Marco Simoncelli

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Marco Simoncelli
Marco Simoncelli 2009 Valencia.jpg
Simoncelli during post-season testing at Valencia in 2009.
Nationality Italian
Born (1987-01-20)20 January 1987
Cattolica, Italy
Died 23 October 2011(2011-10-23) (aged 24)
Sepang, Malaysia
Bike number 58
Website 58marcosimoncelli.it
Motorcycle racing career statistics
MotoGP World Championship
Active years 20102011
Manufacturers Honda
Championships 0
2011 Championship position 6th (139 pts)
Starts Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points
34 0 2 2 0 264
250cc World Championship
Active years 20062009
Manufacturers Gilera
Championships 1 (2008)
Starts Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points
64 12 22 10 8 701
125cc World Championship
Active years 20022005
Manufacturers Aprilia
Championships 0
Starts Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points
50 2 7 3 1 290
Superbike World Championship
Active years 2009
Manufacturers Aprilia
Championships 0
Starts Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points
2 0 1 0 0 16

Marco Simoncelli (Italian pronunciation: [ˈmarko simonˈtʃɛlli]; 20 January 1987 – 23 October 2011) was an Italian professional motorcycle racer. He competed in the Road Racing World Championship for 10 years from 2002 to 2011. He started in the 125cc class before moving up to the 250cc class in 2006. He won the 250cc World Championship with Gilera in 2008. After four years in the intermediate class, he stepped up to the MotoGP class with the Honda Gresini Team. Simoncelli died after an accident during the 2011 Malaysian Grand Prix at Sepang on 23 October 2011.

Career[edit]

Early career[edit]

Marco Simoncelli was born in Cattolica but grew up and lived in Coriano with his family since childhood.[1][2] He started racing minibikes at the age of seven in his hometown of Coriano,[3][4] moving on to the Italian Minimoto Championship in 1996 at the early age of nine. He won the Italian Minimoto Championship in 1999 and 2000 while also became the runner-up in the 2000 European Minimoto Championship. The following year, he stepped up to the Italian 125cc Championship and he won the title in his rookie year. In 2002, he competed and won the European 125cc Championship.[5]

125cc (2002–2005)[edit]

After a successful European 125cc campaign, in August 2002, Simoncelli made his first Grand Prix appearance with Matteoni Racing, replacing Czech rider Jaroslav Huleš who stepped up to the 250cc class.[6] Simoncelli, riding an Aprilia bike with the number 37, managed to finish in 27th place in his first race at Brno.[7] In the following race at Estoril, he scored his first championship points by finishing in 13th place.[8] However, he failed to score any points in the next four races and finished the season with three points from six races.[9]

He continued with the Matteoni Racing Team for his first full season in 2003. That season, he also started to use the iconic number 58 on his bike.[10] He managed to score points in six races with a best result of fourth at Valencia, the last race of the season.[11] Overall, he scored 31 points and ranked 21st in the final championship standings.[12]

In the 2004 season, Simoncelli switched to WorldwideRace team under the name of Rauch Bravo, which also run an Aprilia bike.[13] In the second race of the season at Jerez, Simoncelli recorded his first pole position.[14] In the race, which was held in wet conditions, Simoncelli was in second place when race leader Casey Stoner crashed out with three laps remaining, handing Simoncelli his first victory.[15] However, the victory was his only podium finish for the season. He managed to score points in seven other races with a best result of sixth. He ended in 11th place in the final standings with 79 points.[16]

Simoncelli continued to ride for WorldwideRace in 2005, this time under the Nocable.it Race banner.[17] In the opening race at Jerez, he qualified first and then won the race for his second successive win at Jerez.[18] Despite failing to add another win that season, Simoncelli finished on the podium on five other occasions. His consistency earned him 177 points and a fifth place in the final standings.[19]

250cc (2006–2009)[edit]

Simoncelli at the 2008 Japanese Grand Prix at Motegi

In 2006, Simoncelli stepped up to the 250cc class, becoming the only rider from the top eight in previous year's 125cc class to make the step up.[19][20] He joined the Metis Gilera team, an Italian motorcycle manufacturer who returned to the intermediate class after a lengthy absence.[21] His first season saw him finish most races he finished between 7th and 10th place. His best result was 6th place in the Chinese Grand Prix at Shanghai. He fought for the "Rookie of the Year" title until the end, finally losing to Shuhei Aoyama by seven points, finishing 10th overall.

