Malik Deenar

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Malik Deenar
رضي الله عنه
حضرة مالك دينار رضي الله عنه
The grave adornment (Mazar) of Malik Deenar
(حضرة مالك دينار رضي الله عنه)
Disciple (صحابة) of Muhammad, Islamic Missionary, Theologian
Born Kufa, Iraq[1]
Died about 648 C.E.
possibly Thalangara, Kasaragod, Kerala, India
Honored in
Islam
Major shrine Malik Deenar Mosque, Thalangara, Kasaragod, Kerala, India
Influences Muhammad, Hasan of Basra

Malik Deenar (died 748 CE)[2] is the first follower of the Islamic prophet, Muhammed, to come to India in order to propagate Islam in the Indian Subcontinent.[3][4]

Early life[edit]

Malik Deenar was from the generation of the Sahabi. He is called a reliable traditionalist, transmitted from such author­ities as Malik ibn Anas and Ibn Sirin. He was the son of a Persian slave from Kabul who became a disciple of Hasan al-Basri.[5][6]

He accepted Islam directly from Muhammed. He went to the Indian Subcontinent by the order of Muhammed with Tajuddeen Cheraman Perumal, who also accepted Islam.

Reason behind the voyage of Malik Deenar[edit]

Ten years after the arrival of Cheraman Perumal, with Muhammed's journey to heaven, the news took them all back to Medina. But a few days later Malik Ibn Habeeb came to see the sacred visage in his dream. Muhammed advised them never reject sultan’s words to carry on their mission to India as fast as they can. Muhammed added: “The journey is more useful, it will fetch many pleasant things.” Hearing these holy words, they began to prepare for the journey, for that they arranged two ships. Sharaf Ibn Malik Deenar, his brother Malik Deenar, Malik Ibn Habeeb, his wife Qumariya, his children, and some slaves soon set out for Malabar. One of their ships anchored in Madurakkara (Tamil Nadu), which was called ‘Taqipatanam’ in ancient times. In that place Taqudeen became the Amir and erected there a Juma mosque.[citation needed]

Years later, Sharaf Ibn Malik, Malik Deenar, Malik Ibn Habeeb with his family arrived in Cranganore. They, entrusted, handled the royal letters to his successors and local kings. But the news of his demise was kept secret.[citation needed]

Assistance of the royal kingdom and the construction of 11 mosques[edit]

Cheraman’s successors gave away lands for their accommodation, and right there they built a mosque. They had brought three precious stones from Makkah which were the remains from building of Ka’ba. It was in the eleventh day from Rajab. The lands from the east to river, East 20 carpenter’s rods (one carpenter’s rod equals to one and quarter of a cubit). North 25 rods and 50 rods from the west came under the wakaf properties. Mohammed Ibn Malik Deenar became the Qazi of this moque. Then their residing caused dispute between Muslims and Jewish families. So, some of them settled in other places. But Malik Deenar remained right in Crananore and dispatched his nephew Malik Ibn Habeeb to various parts of Kerala to built mosques. Malik Ibn Habeeb went to Kollam with his family and properties. Right there he erected a mosque. There he put a stone which they brought from Makkah. It was Friday, second day from Ramzan (21 Hijra), 50 rods from the east of that mosque, 60 rods from the west, 40 rods from the south, the land to the sea from the north became wakaf under the mosque. Hasan Ibn Malik was the Qazi of that mosque. Malik Ibn Deenar nominated his own son-in-law as the ‘Sheha Bandar’ of the country. His name was Abdul Aziz Ibn Zainudin Simanai. Soon Islam became more popular in Kollam.[citation needed]

Malik Ibn Deenar called Malik IBn Habeeb back to Cranganore. Malik Ibn Habeeb spent his later days treating his uncle further; he made a journey to Heli abiding by his words, with his companions. He built a mosque in Heli, and he placed the last stone they brought from Makkah. It was 10th day of Dulhijja (Bakrid), (21-Hijra). His son Abdul Rahman Ibn Malik was appointed as the Qazi and Afeefudhin Ibn Majidudhin the shaka Bandar of the place married one of the daughters of Malik Ibn Habeeb. Thereafter, Malik Deenar went to Barakur (Udupi District) 14 and built there a mosque. (Raheul avla 10, 22nd Hijra), 70 rods from the south, 50 rods in North, 80 rods from East and West came under the Wakaf properties of the mosque. He nominated his son Ibrahim as the Qazi. Later he went to Mangalapuram and built a mosque (Jumadul aval 27, 22nd Hijra). 60 rods from all the four sides came under its properties. His son, Moosa Ibn Malik was delegated as the Qazi there. His nephew Noorudhin Ali Ibn Nisidal Misri was appointed as the shaka Bandar of Manglore.[citation needed]

Malik Deenar Mosque in Kasaragod[edit]

Thereafter he set out for Kasaragod and made there a mosque in Thalangara 15, (Rajab 18, 22 nd Hijra). Malik Ibn Muhammad his grandson, was delegated as the Qazi of the mosque. The parts extending to the town from the east to the river from the west, and 40 rods from each of north and the south was preserved under the Wakf properties. Later Malik Ibn Deenar stayed at ‘Heli’ 16 for 3 days, then he went to Cherupatanam 17 and built there a mosqur on (sha’ban 1, Hijra, 22)nominated shihabudhin Ibn umara, his grandson as the Qazi of the mosque. The Wakaf properties there: 70 rods from the East 100 rods from the South, to the bank of river in North, and West. Soon he left for Darmapattanam, and built a mosque there on Hijra 29th day of sha’aban.

