 10.114° 4.26 12.31 108 0.254 S [15]
25 Phocaea 2.399 0.256 21.594° 3.72 9.93 75 0.231 S [15]
27 Euterpe 2.347 0.173 1.584° 3.60 10.41 96 0.162 S [6]
28 Bellona 2.777 0.134 5.588° 3.88 15.71 121 0.176 S [17]
31 Euphrosyne 3.157 0.224 26.322° 5.61 5.53 256 0.054 Cb [15]
33 Polyhymnia 2.866 0.338 1.871° 4.85 18.60    62[6] Sq [6]
34 Circe 2.689 0.106 5.504° 4.41 12.15 114 0.054 Ch [17]
36 Atalante 2.747 0.303 18.436° 4.55 9.93 106 0.065 C [15]
38 Leda 2.740 0.154 6.972° 4.54 12.84 116 0.062 Cgh [15]
39 Laetitia 2.768 0.115 10.382° 4.60 5.14 150 0.287 S [17]
41 Daphne 2.760 0.275 15.793° 4.59 5.99 174 0.083 Ch [6]
44 Nysa 2.424 0.148 3.706° 3.77 6.42 79 0.546 Xc [20]
46 Hestia 2.524 0.173 2.345° 4.01 21.04 124 0.052 Xc [6]
50 Virginia 2.652 0.284 2.833° 4.32 14.32 100 0.036 Ch [15]
52 Europa 3.097 0.107 7.480° 5.45 5.63 303 0.058 C [17]
53 Kalypso 2.618 0.205 5.169° 4.24 9.04 115 0.040 [XC] [15]
54 Alexandra 2.710 0.198 11.800° 4.46 7.02 166 0.056 C [17]
55 Pandora 2.759 0.143 7.188° 4.58 4.80 67 0.301 X [17]
60 Echo 2.392 0.184 3.602° 3.70 25.21 60 0.254 S [15]
63 Ausonia 2.397 0.126 5.780° 3.71 9.30 103 0.159 Sa [17]
64 Angelina 2.681 0.126 1.310° 4.39 8.75    51[17] 0.157 Xe [17][21]
66 Maja 2.647 0.171 3.048° 4.31 9.73 72 0.062 Ch [15]
68 Leto 2.783 0.187 7.974° 4.64 14.85 123 0.228 [S] [17]
69 Hesperia 2.977 0.169 8.584° 5.14 5.66 138 0.140 X [21]
71 Niobe 2.755 0.176 23.260° 4.57 35.81 83 0.305 Xe [19]
78 Diana 2.620 0.207 8.703° 4.24 7.30 121 0.071 Ch [6]
80 Sappho 2.296 0.201 8.666° 3.48 14.03 78 0.185 S [6]
83 Beatrix 2.433 0.081 4.965° 3.80 10.16 81 0.092 X [19]
84 Klio 2.361 0.237 9.333° 3.63 23.56 79 0.053 Ch [6]
85 Io 2.654 0.191 11.960° 4.32 6.88 155 0.067 B [17]
87 Sylvia 3.493 0.083 10.858° 6.53 5.184 261 0.044 X [22]
88 Thisbe 2.767 0.165 5.215° 4.60 6.04 232 0.067 B [17]
89 Julia 2.551 0.183 16.138° 4.07 11.39 151 0.176 K [17]
90 Antiope 3.154 0.157 2.220° 5.60 16.51 120 0.060 C [23]
93 Minerva 2.754 0.142 8.562° 4.57 5.982 142 0.073 C [16]
95 Arethusa 3.065 0.151 13.005° 5.37 8.69 136 0.070 Ch [17]
96 Aegle 3.051 0.138 15.969° 5.33 13.82 170 0.052 T [16]
97 Klotho 2.670 0.255 11.785° 4.36 35.15 83 0.229 [M] [6][19]
101 Helena 2.582 0.142 10.203° 4.15 23.08 66 0.190 S [15]
105 Artemis 2.376 0.176 21.455° 3.66 37.16 119 0.047 Ch [6][16]