In 2007 he continued with the same team. His season was similar to the previous one and he was again 10th in the final standings, without a podium finish.

He had his first 250cc win at the Italian Grand Prix held at Mugello on 1 June 2008 in controversial circumstances when, with one lap to go, he leaned to the left on the long straight, possibly to block off Héctor Barberá. Barberá then crashed into him and Simoncelli won the race by 3 seconds. Barberá was lucky to emerge unscathed. Some people called for sanctions but Simoncelli escaped without penalty: on 7 June he received a verbal warning from the MotoGP Riders Safety Commission.

On 8 June 2008 he followed up his Italian victory at the Catalan Grand Prix after overtaking Álvaro Bautista on the last lap after Bautista ran wide with 5 corners of the race left. Simoncelli obtained his third 250cc GP victory at the Sachsenring in the German Grand Prix on 13 July 2008 when he beat Bautista and Barberá by approximately 2.5 seconds. He also won in his class at the 2008 Australian motorcycle Grand Prix held on 3–5 October 2008, narrowly defeating Bautista.

On 19 October 2008 he clinched the 2008 250cc World Championship after finishing 3rd in the Malaysian Grand Prix at Sepang.

He made a one-off appearance for Aprilia in the World Superbike round at Imola in 2009. He qualified on the second row and was one of three riders to crash out of race one at Tosa while running fifth, before fighting through to third in race two, making a forceful move to overtake team-mate Max Biaggi to get onto the podium.

On 25 June 2009, it was confirmed that Simoncelli would move up to premier class racing for 2010 MotoGP championship after agreeing to ride with the San Carlo Gresini Honda team.[22]

MotoGP[edit]

2010[edit]

Simoncelli got off to a slow start to the 2010 season, having suffered two preseason testing crashes at Sepang; the second of which cracked his helmet.[23] After finishing eleventh on début, Simoncelli improved over the rest of the season, finishing 16 of the 18 races in the points en route to eighth place in the championship with 125 points. His best finish was a fourth place in Portugal, missing a podium by 0.06 seconds to Andrea Dovizioso.

2011[edit]

In the 2011 season, Simoncelli was predicted to be the surprise package of the season.[24] He finished fifth in the season opening race in Qatar, before falling from the lead of the wet race at Jerez.[25] He secured his highest starting position to that point of 2nd, before falling on the first lap of the Estoril race.[26] During the French Grand Prix at Le Mans, Simoncelli collided with Dani Pedrosa while they were battling for second. The resulting crash saw Pedrosa break his collarbone and Simoncelli received a ride-through penalty, eventually finishing fifth.[27] Simoncelli initially rejected blame for the crash, claiming he braked no later than normal, and that he left Pedrosa room.[28] Before the next race, however, he accepted that he needed to reflect on his riding style.[29]

Simoncelli was required to meet with race direction before the start of the racing weekend at Catalonia.[29][30] On the track, Simoncelli secured his first MotoGP pole position, 0.016 seconds ahead of Casey Stoner.[31] However, a poor start saw him drop to seventh managing only to recover one position to finish sixth. Simoncelli earned his first podium in the premier class, with a third place in the Czech Republic.[32] His best MotoGP finish was second place in the Australian GP at Phillip Island.

Death[edit]

Simoncelli, with a towel on his head, on the grid at the 2011 Malaysian Grand Prix, his incomplete final race.

