History of local government districts in Buckinghamshire

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The History of local government districts in Buckinghamshire began in 1835 with the formation of poor law unions. This was followed by the creation of various forms of local government body. In 1894 the existing arrangements were replaced with a system of municipal boroughs, urban and rural districts, which remained in place until 1974.

Poor law unions[edit]

The parishes of the county were grouped under the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 to form unions. Each union was administered by a board of guardians elected by the parish ratepayers. The boundaries of the unions would later be used to define rural sanitary districts in 1875 and rural districts in 1894. Poor law unions were abolished in 1930 by the Local Government Act 1929.

Name Notes Area covered
Amersham PLU Amersham, Ashley Green (1897–1930), Beaconsfield, Chalfont St Giles, Chalfont St Peter, Chartridge (1899–1930), Chenies, Chesham, Chesham Bois, Coleshill, Latimer (1899–1930), The Lee (1838–1930), Great Missenden (1838–1930), Little Missenden (1901–1930), Penn, Seer Green
Aylesbury PLU Ashendon, Aston Abbots, Aston Clinton, Aston Sandford, Aylesbury, Bierton with Broughton, Buckland, Chearsley, Cholesbury, Creslow, Cublington, Cuddington, Dinton with Ford and Upton, Drayton Beauchamp, Fleet Marston, Grendon Underwood, Haddenham, Halton, Hardwick, Hartwell, Hawridge, Hulcott, Kingswood, Ludgershall, Oving, Pitchcott, Quainton, Quarrendon, Shipton Lee, Stone, Waddesdon, Lower Winchendon, Upper Winchendon, Weedon, Westcott, Weston Turville, Whitchurch, Wingrave with Rowsham, Woodham, Wotton Underwood
Berkhampstead PLU Mostly in Hertfordshire Marsworth, Nettleden, Pitstone (1835–1923)
Bicester PLU Mostly in Oxfordshire Boarstall
Brackley PLU Mostly in Northamptonshire Biddlesden, Turweston, Westbury
Buckingham PLU Addington, Adstock, Akeley, Barton Hartshorn, Beachampton, Charndon, Chetwode, Edgcott, Foscott, Hillesden, Leckhampstead, Lillingstone Dayrell, Lillingstone Lovell, Luffield Abbey (1858–1930), Maids Moreton, Marsh Gibbon, Middle Claydon, Padbury, Poundon, Preston Bissett, Radclive-cum-Chackmore, Shalstone, Steeple Claydon, Stowe, Thornborough, Thornton, Tingewick, Twyford, Water Stratford
Eton PLU Boveney, Burnham, Datchet, Denham, Dorney, Eton, Eton Wick (1894–1930), Farnham Royal, Fulmer, Gerrard's Cross (1895–1930), Hedgerley, Hedgerley Dean, Hitcham, Horton, Iver, Langley Marish, Slough (1894–1930), Stoke in Slough (1894–1896), Stoke Poges, Taplow, Upton-cum-Chalvey (1835–1901), Wexham, Wyrardisbury
Henley PLU Mostly in Oxfordshire Fawley, Hambleden, Medmenham
Leighton Buzzard PLU Mostly in Bedfordshire Cheddington, Edlesborough, Grove, Ivinghoe, Linslade, Mentmore, Pitstone (1923–1930), Slapton, Soulbury, Stoke Hammond, Wing
Newport Pagnell PLU Astwood, Bletchley, Bow Brickhill, Bradwell, Bradwell Abbey (1861–1930), Broughton, Castlethorpe, Chicheley, Clifton Reynes, Cold Brayfield, Emberton, Fenny Stratford, Gayhurst, Great Brickhill, Great Linford, Great Woolstone, Hanslope, Hardmead, Haversham, Lathbury, Lavendon, Little Brickhill, Little Linford, Little Woolstone, Loughton, Milton Keynes, Moulsoe, New Bradwell (1919–1930), Newport Pagnell, Newton Blossomville, Newton Longville, North Crawley, Olney, Olney Park Farm (1861–1930), Petsoe Manor (1861–1930), Ravenstone, Shenley Church End, Sherington, Simpson, Stantonbury, Stoke Goldington, Tyringham and Filgrave, Walton, Warrington, Water Eaton, Wavendon, Weston Underwood, Willen, Woughton on the Green
Potterspury PLU Mostly in Northamptonshire Calverton, Stony Stratford East, Stony Stratford West, Wolverton
Thame PLU Mostly in Oxfordshire Brill, Chilton, Dorton, Ickford, Kingsey, Long Crendon, Oakley, Shabbington, Worminghall
Winslow PLU Drayton Parslow, Dunton, East Claydon, Granborough, Great Horwood, Hoggeston, Hogshaw, Little Horwood, Mursley, Nash, North Marston, Shenley Brook End, Stewkley, Swanbourne, Tattenhoe, Whaddon, Winslow
Wycombe PLU Bledlow, Bradenham, Chepping Wycombe (1835–1894), Chepping Wycombe Rural (1894–1930), Chepping Wycombe Urban (1894–1896), Ellesborough, Fingest and Lane End, Great and Little Hampden (1885–1930), Great Hampden (1835–1885), Great Kimble (1835–1885), Great and Little Kimble (1885–1930), Great Marlow, Hedsor, High Wycombe (1896–1930), Horsenden, Hughenden, Ibstone, Ilmer, Lewknor Uphill (1866–1885), Little Hampden (1835–1885), Little Kimble (1835–1885), Little Marlow, Little Missenden (1835–1901), Marlow Urban (1896–1930), Medmenham (1835–1945), Monks Risborough, Princes Risborough, Radnage, Saunderton, Stoke Mandeville, Turville, Wendover, Wycombe (1866–1896), West Wycombe, Wooburn