107 Camilla 3.495 0.073 10.038° 6.53 4.84 223 0.053 X [17]
109 Felicitas 2.697 0.298 7.885° 4.43 13.19 89 0.070 Ch [15]
110 Lydia 2.732 0.078 5.973° 4.52 10.93 86 0.181 X [19]
111 Ate 2.594 0.103 4.930° 4.18 22.2 135 0.061 Ch [15]
114 Kassandra 2.676 0.137 4.937° 4.38 10.76 100 0.088 Xk [15]
127 Johanna 2.756 0.065 8.242° 4.57 12.80 122 Ch [15]
128 Nemesis 2.751 0.125 6.248° 4.56 39 188 0.050 C [15]
129 Antigone 2.870 0.212 12.212° 4.86 4.96 113 0.164 X [19]
130 Elektra 3.124 0.209 22.866° 5.52 5.23 182 0.076 Ch [17]
135 Hertha 2.429 0.206 2.304° 3.79 8.40 98 0.144 Xk [19]
137 Meliboea 3.120 0.218 13.414° 5.51 25.68 145 0.050 [C] [15]
139 Juewa 2.782 0.175 10.907° 4.64 20.99 157 0.056 X [6]
144 Vibilia 2.653 0.236 4.808° 4.32 13.82 142 0.060 Ch [6]
145 Adeona 2.672 0.145 12.639° 4.37 15.09 151 0.043 Ch [15]
152 Atala 3.142 0.076 12.113° 5.57 6.25    65[17] S [17]
158 Koronis 2.869 0.054 1.001° 4.86 14.22 35 0.277 S [17]
165 Loreley 3.123 0.085 11.227° 5.52 7.23 155 0.064 Cb [17]
167 Urda 2.852 0.033 2.211° 4.82 13.07 40 0.223 Sk [17]
182 Elsa 2.416 0.186 2.004° 3.75 80.09 44 0.208 S [15]
192 Nausikaa 2.402 0.246 6.816° 3.72 13.63 103 0.233 Cl [6][15]
198 Ampella 2.459 0.229 9.311° 3.86 20.78 57 0.252 S [15]
208 Lacrimosa 2.891 0.015 1.749° 4.92 14.09 41 0.270 Sk [17]
211 Isolda 3.040 0.163 3.883° 5.30 18.37 143 0.060 Ch [15]
216 Kleopatra 2.797 0.249 13.100° 4.68 5.39 124 0.116 Xe [13][19][24]
224 Oceana 2.646 0.045 5.838° 4.30 9.39 62 0.169 [M] [19]
225 Henrietta 3.391 0.265 20.873° 6.24 7.36 120 0.040 [F] [15]
230 Athamantis 2.383 0.062 9.440° 3.68 24.01 109 0.171 Sl [6]
243 Ida 2.860 0.042 1.133° 4.84 4.63 32 0.238 S [7][25]
247 Eukrate 2.741 0.243 24.999° 4.54 12.10 134 0.060 Xc [15]
253 Mathilde 2.645 0.267 6.743° 4.30 417.7 53 0.044 Cb [7][26]
266 Aline 2.804 0.158 13.401° 4.69 12.3 109 0.045 Ch [15]
270 Anahita 2.199 0.151 2.366° 3.26 15.06 51 0.217 [S] [15]
276 Adelheid 3.114 0.071 21.651° 5.50 6.32 122 0.045 [X] [17]
288 Glauke 2.759 0.208 4.326° 4.58 1200 32 0.197 S [27]
302 Clarissa 2.406 0.111 3.413° 3.73 14.38 39 0.052 [F] [17]
306 Unitas 2.358 0.150 7.269° 3.62 8.74 47 0.211 S [17]
313 Chaldaea 2.375 0.181 11.654° 3.66 8.39 96 0.052 [C] [15]
324 Bamberga 2.686 0.337 11.103° 4.40 29.43 229 0.063 [CP] [6][15]