On 23 October 2011, Simoncelli was involved in a collision with American rider Colin Edwards and fellow Italian Valentino Rossi during the Malaysian Grand Prix at the Sepang International Circuit. In fourth position during lap two, Simoncelli's bike lost traction in Turn 11 and it started to slide towards the gravel, but the tyres regained traction and his bike suddenly veered across the track into the path of Edwards and Rossi, with Simoncelli hanging down on the right side.[33]

Simoncelli was struck in the lower body by Edwards and in the head by Rossi, in the course of which Simoncelli lost his helmet and Edwards was catapulted from his bike. The race was immediately red-flagged. Edwards suffered a dislocated shoulder; Simoncelli suffered much more severe injuries and was taken by ambulance to the circuit's medical centre, and at 16:56 local time, less than an hour after the accident, it was announced that he had died from his injuries.[34][35][36] Later, at a press conference involving members of the MotoGP Race Direction, Medical Director Michele Macchiagodena said that Simoncelli had sustained "a very serious trauma to the head, to the neck and the chest", and was administered CPR for 45 minutes.[37]

His body was flown home to Italy, accompanied by his father Paolo, his fiancée Kate Fretti, and Valentino Rossi. The family were greeted by Italian Olympic Committee president Giovanni Petrucci, before the body was transported to a theatre in Coriano, Rimini, where it was placed in an open coffin. Fans and visitors were then allowed to pay their respects, in a walk-through memorial that included his 250cc World Championship winning Gilera, plus his 2011 MotoGP Honda.[38] An estimated 20,000 people attended his funeral[39] at the Santa Maria Assunta parish church in Coriano on 27 October 2011, which was broadcast live on Italia 1 and Rai 2.

Legacy[edit]

On 3 November, the Misano World Circuit announced plans to rename itself in honour of Simoncelli.[40] At the final Grand Prix of the 2011 season in Valencia, Spain, a tribute lap on race morning was held in honour of Simoncelli, with riders from all three Grand Prix classes taking part along with 1993 500cc World Champion Kevin Schwantz, who rode Simoncelli's bike.[41]

Tributes were made in Formula One with Jenson Button dedicating his performance in the 2011 Indian Grand Prix to Simoncelli and IndyCar Series driver Dan Wheldon, who died at the Las Vegas Motor Speedway, the weekend before, during the 2011 IZOD IndyCar World Championship.[42] A minute's silence was held at the Grand Prix in memory of Wheldon and Simoncelli. At the 2012 Malaysian Grand Prix, Ferrari drivers Felipe Massa and Fernando Alonso, along with other members of the team paid tribute to Simoncelli by returning to turn 11 and having a group photo with a banner in remembrance.[43]

On the same day of the accident, all Serie A football matches in Italy held one minute of silence in remembrance of Simoncelli as instructed by the Italian National Olympic Committee President Gianni Petrucci.[44]

On 20 January 2012, the anniversary of Simoncelli's birth, it was announced at a ceremony in his home town Coriano that the town's sports area would be renamed "Palazzetto dello Sport Marco Simoncelli", and that one of the town's tram routes would be re-numbered 58 in his honour.[45]

On Thursday 12 September 2013 in Coriano a tribute took place for Marco Simoncelli with a flame and a monument for Marco Simoncelli called "Every Sunday" and every Sunday at nightfall the flame will burn for 58 seconds.[46]

On 23 October 2013, AC Milan paid a tribute to Simoncelli by posting on their Google+ profile, a photo of their jersey in their dressing room with Simoncelli's name on the back.[47]

On 30 November 2013, in a Sic Supermoto Day, held in honour of Simoncelli, ex-500cc star Doriano Romboni was killed in a collision with Gianluca Viziello. The Supermoto Day was subsequently cancelled.

On February 3rd 2014 it was announced that Simoncelli would be inducted into the MotoGP Hall of Fame and become the 21st MotoGP Legend. The ceremony took place at the Italian round in Mugello.