Local boards of health and sanitary districts[edit]

Following the enactment of the Public Health Act 1848, boards of health could be formed on petition of the inhabitants or where there was excess mortality. The Local Government Act 1858 simplified the process of creating local councils: ratepayers of a parish or area could adopt the Act by resolution, whereupon it would become a Local Government District, governed by a Local Board.[1]

The system was rationalised by the Public Health Act 1875, which designated all municipal boroughs, local board districts, local government districts and improvement commissioners districts in England and Wales as urban sanitary districts. The existing local authority became an urban sanitary authority, without change of title. In Buckinghamshire this applied to Aylesbury, Beaconsfield, Buckingham, Chesham, Eton, Slough and Chepping Wycombe. Also created were rural sanitary districts, which were identical in area to poor law unions, less any urban sanitary district. The poor law guardians for the parishes in the district became the rural sanitary authority.

List of districts 1835–1894[edit]

Municipal boroughs, local boards and urban sanitary districts 1835–1894[edit]

Municipal Boroughs (MBs) were created by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, Local Board Districts (LBDs) were created by the Public Health Act 1848 and governed by a local board of health, Local Government Districts (LGDs) were created by the Local Government Act 1858 and governed by a local board. These all became urban sanitary authorities in 1875.[2]

Name Formed Area covered
Aylesbury LBD 1849 Parish of Aylesbury
Beaconsfield LBD 1850 Parish of Beaconsfield
Buckingham MB 1835 Parish of Buckingham
Chepping Wycombe MB 1835 Parish of Wycombe and part of Chepping Wycombe
Chesham LGD 1884 Parish of Chesham
Eton LBD 1849 Part of the parish of Eton
Slough LGD 1863 Parts of the parishes of Stoke Poges and Upton cum Chalvey

Rural sanitary districts 1875–1894[edit]

Name Notes Area covered
Amersham RSD Amersham, Chalfont St Giles, Chalfont St Peter, Chenies, Chesham (1875–1884), Chesham Bois, Coleshill, Great Missenden, Lee, Penn, Seer Green
Aylesbury RSD Ashendon, Aston Abbots, Aston Clinton, Aston Sandford, Bierton with Broughton, Buckland, Chearsley, Cholesbury, Creslow, Cublington, Cuddington, Dinton with Ford and Upton, Drayton Beauchamp, Fleet Marston, Grendon Underwood, Haddenham, Halton, Buckinghamshire, Hardwick, Hartwell, Hawridge, Hulcott, Kingswood, Ludgershall, Oving, Pitchcott, Quainton, Quarrendon, Shipton Lee, Stone, Waddesdon, Lower Winchendon, Upper Winchendon, Weedon, Westcott, Weston Turville, Whitchurch, Wingrave with Rowsham, Woodham, Wotton Underwood
Berkhampstead RSD Mostly in Hertfordshire Marsworth, Pitstone
Bicester RSD Mostly in Oxfordshire Boarstall
Brackley RSD Mostly in Northamptonshire Biddlesden, Turweston, Westbury
Buckingham RSD Addington, Adstock, Akeley, Barton Hartshorn, Beachampton, Charndon, Chetwode, Edgcott, Foscott, Hillesden, Leckhampstead, Lillingstone Dayrell, Lillingstone Lovell, Luffield Abbey, Maids Moreton, Marsh Gibbon, Middle Claydon, Padbury, Poundon, Preston Bissett, Radclive-cum-Chackmore, Shalstone, Steeple Claydon, Stowe, Thornborough, Thornton, Tingewick, Twyford, Water Stratford
Eton RSD Boveney, Burnham, Datchet, Denham, Dorney, Eton (part), Farnham Royal, Fulmer, Hedgerley, Hedgerley & Dean, Hitcham, Horton, Iver, Langley Marish, Stoke Poges (part), Taplow, Upton-cum-Chalvey (part), Wexham, Wyrardisbury
Henley RSD Mostly in Oxfordshire Fawley, Hambleden, Medmenham
Leighton Buzzard RSD Mostly in Bedfordshire Cheddington, Edlesborough, Grove, Ivinghoe, Linslade, Mentmore, Slapton, Soulbury, Stoke Hammond, Wing
Newport Pagnell RSD Astwood, Bletchley, Bow Brickhill, Bradwell, Bradwell Abbey, Broughton, Castlethorpe, Chicheley, Clifton Reynes, Cold Brayfield, Emberton, Fenny Stratford, Gayhurst, Great Brickhill, Great Linford, Great Woolstone, Hanslope, Hardmead, Haversham, Lathbury, Lavendon, Little Brickhill, Little Linford, Little Woolstone, Loughton, Milton Keynes, Moulsoe, Newport Pagnell, Newton Blossomville, Newton Longville, North Crawley, Olney, Petsoe Manor, Ravenstone, Shenley Church End, Sherington, Simpson, Stantonbury, Stoke Goldington, Tyringham and Filgrave, Walton, Warrington, Water Eaton, Wavendon, Weston Underwood, Willen, Woughton on the Green
Potterspury RSD Mostly in Northamptonshire Calverton, Stony Stratford East, Stony Stratford West, Wolverton
Thame RSD Mostly in Oxfordshire Brill, Chilton, Dorton, Ickford, Kingsey, Long Crendon, Oakley, Shabbington, Worminghall
Winslow RSD Drayton Parslow, Dunton, East Claydon, Granborough, Great Horwood, Hoggeston, Hogshaw, Little Horwood, Mursley, Nash, North Marston, Shenley Brook End, Stewkley, Swanbourne, Tattenhoe, Whaddon, Winslow
Wycombe RSD Bledlow, Bradenham, Chepping Wycombe (part), Ellesborough, Fingest and Lane End, Great Hampden, Great Kimble, Great Marlow, Hedsor, Horsenden, Hughenden, Ibstone, Ilmer, Lewknor Uphill, Little Hampden, Little Kimble, Little Marlow, Little Missenden, Monks Risborough, Princes Risborough, Radnage, Saunderton, Stoke Mandeville, Turville, Wendover, West Wycombe, Wooburn