325 Heidelberga 3.209 0.160 8.559° 5.75 6.74 76 0.107 [M] [19]
336 Lacadiera 2.252 0.096 5.652° 3.38 13.70 69 0.046 Xk [15]
347 Pariana 2.611 0.166 11.681° 4.22 4.05 51 0.185 [M] [19]
354 Eleonora 2.798 0.115 18.392° 4.68 4.28 155 0.195 Sl [15]
356 Liguria 2.757 0.238 8.227° 4.58 31.8 131 0.053 [C] [28]
372 Palma 3.150 0.261 23.835° 5.59 8.57 189 0.066 B [17]
375 Ursula 3.123 0.107 15.949° 5.52 16.83 216 Xc [29]
393 Lampetia 2.776 0.332 14.880° 4.63 38.7 97 0.083 Xc [6]
405 Thia 2.584 0.244 11.950° 4.15 10.08 125 0.047 Ch [15]
409 Aspasia 2.576 0.072 11.260° 4.13 9.02 162 0.061 Xc [17]
429 Lotis 2.607 0.124 9.535° 4.21 13.58 70 0.043 [C] [15]
444 Gyptis 2.770 0.174 10.283° 4.61 6.21 163 0.049 C [15]
471 Papagena 2.886 0.233 14.979° 4.90 7.11 134 0.199 S [17]
488 Kreusa 3.175 0.162 11.484° 5.66 19.26 150 0.059 [C] [15]
497 Iva 2.857 0.296 4.809° 4.83.0 4.62 45 [M] [19]
505 Cava 2.685 0.245 9.841° 4.40 8.18 115 0.040 [FC] [15]
532 Herculina 2.770 0.178 16.314° 4.61 9.41 222 0.169 S [6]
554 Peraga 2.375 0.153 2.935° 3.66 13.7 96 0.050 Ch [6]
622 Esther 2.415 0.243 8.645° 3.75 47.5 S [15]
624 Hektor 5.242 0.023 18.181° 12.00 6.92 225 0.025 [D] [13]
654 Zelinda 2.297 0.231 18.120° 3.48 31.74 127 0.043 Ch [14]
678 Fredegundis 2.574 0.219 6.082° 4.13 11.616 42 0.249 X [19]
694 Ekard 2.669 0.325 15.843° 4.36 5.93 91 0.046 [CP] [6]
704 Interamnia 3.059 0.151 17.296° 5.35 8.73 317 0.074 B [15]
747 Winchester 2.999 0.341 18.168° 5.19 9.41 172 0.050 C [17]
758 Mancunia 3.189 0.152 5.605° 5.69 12.73 85 0.132 [X] [19]
771 Libera 2.650 0.248 14.944° 4.31 5.89 29 0.130 X [19]
779 Nina 2.666 0.224 14.574° 4.35 11.2 77 0.144 X [19]
785 Zwetana 2.574 0.209 12.750° 4.13 8.89 49 0.125 Cb [19]
796 Sarita 2.637 0.318 19.043° 4.28 8.18 45 0.197 X [6][19]
849 Ara 3.150 0.198 19.526° 5.59 4.12 62 0.266 [M] [17]
914 Palisana 2.458 0.212 25.218° 3.85 15.92 77 0.094 [CU] [15]
925 Alphonsina 2.700 0.080 21.063° 4.44 7.88 54 0.279 S [10][17]
951 Gaspra 2.209 0.173 4.102° 3.28 7.04 12 X [7]
1139 Atami 1.948 0.255 13.087° 2.72 27.45 5–6 S [30]
1263 Varsavia 2.666 0.187 29.268° 4.35 7.23 49 0.046 Xc [17]
1580 Betulia 2.196 0.4880 52.11° 3.25 6.13 5.8 0.08 [C] [31]
1963 Bezovec 2.422 0.211 25.046° 3.77 18.16 45 0.038 [C] [15]
2685 Masursky 2.568 0.111 12.135° 4.11 20 [7][32]