Career statistics[edit]

Grand Prix World Championship[edit]

By season[edit]

Year Class Team Bike Races Wins Podiums Poles F. laps Points Pos
2002 125cc Matteoni Racing Team Aprilia RS 125 6 0 0 0 0 3 33rd
2003 125cc Matteoni Racing Team Aprilia RS 125 15 0 0 0 0 31 21st
2004 125cc Rauch Bravo Aprilia RS 125 13 1 1 2 0 79 11th
2005 125cc Nocable.it Race Aprilia RS 125 16 1 6 1 1 177 5th
2006 250cc Metis Gilera Gilera RSA 250 16 0 0 0 0 92 10th
2007 250cc Metis Gilera Gilera RSA 250 17 0 0 0 0 97 10th
2008 250cc Metis Gilera Gilera RSA 250 16 6 12 7 4 281 1st
2009 250cc Metis Gilera Gilera RSA 250 15 6 10 3 4 231 3rd
2010 MotoGP San Carlo Honda Gresini Honda RC212V 18 0 0 0 0 125 8th
2011 MotoGP San Carlo Honda Gresini Honda RC212V 16 0 2 2 0 139 6th
Total 148 14 31 15 9 1255

Races by year[edit]

(key) (Races in bold indicate pole position, races in italics indicate fastest lap)

Year Class Bike 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Pos Points
2002 125cc Aprilia JPN RSA SPA FRA ITA CAT NED GBR GER CZE
27
POR
13
BRA
21
PAC MAL
Ret
AUS
Ret
VAL
Ret
33rd 3
2003 125cc Aprilia JPN
21
RSA
20
SPA
14
FRA
Ret
ITA
17
CAT
16
NED
20
GBR
16
GER
12
CZE
14
POR
Ret
BRA
11
PAC
Ret
MAL
11
AUS
Ret
VAL
4
21st 31
2004 125cc Aprilia RSA
Ret
SPA
1
FRA
Ret
ITA
Ret
CAT
7
NED
7
BRA
6
GER
10
GBR
Ret
CZE
19
POR
6
JPN
6
QAT
6
MAL
Ret
AUS
Ret
VAL 11th 79
2005 125cc Aprilia SPA
1
POR
10
CHN
6
FRA
5
ITA
Ret
CAT
2
NED
4
GBR
4
GER
3
CZE
3
JPN
Ret
MAL
9
QAT
3
AUS
3
TUR
6
VAL
5
5th 177
2006 250cc Gilera SPA
Ret
QAT
8
TUR
11
CHN
6
FRA
8
ITA
7
CAT
Ret
NED
7
GBR
10
GER
Ret
CZE
9
MAL
8
AUS
10
JPN
9
POR
7
VAL
Ret
10th 92
2007 250cc Gilera QAT
9
SPA
Ret
TUR
9
CHN
Ret
FRA
6
ITA
9
CAT
9
GBR
Ret
NED
6
GER
7
CZE
Ret
RSM
Ret
POR
7
JPN
7
AUS
7
MAL
8
VAL
11
10th 97
2008 250cc Gilera QAT
Ret
SPA
Ret
POR
2
CHN
4
FRA
2
ITA
1
CAT
1
GBR
2
NED
3
GER
1
CZE
3
RSM
6
IND
C
JPN
1
AUS
1
MAL
3
VAL
1
1st 281
2009 250cc Gilera QAT JPN
17
SPA
3
FRA
1
ITA
2
CAT
Ret
NED
3
GER
1
GBR
4
CZE
1
IND
1
RSM
Ret
POR
1
AUS
1
MAL
3
VAL
Ret
3rd 231
2010 MotoGP Honda QAT
11
SPA
11
FRA
10
ITA
9
GBR
7
NED
9
CAT
Ret
GER
6
USA
Ret
CZE
11
IND
7
RSM
14
ARA
7
JPN
6
MAL
8
AUS
6
POR
4
VAL
6
8th 125
2011 MotoGP Honda QAT
5
SPA
Ret
POR
Ret
FRA
5
CAT
6
GBR
Ret
NED
9
ITA
5
GER
6
USA
Ret
CZE
3
IND
12
RSM
4
ARA
4
JPN
4
AUS
2
MAL
C
VAL 6th 139

