List of the twenty-eight Buddhas
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In countries where Theravāda Buddhism is practiced by the majority of people (Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand), it is customary for Buddhists to hold elaborate festivals, especially during the fair weather season, paying homage to the 28 Buddhas described in Chapter 27 of the Buddhavamsa. The Buddhavamsa is a text which describes the life of Gautama Buddha and the 27 Buddhas who preceded him. The Buddhavamsa is part of the Khuddaka Nikāya, which in turn is part of the Sutta Piṭaka. The Sutta Piṭaka is one of three main sections of the Pāli Canon of Theravāda Buddhism.
The first three of these Buddhas—Taṇhaṅkara, Medhaṅkara, and Saraṇaṅkara—lived before the time of Dīpankara Buddha. The fourth Buddha, Dīpankara, is especially important, as he was the Buddha who gave niyatha vivarana (prediction of future Buddhahood) to the Brahmin youth who would in the distant future become the bodhisattva Gautama Buddha. After Dīpankara, 23 more noble people (ariya-puggala) would attain enlightenment before Gautama, the historical Buddha.
Many Buddhists also pay homage to the future (and 29th) Buddha, Maitreya. According to Buddhist scripture, Maitreya will be a successor of Gautama who will appear on Earth, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure Dharma. The prophecy of the arrival of Maitreya is found in the canonical literature of all Buddhist sects (Theravāda, Mahāyāna, and Vajrayāna), and is accepted by most Buddhists as a statement about an event that will take place when the Dharma will have been forgotten on Jambudvipa (the terrestrial realm, where ordinary human beings live).
The 28 named Buddhas
|Pāli name||Caste||Birthplace||Parents||Bodhirukka (tree of enlightenment)|
|1||Taṇhaṅkara單罕伽羅佛||King Sunandha, and Queen Sunandhaa||Rukkaththana|
|2||Medhaṅkara美單伽羅佛||Sudheva, and Yasodhara||Kaela|
|3||Saraṇaṅkara沙羅難伽羅佛||Sumangala, and Yasawathi||Pulila|
|4||Dīpankara燃燈佛(提槃迦羅佛)||Brahmin||Rammawatinagara||Sudheva, and Sumedhaya||Pipphala||Sumedha (also Sumati or Megha Mānava, a rich Brahman)|
|5||Koṇḍañña孔達尼耶佛||Kshatriya||Rammawatinagara||Sunanda, and Sujata||Salakalyana||Vijitawi (a Chakravarti in Chandawatinagara of Majjhimadesa)|
|6||Maṅgala曼伽羅佛||Brahmin||Uttaranagara (Majhimmadesa)||Uttara, and Uttara||a naga||Suruchi (in Siribrahmano)|
|7||Sumana須曼那佛||Kshatriya||Mekhalanagara||Sudassana and Sirima||a naga||King Atulo, a Naga|
|8||Revata麗瓦陀佛||Brahmin||Sudhannawatinagara||Vipala and Vipula||a naga||A Veda-versed Brahman|
|9||Sobhita須毘陀佛||Kshatriya||Sudhammanagara||Sudhammanagara (father) and Sudhammanagara (mother)||a naga||Sujata, a Brahman (in Rammavati)|
|10||Anomadassi阿諾摩達西佛||Brahmin||Chandawatinagara||Yasava and Yasodara||ajjuna||A Yaksha king|
|11||Paduma婆睹摩佛||Kshatriya||Champayanagara||Asama, and Asama||salala||A lion|
|12||Nārada那羅陀佛||Dhammawatinagara||King Sudheva and Anopama||sonaka||a tapaso in Himalayas|
|13||Padumuttara胜莲花佛 (跋陀無陀羅佛)||Kshatriya||Hansawatinagara||Anurula, and Sujata||salala||Jatilo an ascetic|
|14||Sumedha善慧佛 (須美陀佛)||Kshatriya||Sudasananagara||Sumedha (father), and Sumedha (mother)||nipa||Native of Uttaro|
|15||Sujāta須闍陀佛||Sumangalanagara||Uggata, and Pabbavati||welu||a chakravarti|
|16||Piyadassi毘耶達西佛||Sudannanagara||Sudata, and Subaddha||kakudha||Kassapa, a Brahmin (at Siriwattanagara)|
|17||Atthadassi阿陀達西佛||Kshatriya||Sonanagara||Sagara and Sudassana||champa||Susino, a Brahman|
|18||Dhammadassī達摩達西佛||Kshatriya||Surananagara||Suranamaha, and Sunanada||bimbajala||Indra, the leader of the gods (devas)|
|19||Siddharttha悉達陀佛||Vibharanagara||Udeni, and Suphasa||kanihani||Mangal, a Brahman|
|20||Tissa帝沙佛||Khemanagara||Janasando, and Paduma||assana||King Sujata of Yasawatinagara|
|21||Phussa普沙佛||Kshatriya||Kasi||Jayasena, and Siremaya||amalaka||Vijitavi|
|22||Vipassī毘婆尸佛||Kshatriya||Bandhuvatinagara||Vipassi (father), and Vipassi (mother)||patali||King Atula|
|23||Sikhī尸棄佛||Kshatriya||Arunavattinagara||Arunavatti, and Paphavatti||pundariko||Arindamo (at Paribhuttanagara)|
|24||Vessabhū毘舍浮佛||Kshatriya||Anupamanagara||Suppalittha, and Yashavati||sala||Sadassana (in Sarabhavatinagara)|
|25||Kakusandha拘留孫佛||Brahmin||Khemavatinagara||Agidatta the purohitta Brahman of King Khema, and Visakha||airisa||King Khema|
|26||Koṇāgamana拘那含牟尼佛||Brahmin||Sobhavatinagara||Yannadatta the Brahman, and Uttara||udumbara||King Pabbata of a mountainous area in Mithila|
|27||Kassapa迦葉佛||Brahmin||Baranasinagara||Brahmadatta a Brahman, and Dhanavati||nigroda||Jotipala (at Vappulla)|
|28||Siddartha Gautama喬達摩佛||Kshatriya||Kapilavastu||King Suddhodana, and Maya||peepal a.k.a. fig (Ficus religiosa)|
- Five Dhyani Buddhas
- Glossary of Buddhism
- List of Buddhas
- List of Buddha claimants
- List of bodhisattvas
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