2867 Šteins 2.364 0.146 9.943° 3.63 6.05 5.3 [33]
4179 Toutatis 2.530 0.629 0.446° 4.02 176 5.4 Sk [27][34]
4486 Mithra 2.203 0.661 3.037° 3.27 67 2 [27]
5535 Annefrank 2.213 0.064 4.246° 3.29 6.6 [7]
6489 Golevka 2.498 0.605 2.277° 3.95 6.02 0.5 0.151 [Q] [27][35]
9969 Braille 2.346 0.431 28.918° 3.59 226.4 2.1 [Q] [36]

Near-Earth asteroids[edit]

Designation JPL Data[8] Notes
Orbital Elements Rotation
Period

(hours)
Maximum
Diameter
(km)
Albedo
(geometric)
SMASSII
Spectral
Type
a
(AU)
e i
(Ecliptic)
P
(years)
433 Eros 1.458 0.223 10.828° 1.76 5.27 17 0.25 S [7][37]
1566 Icarus 1.078 0.827 22.828° 1.12 2.27 1.0 0.51 [38]
1620 Geographos 1.246 0.335 13.336° 1.39 5.22 2.6 0.326 S [27][39]
1627 Ivar 1.863 0.397 8.449° 2.54 4.80 9.1 0.15 S [40]
1685 Toro 1.367 0.436 9.380° 1.60 10.2 3.4 0.31 S [41]
1862 Apollo 1.470 0.560 6.354° 1.78 3.07 1.5 0.25 Q [42]
2062 Aten 0.967 0.183 18.934° 0.95 40.8 1.1 0.26 Sr [43]
2063 Bacchus 1.078 0.349 9.433° 1.12 14.90 2 Sq [27][44]
2100 Ra-Shalom 0.832 0.436 15.758° 0.76 19.80 2.3 0.13 Xc [45]
2101 Adonis 1.875 0.764 1.333° 2.57 0.6 [43]
3103 Eger 1.405 0.354 20.932° 1.66 5.71 1.5 0.64 Xe [43]
3908 Nyx 1.927 0.459 2.182° 2.68 4.43 1.0 0.23 V [27]
4544 Xanthus 1.042 0.250 14.146° 1.06 37.7 1.3 [43]
4769 Castalia 1.063 0.483 8.888° 1.10 4.10 1.4 [27][46][47]
5381 Sekhmet 0.947 0.296 48.970° 0.92 2.7 1.0 [48]
(6178) 1986 DA 2.818 0.583 4.309° 4.73 3.50 2.3 0.15 [49]
(7822) 1991 CS 1.123 0.165 37.121° 1.19 2.39 0.2 0.14 S [50]
25143 Itokawa 1.324 0.280 1.622° 1.52 12.13 0.5 S(IV) [51]
(53319) 1999 JM8 2.708 0.649 13.830° 4.46 136 7 [X] [52]
(66391) 1999 KW4 0.642 0.688 38.888° 0.51 2.76 1.3 S: [53]
(136617) 1994 CC 1.638 0.417 4.683° 2.10 2.389 0.6 [Sq] [54]
1998 KY26 1.232 0.201 1.481° 1.37 0.19 0.03 [55]
2004 XP14 1.052 0.159 32.950° 1.08 100 0.3 [E or M] [56]

Trans-Neptunian objects[edit]

Designation JPL Data[8] Notes
Orbital Elements Rotation
Period

(hours)
Maximum
Diameter
(km)
Albedo
(geometric)
SMASSII
Spectral
Type
a
(AU)
e i
(Ecliptic)
P
(years)
50000 Quaoar 43.270 0.039 7.996 284.64 17.68 [10]
134340 Pluto 39.445 0.250 17.089° 247.74 153.29 [57]
136199 Eris 68.071 0.434 43.818° 561.63 25.9 [10][58]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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