Superbike World Championship[edit]

(key)

Year Make 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pos Pts
R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2 R1 R2
2009 Aprilia AUS AUS QAT QAT SPA SPA NED NED ITA ITA RSA RSA USA USA SMR SMR GBR GBR CZE CZE GER GER ITA
Ret
ITA
3
FRA FRA POR POR 25th 16

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Marco Simoncelli: Career Achievements". MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 28 October 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  2. ^ "Quel clone di Valentino con la faccia da cabaret nascosta in un cespuglio" [That clone of Valentino with the face of cabaret hidden in a bush] (in Italian). Il Giornale. 24 October 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  3. ^ "Accendere la moto e andare è stata la lezione di Marco Simoncelli" [Start up the bike and go was the lesson of Marco Simoncelli] (in Italian). L'Occidentale. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  4. ^ "Simoncelli muore in pista a Sepang" [Simoncelli dies on the track at Sepang] (in Italian). Corriere dello Sport. 23 October 2011. Retrieved 9 November 2011. 
  5. ^ "Valentino Rossi pays tribute to Marco Simoncelli". BBC Sport (BBC). 24 October 2011. Retrieved 25 October 2011. "2002: Wins the European 125cc title" 
  6. ^ "2002 Gauloises GP Ceske Republiky: 125cc Entry List" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 24 August 2002. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  7. ^ "2002 Gauloises GP Ceske Republiky: 125cc Race Classification" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 25 August 2002. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  8. ^ "2002 GP Marlboro de Portugal: 125cc Race Classification" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 8 September 2002. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  9. ^ "2002 GP Marlboro Comunitat Valencia: 125cc World Championship Classification" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 3 November 2002. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  10. ^ "2003 SKYY VODKA Grand Prix of Japan: 125cc Entry List" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 4 April 2003. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  11. ^ "2003 GP Marlboro Comunitat Valencia: 125cc Race Classification" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 2 November 2003. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  12. ^ "2003 GP Marlboro Comunitat Valencia: 125cc World Championship Classification" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 2 November 2003. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  13. ^ "Ready to start for the season 2004". WorldwideRace (Tinfo s.r.l.). 19 November 2003. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  14. ^ "Weather delivers Simoncelli first 125 pole". crash.net (Crash Media Group). 1 May 2004. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  15. ^ "Stoner heartbreak hands Simoncelli 125 win". crash.net (Crash Media Group). 2 May 2004. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  16. ^ "2004 GP Marlboro Comunitat Valencia: 125cc World Championship Classification" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 31 October 2004. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  17. ^ "2005 Gran Premio Marlboro de España: 125cc Entry List" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 7 April 2005. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  18. ^ "Simoncelli dominates for 125cc victory". crash.net (Crash Media Group). 10 April 2005. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  19. ^ a b "2005 G. P. betandwin.com Comunitat Valencia: 125cc World Championship Classification" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 6 November 2005. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  20. ^ "2006 Gran Premio betandwin.com de España: 250cc Entry List" (PDF). MotoGP.com. Dorna Sports. 23 March 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  21. ^ "Squadra corse Metis Gilera" [Metis Gilera Racing Team]. Info Motori (in Italian) (Caval Service Group). 21 February 2006. Retrieved 28 October 2011. 