Malik Ibn Habbeb appointed his grandson ussain Ibn Muhammad as the Qazi and his grandson Muhammad Ibn Ahmed as its shaka Bandar. Then he went to ‘Pranthareena’ and built a mosque on this sea shore on (shavval 21, Hijra 22). He nominated Zainudhin Ibn Malik as the Qazi as well as the shaka Bandar of the place.

Chaliyam Juma Masjid[edit]

He returned to the Chaliyam and built a mosque there, and Zainudhin Ibn Muhammad was nominated as Qazi. Malik Ibn Habeeb stayed there for 5 days, and Usman Ibn Hussainul Ansari was the shaka Bandar of the place. Later he went to ‘Cranganore’ and met his uncle. Thereafter he took a journey to visit the mosque they built. And then he returned to Cranganore praising the Almighty Allah for he found Islam spreading among the atheists, he called on Malik Deenar in person and informed him of all the affairs in detail.

The historical facts[edit]

The history of Kerala including the stories of Cheraman Perumal and Malik Deenar is very complicated and intricate. Many historians[who?] failed in their pursuits to separate its wheat from chaff. K.M Panikkar, a famous historian says:

“The history of Kerala till the half of 9th century remains gloomy. It is extremely inevitable for the advanced tomorrows to keep the past foot prints unblemished. We can see many Qur’anic verses of past generation’s history which gave guidance for Muhammed. We clearly see the life styles of Muhammed. These are two things which are ideal for true believers. One, who studies the history of Kerala, may bring some questions about the conversion of Cheraman Perumal to Islam, is it fallacy? Was it occurred in the time Muhammed? Who brought here the message of Islam? Is it the disciple of Muhammed? Or the Muslims of later generations, where do lie the graves of Cheraman Perumal and Malik Deenar? We can easily find out much deference in historical records.

He is said to have ordered the building of the first Indian mosque, Cheraman Juma Masjid built in 629 A.D, purportedly at the behest of the contemporaneous Cheraman Perumal ruler (who is considered the first Indian Muslim). This was during the lifetime of Muhammad. It was built in Kodungallur, in the district of Thrissur, Kerala by Deenar.[7][8][9]

Malik Deenar Uroos[edit]

Malik Deenar Uroos (مالك دينار عروس) is the one of the observations of Indian muslims to celebrate the arrival of Malik Deenar[10] to Kerala, India. It is conducted in the holy month of muharram and lasts for one month. It includes various rituals such as the Ziyarath (visiting of tomb), Patakayarthal (flag hosting) and Annadanam (poor feeding).[11]

Legacy[edit]

View of the Malik Deenar Mosque from the Gate

Malik Deenar (r) Kasaragod Andyavisramam Kollunna Swahabi[edit]

Malik Deenar (r) Kasaragod Andyavishram Kollunna Swahabi is an oeuvre done by Twaqa Ahmed Musliyar Al Ashari, Qazi of Mangalore and prominent scholar of Malabar region.[12][dead link] Books deal with history of Malik Deenar, the disciple of Muhammad, in order to reveal the fact lingering on his arrival, life and death.[13] It deals with the pre Malik Deenar period in Kerala as well as his life.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Al-Dhahabi, Siyar a`lam al-nubala', vol. 5, p. 362.
  2. ^ Al-Hujwiri, "Kashf al-Mahjoob", 89
  3. ^ Ibn Nadim, "Fihrist", 1037
  4. ^ "History". Malik Deenar Grand Juma Masjid. Retrieved 18 November 2011. 
  5. ^ Al-Hujwiri, "Kashf al-Mahjoob", 89
  6. ^ Ibn Nadim, "Fihrist", 1037
  7. ^ -Cheraman Juma Masjid A Secular Heritage
  8. ^ Bahrain tribune World’s second oldest mosque is in India
  9. ^ -A mosque from a Hindu king
  10. ^ "Kasargod Festivals and Folk arts" (Web). Official website of Kasargod district Administration. Retrieved 2012-11-24. 
  11. ^ "Official Website of Malik Deenar". Retrieved 2012-10-05. 
  12. ^ http://www.mangaloremithr.com/news/story.aspx?News-ID=7540
  13. ^ "Malik Deenar Masjid Official Website". Retrieved 2012-12-25.