County districts 1894–1974[edit]

The Local Government Act 1894 reconstituted rural sanitary districts as rural districts and urban sanitary districts (other than municipal boroughs) as urban districts. Rural sanitary districts were split into multiple rural districts if they crossed county lines. Where a parish was partly in an urban sanitary district and partly in a rural sanitary district, it was split into two civil parishes. All districts were abolished in 1974.

District Formed from Successor
Amersham Rural District Amersham RSD Chiltern
Aylesbury Rural District Aylesbury RSD Aylesbury Vale
Aylesbury Urban District (1894–1917)
incorporated Municipal Borough of Aylesbury (1917–1974)
Aylesbury LBD Aylesbury Vale
Beaconsfield Urban District Beaconsfield LBD Beaconsfield
Fenny Stratford Urban District (1895–1911)
renamed Bletchley Urban District (1911–1974)
Newport Pagnell Rural District (part) Milton Keynes
Municipal Borough of Buckingham Aylesbury Vale
Buckingham Rural District Buckingham RSD
Brackley RSD (part)
Aylesbury Vale
Chesham Urban District Chesham LGD Chiltern
Eton Rural District Eton RSD Beaconsfield
Slough (Berkshire)
Windsor and Maidenhead (Berkshire)
Eton Urban District Eton LBD Windsor and Maidenhead (Berkshire)
Hambleden Rural District (1894–1934) Henley RSD (part) Wycombe Rural District
Municipal Borough of Chepping Wycombe (until 1946)
renamed Municipal Borough of High Wycombe (1946–1974)
Wycombe
Linslade Urban District (1897–1965) Wing Rural District (part) Leighton-Linslade Urban District (Bedfordshire)
Long Crendon Rural District (1894–1934) Bicester RSD (part)
Thame RSD (part)
Aylesbury Rural District
Bullingdon Rural District (Oxfordshire)
Marlow Urban District (1896–1974) Wycombe Rural District (part) Wycombe
Newport Pagnell Rural District Newport Pagnell RSD Milton Keynes
Newport Pagnell Urban District (1897–1974) Newport Pagnell Rural District (part) Milton Keynes
Slough Urban District (1894–1938)
incorporated Municipal Borough of Slough (1938–1974)
Slough LGD Slough (Berkshire)
Wing Rural District Berkhampstead RSD (part)
Leighton Buzzard RSD (part)
Aylesbury Vale
Winslow Rural District Winslow RSD Milton Keynes
Aylesbury Vale
Stratford and Wolverton Rural District (1894–1919)
reconstituted Stratford and Wolverton Urban District (1919–1920)
renamed Wolverton Urban District (1920–1974)
Potterspury RSD (part) Milton Keynes
Wycombe Rural District Wycombe RSD Wycombe

References[edit]

  1. ^ Royston Lambert, Central and Local Relations in Mid-Victorian England: The Local Government Act Office, 1858-71, Victorian Studies, Vol. 6, No. 2. (Dec., 1962), pp. 121-150.
  2. ^ Youngs, Frederic (1979). Guide to the Local Administrative Units of England. I: Southern England. London: Royal Historical Society. ISBN 0-901050-67-9.