  22. ^ "Simoncelli signs with Gresini". InsideBikes (Carole Nash). 25 June 2009. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  23. ^ "Difficult 2010 debut now a distant memory". crash.net (Crash Media Group). 1 February 2011. Retrieved 20 March 2011. 
  24. ^ Roberts, Matt (15 February 2011). "Huge honour to lead MotoGP coverage". BBC Sport. BBC. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  25. ^ "Lorenzo wins crash-crazy Spanish GP". crash.net (Crash Media Group). 3 April 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  26. ^ "Pedrosa picks his moment for Estoril win". crash.net (Crash Media Group). 1 May 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  27. ^ "Stoner flawless amid French drama". crash.net (Crash Media Group). 15 May 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  28. ^ "Simoncelli rejects blame for Pedrosa crash". crash.net (Crash Media Group). 16 May 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  29. ^ a b "Simoncelli hoping to turn the page at Barcelona". MotoGP.com (Dorna Sports). 1 June 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  30. ^ Birt, Matthew (31 May 2011). "Marco Simoncelli to face Race Direction in Catalunya". Motor Cycle News (Bauer Media Group). Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  31. ^ "Simoncelli soars to first pole at Catalunya". MotoGP.com (Dorna Sports). 4 June 2011. Retrieved 4 June 2011. 
  32. ^ "Stoner conquers the Czech Republic". MotoGP.com (Dorna Sports). 14 August 2011. Retrieved 14 August 2011. 
  33. ^ "Racing mourns loss of MotoGP's brightest light". Motor Cycle News (Bauer Media Group). 26 October 2011. 
  34. ^ "Marco Simoncelli dies after MotoGP crash in Sepang". BBC Sport (BBC). 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  35. ^ "Simoncelli dies from injuries suffered in Malaysian GP crash". Autosport (Haymarket Publications). 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  36. ^ "Simoncelli dies after horrific crash". Yahoo! Eurosport (TF1 Group). 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  37. ^ "Race Direction press conference: Marco Simoncelli". MotoGP.com (Dorna Sports). 23 October 2011. Retrieved 23 October 2011. 
  38. ^ "Fans pay respects to MotoGP star Simoncelli in his hometown". Daily Mail (Associated Newspapers). 26 October 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2011. 
  39. ^ "L'ultimo saluto a Marco Simoncelli In 20.000 assistono al funerale" [The final farewell to Marco Simoncelli; 20,000 attend the funeral]. Libero (in Italian) (WIND). 27 October 2011. Retrieved 27 October 2011. 
  40. ^ "Misano circuit name to be associated with Simoncelli". motogp.com (Dorna Sports). 3 November 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011. 
  41. ^ Gordon, Ian (7 November 2011). "MotoGP riders pay tribute to Marco Simoncelli". The Sun (News International). Retrieved 7 November 2011. 
  42. ^ "Jenson Button dedicates Indian GP to Dan Wheldon and Marco Simoncelli". BBC Sport (BBC). 30 October 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  43. ^ "Malaysian Grand Prix 2012: Ferrari pay tribute to Marco Simoncelli at Sepang International Circuit". The Daily Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). 22 March 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  44. ^ Bartelloni, Cristiano (23 October 2011). "Marco Simoncelli morto: il ricordo della Serie A" [Marco Simoncelli dead: the memory in the Serie A]. Eco Dello Sport (in Italian) (Trilud S.p.A.). Retrieved 10 April 2012. 
  45. ^ "Coriano pays tribute to Simoncelli on his birthday". MotoGP.com. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  46. ^ http://www.roadracingworld.com/news/flaming-monument-erected-to-honor-marco-simoncelli-rip/
  47. ^ url=https://plus.google.com/u/0/photos/+ACMilan/albums/5937898847425481329/5937898850303897458?pid=5937898850303897458&oid=104252218373239012017 | date=23 October 2013

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Sporting positions
Preceded by
Andrea Dovizioso
125cc Motorcycle European Champion
2002
Succeeded by
Mattia Angeloni
Preceded by
Jorge Lorenzo
250cc Motorcycle World Champion
2008
Succeeded by
Hiroshi Aoyama