Shadhili

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The Shadhili Tariqa (Arabic: الطريقة الشاذلية‎) is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam[1] founded by Abul Hasan Ali ash-Shadhili.[2] Followers (Arabic murids, "seekers") of the Shadhiliya are known as Shadhilis.

It has historically been of importance and influence in North Africa and Egypt with many contributions to Islamic literature. Among the figures most known for their literary and intellectual contributions are Ibn 'Ata Allah, author of the Hikam, and Ahmad Zarruq, author of numerous commentaries and works, and Ahmad ibn Ajiba who also wrote numerous commentaries and works. In poetry expressing love of Muhammad, there have been the notable contributions of Muhammad al-Jazuli, author of the "Dala'il al-Khayrat", and Busiri, author of the famous poem, the Qaṣīda al-Burda. Many of the head lecturers of al-Azhar University in Cairo have also been followers of this tariqa.

Of the various branches of the Shadhili tariqa are the Fassiyatush, found largely in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan. The Darqawi branch is found mostly in Morocco and the Alawiyya (no connection to the "Kızılbaş-Turkish-Alevis" or "Syrian-Arab-Alawis") which originated in Algeria is now found the world over, particularly in Syria, Jordan, France and among many English-speaking communities. British scholar, Martin Lings wrote an extensive biography of the founder of this branch, Ahmad al-Alawi, entitled 'A Sufi Saint of the 20th century' (ISBN 0-946621-50-0)

The Swedish impressionist painter and Sufi scholar Ivan Aguéli (1869–1917) was the first official Moqaddam (representative) of the Shadhiliyya in Western Europe. Aguéli initiated René Guénon (1886–1951) into the Shadhili tariqa. [1] Guénon went on to write a number of influential books on tradition and modernity. [2] The anniversary urs of Hazrat Qutubul Akber Imam Nooruddin Abul Hasan Alee Ash Shadhili (Razi) is held on 12th Shawwal (the tenth month of lunar calendar) at Humaithara in Egypt.

Branches[edit]

Shadhiliyya has nearly 72 branches across the globe. A few prominent branches are listed below.

Fassiyya[edit]

Fassiyatush shadhili sufi order was established by Qutbul Ujud Ghouthuz Zamaan Ash Sheikh Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Mas'ood bin Abdur Rahman Al Makki Al Magribi Al Fassi Ash Shadhili (Imam Fassi) who was a Moroccan by origin and born in Makkah.[3] Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya is widely practised in India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Mauritius and Indonesia. The descendants of Imam Fassi who are Sheikhs of Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya who live in Makkah and in Jeddah visit to these countries frequently to train Ikhwan.

Darqawiyya[edit]

The Holy Dargah of Imam Shadhili, Humaithara, Egypt

The Darqawiyya, a Moroccan branch of the Shadhili order, was founded in the late 18th century CE by Muhammad al-Arabi al-Darqawi. Selections from the Letters of al-Darqawi have been translated by the Shadhili initiate Titus Burckhardt, and also by the scholar Aisha Bewley.[3][4] One of the first tariqas to be established in the West was the 'Alawiya branch of the Darqawiyya, [5] which was named after Ahmad ibn Mustafa al-'Alawi al-Mustaghanimi, popularly known as Shaykh al-Alawi. "A significant book about him, written by Martin Lings, is A Sufi Saint of the Twentieth Century."[4]

Maryamiyya[edit]

The Maryamiyya branch of the Shadhiliyya Order was founded by 'Isa Nur al-Din Ahmad or Frithjof Schuon (1907–1998), a European disciple of Ahmad al-Alawi, who established the Order in Europe and North America. [6] [7] Some of Schuon's most eminent students include Seyyed Hossein Nasr, Titus Burckhardt (1908–1984) and Martin Lings (1909–2005), author of the aforementioned text, A Sufi Saint of the Twentieth Century and the universally acclaimed biography of the Prophet, Muhammad: His Life Based on the Earliest Sources. [8] Schuon also wrote several outstanding books on Islam, including Understanding Islam, Dimensions of Islam, and Sufism: Veil and Quintessence, [9] as well as a number of books on the Perennial Philosophy.[10]

Attasiyah[edit]

The 'Attasiyah Order is a branch of the 'Alawi Order. It is centered in Yemen but also has centers in Pakistan, India, and Myanmar. The 'Alawiya order in Yemen has recently been studied by the anthropologist David Buchman. In his article "The Underground Friends of God and Their Adversaries: A Case Study and Survey of Sufism in Contemporary Yemen", Professor Buchman summarizes the results of his six-month period of fieldwork in Yemen. The article was originally published in the journal Yemen Update, vol. 39 (1997), pp. 21-24."[4]

Another figure is "Shaykh Abdalqadir al-Murabit, a Scottish convert to Islam, whose lineage is Shadhili-Darqawi. Currently his order is known as the Murabitun. At other times his order has been known as the Darqawiyya and Habibiya. One of the first books that Abdalqadir wrote was The Book of Strangers, which he authored under the name Ian Dallas. For a brief anecdote of Abdalqadir in the early 1970s, go" here.[4]

Another contemporary order deriving, in part, from Abdalqadir al-Murabit is the al-Haydariyah al-Shadhiliyah, headed by Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri. Of Shi'ite descent, Fadhlalla teaches within neither a Shi'i nor a Sunni framework.[4]

Darqawi Hashimiya[edit]

There is another branch of the Shadhili-Darqawi Order known as the Shadhili-Darqawi-Hashimi branch, which is firmly established in both Damascus and Jordan. This branch of the Shadhili tariqa was established through Sheikh Muhammad al-Hashimi al-Tilmisani who, as a young man, migrated from North Africa to Damascus with his spiritual guide (murshid), who was a disciple of Sheikh Ahmad al-'Alawi (see above Martin Lings). Sheikh Muhammad al-Hashimi received his authorization (ijaza) to be a murshid of the Shadhili tariqa from Sheikh Ahmad al-'Alawi when the latter was visiting Damascus in the early 1920s.[citation needed]

Perhaps the most well known spiritual guides (murshideen) in the West of this branch of the Shadhili tariqa are Sheikh Nuh Ha Mim Keller and Shaykh Muhammad al-Yaqoubi.[citation needed] Both are students of the spiritual guide and Shadhili Sheikh Abd al Rahman Al Shaghouri. Sheikh Abd al Rahman was a student of Sheikh Muhammad al-Hashimi al-Tilmisani. The Sheikh Nuh is an American convert to Islam who resides in Amman, Jordan. Some of his writings are available here. His official website is here. The latter, Sheikh al Yaqoubi, traces his lineage in the tariqa through his father and grandfather. And his official website is here.

Sheikh Muhammad Sa'id al-Jamal, a student of Sheikh Muhammad al-Hashimi al-Tilmisani, works from the Haram al-Sharif or The Temple Mount in Jerusalem and mufti of the Hanbali Madhab. He was also a student of the spiritual guide and Shadhili Sheikh Abdur Rahman Abu al Risah of Halab in the land of Syria of the Shadhili Yashruti line. He is a direct descendent of the Prophet Muhammad, through his ancestor Ahmad ar-Rifa`i. He travels yearly to the US and has numerous students there. He has written many books in both English and Arabic on Sufism, tafsir, and healing. His students from the US also established the University of Spiritual Healing and Sufism which is devoted to sufi way of healing.

Badawiyya[edit]

Another branch of the Shadhilia which has groups in Egypt, Indonesia, Turkey and America is the Shadhilia-Batawia founded by Sheikh Ibrahim al-Batawi, for many years professor at al-Azhar. He was a confrere of Sheikh Abdu-l-Halim Mahmud, Shaikh al-Azhar, who was very influential in the revival of Sufism in Egypt. Sheikh Ibrahim’s student, Sheikh Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee has established the Shadhdhuliyyah-Baddawia order in the US. Sheikh Nooruddeen has translated and transliterated the Qur'an and has compiled two definitive books on the Shadhdhuliyyiah,Orisons and Origins.

"Between October 17–26, 1999 the First International Shadhilian Festival occurred in Egypt. It concluded with a pilgrimage to the tomb of Abu 'l-Hasan al-Shadhili and involved Sufi gatherings of dhikr" and the singing of qasidas, or classical poetry.[4]

Influence[edit]

On Christianity[edit]

It has been suggested that the Shadhili school was influential on St. John of the Cross, in particular on his account of the dark night of the soul and via Ibn Abbad al-Rundi.

This influence has been suggested by Miguel Asín Palacios[5] and developed by others,[6] who claim that Ibn Abbad al-Rundi drew detailed connections between their teachings.[citation needed]

Other scholars, such as José Nieto, argue that these mystical doctrines are quite general, and that while similarities exist between the works of St. John and Ibn Abbad and other Shadhilis, these reflect independent development, not influence.[7]

The Spiritual Chain[edit]

The silsila of the Shadhili order is as follows:[8]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=5YbUq2DqfQgC
  2. ^ http://www.spiritualfoundation.net/sufisshaykhs3.htm#111124615
  3. ^ Fassiyatush Shadhiliyya
  4. ^ a b c d e Alan Godlas, "Sufism, Sufis, and Sufi Orders: Sufism's Many Paths"
  5. ^ "Un precursor hispano musulman de San Juan de la Cruz", which was later reprinted in Huellas del Islam (1941), at 235-304. An English translation was made by Douglas and Yoder as Saint John of the Cross and Islam (New York: Vantage 1981).
  6. ^ Research developing the work of Miguel Asín Palacios includes Luce López-Baralt's book, San Juan de la Cruz y el Islam (1985, 1990).
  7. ^ José Nieto, Mystic Rebel Saint. A study of Saint John of the Cross (Geneva: Droz 1979) at 25-27. Cf., Swietlicki, Spanish Christian Cabala (1986) at 184.
  8. ^ http://www.shazuli.com/basic-principles.html

External links[edit]